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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909574/characterization-of-5-2-18-f-fluoroethoxy-l-tryptophan-for-pet-imaging-of-the-pancreas
#1
Ahmed Abbas, Christine Beamish, Rebecca McGirr, John Demarco, Neil Cockburn, Dawid Krokowski, Ting-Yim Lee, Michael Kovacs, Maria Hatzoglou, Savita Dhanvantari
Purpose: In diabetes, pancreatic beta cell mass declines significantly prior to onset of fasting hyperglycemia. This decline may be due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the system L amino acid transporter LAT1 may be a biomarker of this process. In this study, we used 5-(2- (18)F-fluoroethoxy)-L-tryptophan ( (18)F-L-FEHTP) to target LAT1 as a potential biomarker of beta cell function in diabetes. Procedures: Uptake of (18)F-L-FEHTP was determined in wild-type C57BL/6 mice by ex vivo biodistribution...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889472/comprehensive-assessment-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-antibodies-in-cancer-cell-line-models-and-tissue-reveals-critical-limitations-in-reagent-specificity
#2
Adam W Nelson, Arnoud J Groen, Jodi L Miller, Anne Y Warren, Kelly A Holmes, Gerard A Tarulli, Wayne D Tilley, Benita S Katzenellenbogen, John R Hawse, Vincent J Gnanapragasam, Jason S Carroll
Estrogen Receptor-β (ERβ) has been implicated in many cancers. In prostate and breast cancer its function is controversial, but genetic studies implicate a role in cancer progression. Much of the confusion around ERβ stems from antibodies that are inadequately validated, yet have become standard tools for deciphering its role. Using an ERβ-inducible cell system we assessed commonly utilized ERβ antibodies and show that one of the most commonly used antibodies, NCL-ER-BETA, is non-specific for ERβ. Other antibodies have limited ERβ specificity or are only specific in one experimental modality...
November 23, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881117/novel-prokaryotic-expression-of-thioredoxin-fused-insulinoma-associated-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-2-ia-2-its-characterization-and-immunodiagnostic-application
#3
Luciano Lucas Guerra, Natalia Inés Faccinetti, Aldana Trabucchi, Bruno David Rovitto, Adriana Victoria Sabljic, Edgardo Poskus, Ruben Francisco Iacono, Silvina Noemí Valdez
BACKGROUND: The insulinoma associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (IA-2) is one of the immunodominant autoantigens involved in the autoimmune attack to the beta-cell in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. In this work we have developed a complete and original process for the production and recovery of the properly folded intracellular domain of IA-2 fused to thioredoxin (TrxIA-2ic) in Escherichia coli GI698 and GI724 strains. We have also carried out the biochemical and immunochemical characterization of TrxIA-2icand design variants of non-radiometric immunoassays for the efficient detection of IA-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A)...
November 24, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878422/the-recovery-of-beta-cell-function-is-critical-for-antidiabetic-outcomes-of-gastric-bypass-in-asian-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-and-a-body-mass-index-below-30
#4
Obin Kwon, Yeon Ji Lee, Ji Hee Yu, Min-Seon Kim, Yoonseok Heo
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Asian populations is characterized by a lower body mass index (BMI) than in Caucasian cases. This pilot study investigated antidiabetic outcomes after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in Asian subjects with T2D and BMI < 30. Fifteen Koreans with poorly controlled T2D and BMI 23-30 underwent RYGB. Two years after RYGB, seven patients achieved HbA1c < 6.5% without medication (target-achieved). The other cases also showed improved glycemic control. The insulin secretory response during an oral glucose tolerance test was significantly restored in the target-achieved group...
November 22, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872144/cytotoxic-1-deoxysphingolipids-are-metabolized-by-a-cytochrome-p450-dependent-pathway
#5
Irina Alecu, Alaa Othman, Anke Penno, Essa M Saied, Christoph Arenz, Arnold von Eckardstein, Thorsten Hornemann
1-Deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs) are atypical sphingolipids which are formed when serine palmitoyltransferase condenses palmitoyl-CoA with alanine instead of serine during sphingolipid synthesis. 1-DeoxySLs are toxic to neurons and pancreatic beta-cells. Pathologically elevated 1-deoxySLs cause the inherited neuropathy HSAN1 and are also found in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic sensory polyneuropathy and HSAN1 are clinically very similar, suggesting that 1-deoxySLs may be implicated in both pathologies. 1-DeoxySLs are considered to be dead-end metabolites, as they lack the C1-hydroxyl group which is essential for the canonical degradation of sphingolipids...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869206/endotoxin-free-hyaluronan-and-hyaluronan-fragments-do-not-stimulate-tnf-%C3%AE-interleukin-12-or-upregulate-co-stimulatory-molecules-in-dendritic-cells-or-macrophages
#6
Yifei Dong, Arif Arif, Mia Olsson, Valbona Cali, Blair Hardman, Manisha Dosanjh, Mark Lauer, Ronald J Midura, Vincent C Hascall, Kelly L Brown, Pauline Johnson
The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, has been described as a regulator of tissue inflammation, with hyaluronan fragments reported to stimulate innate immune cells. High molecular mass hyaluronan is normally present in tissues, but upon inflammation lower molecular mass fragments are generated. It is unclear if these hyaluronan fragments induce an inflammatory response or are a consequence of inflammation. In this study, mouse bone marrow derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) were stimulated with various sizes of hyaluronan from different sources, fragmented hyaluronan, hyaluronidases and heavy chain modified-hyaluronan (HA-HC)...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867203/epac2a-null-mice-exhibit-obesity-prone-nature-more-susceptible-to-leptin-resistance
#7
M Hwang, Y Go, J-H Park, S-K Shin, S E Song, B-C Oh, S-S Im, I Hwang, Y H Jeon, I-K Lee, S Seino, D-K Song
BACKGROUND: The exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), which is primarily involved in cAMP signaling, has been known to be essential for controlling body energy metabolism. Epac has two isoforms: Epac1 and Epac2. The function of Epac1 on obesity was unveiled using Epac1 knockout (KO) mice. However, the role of Epac2 in obesity remains unclear. METHODS: To evaluate the role of Epac2 in obesity, we used Epac2a KO mice, which is dominantly expressed in neurons and endocrine tissues...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866701/place-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-east-asian-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-insights-into-the-management-of-asian-phenotype
#8
REVIEW
Lee Ling Lim, Alexander Tong Boon Tan, Kevin Moses, Viraj Rajadhyaksha, Siew Pheng Chan
The burden of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in East Asia is alarming. Rapid modernization and urbanization have led to major lifestyle changes and a tremendous increase in the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. The development of T2DM at a younger age, with lower body mass index, higher visceral adiposity, and more significant pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction compared to Caucasians are factors responsible for the increased prevalence of T2DM in East Asians. Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapaglifozin, empagliflozin, etc...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865809/duodenal-jejunal-bypass-attenuates-progressive-failure-of-pancreatic-islets-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#9
Tingfeng Wang, Peng Zhang, Xiong Zhang, Ting Cao, Chengzhu Zheng, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Preservation of pancreatic beta cell function has been increasingly appealing in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is still limited on how bariatric surgery affects pancreatic beta cell apoptosis. SETTING: University medical center. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the effect of a major component of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, duodenal-jejunal bypass, on protecting pancreatic beta cells from progressive loss. METHODS: Forty-five normal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups: duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) group (n = 16) and sham (S) group (n = 17), based upon the procedure received, and a control (C) group (n = 12) without any procedure performed, to eliminate potential traumatic effects from surgery...
August 31, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862401/identification-and-changes-in-the-seasonal-concentrations-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus-epididymides
#10
A M Majewska, W Kordan, M Koziorowska-Gilun, P Wysocki
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) act as molecular chaperones with important regulatory functions. HSPs are considered to be essential factors in animal reproduction. In view of seasonal variations in the secretory activity of the reproductive tract of mature roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), the aims of this study were to identify HSPs in the epididymides and compare the expression of the identified proteins in three periods of the reproductive season. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the highest number of polypeptides in homogenates of epididymal tissues and in caput, corpus and cauda epididymal fluids throughout the reproductive season...
November 13, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859633/visceral-fat-is-strongly-associated-with-post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus-and-glucose-metabolism-one-year-after-kidney-transplantation
#11
Marit Elizabeth von Düring, Trond Jenssen, Jens Bollerslev, Anders Åsberg, Kristin Godang, Anders Hartmann
Body composition after kidney transplantation is linked to glucose metabolism, and impaired glucose metabolism is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and death. One year after transplantation we examined 150 patients for new-onset diabetes performing OGTTs and body composition measurements including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) content from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. We found that glucose metabolism was generally improved and that the levels of VAT and percentage VAT of total body fat mass (VAT%totBFM ) were lowest in those with normal glucose tolerance and highest in those with post transplant diabetes mellitus...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848040/modifications-in-the-proteome-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-embryo-and-fry-as-an-effect-of-triploidy-induction
#12
Samad Bahrami Babaheydari, Saeed Keyvanshokooh, Salar Dorafshan, Seyed Ali Johari
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry, and database searching were used to analyze the effects of triploidization heat shock treatment on protein expression in rainbow trout eyed embryo and fry. After fertilization, the eggs were incubated at 10 °C for 10 min. Half of the eggs were then subjected to heat shock for 10 min submerged in a 28 °C water bath to induce triploidy. The remainder was incubated normally and used as diploid controls...
November 15, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829372/identification-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-secreted-proteins-using-an-in-vitro-system-mimicking-the-phagosomal-environment
#13
Jessica J Chinison, Lia Danelishvili, Rashmi Gupta, Sasha J Rose, Lmar M Babrak, Luiz E Bermudez
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is a common intracellular pathogen that infects patients with HIV/AIDS and cause lung infection in patients with underlying lung pathology. M.avium preferably infects macrophages and uses diverse mechanisms to alter phagosome maturation. Once in the macrophage, the pathogen can alter the host cellular defenses by secreting proteins into the cytosol of host cells, but despite considerable research, only a few secreted effector proteins have been identified...
November 9, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816562/over-expression-of-insulin-response-element-binding-protein-1-ire-bp1-in-mouse-pancreatic-islets-increases-expression-of-rack1-and-tctpp-beta-cell-markers-of-high-glucose-sensitivity
#14
Betty C Villafuerte, Michelle T Barati, Madhavi J Rane, Susan Isaacs, Ming Li, Daniel W Wilkey, Michael L Merchant
BACKGROUND: A targeted analysis of the 50kDa C-terminal fragment of insulin-response element binding protein-1 (IRE-BP1) activation of target genes through the insulin receptor substrate receptor/PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway has been demonstrated for the insulin growth factor-1 receptor. The broader effects of 50kDa C-terminal IRE-BP1 fragment over-expression on protein abundance in pancreatic islet beta cells have not been determined. RESULTS: Liquid-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of replicate lysates of pancreatic islets isolated from background strain animals and transgenic animals, overexpressing IRE-BP1 in pancreatic islet beta cells, demonstrated statistically significant increases in the expression of proteins involved in protein synthesis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and scaffolding proteins important for protein kinase C signaling; some of which were confirmed by immunoblot analyses...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814751/recurrent-merkel-cell-carcinoma-of-the-testis-with-unknown-primary-site-a-case-report
#15
Angela Mweempwa, Alvin Tan, Michael Dray
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor that commonly arises in the skin. It is rare for it to occur in the testes. There are only seven cases of testicular Merkel cell carcinoma reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old Maori man presented to our hospital with left testicular swelling. His alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels were within normal limits. His lactate dehydrogenase concentration was elevated to 267 U/L...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814651/mitochondria-in-the-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#16
Isaac G Onyango, Shaharyar M Khan, James P Bennett
Mitochondria are responsible for the majority of energy production in energy-intensive tissues like brain, modulate Ca(+2) signaling and control initiation of cell death. Because of their extensive use of oxygen and lack of protective histone proteins, mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress (ROS)-induced damage to their genome (mtDNA), respiratory chain proteins and ROS repair enzymes. Animal and cell models of PD use toxins that impair mitochondrial complex I activity. Maintenance of mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis), particularly in high-energy brain, occurs through complex signaling pathways involving the upstream "master regulator" PGC-1alpha that is transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803497/clinical-study-of-serum-homocysteine-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-euglycemic-patients
#17
Yanjin Hu, Jia Liu, Xuejie Dong, Yuan Xu, Song Leng, Guang Wang
BACKGROUND Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease. NAFLD includes a spectrum of hepatic pathologies: simple fatty liver, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Insulin resistance may contribute to NAFLD. The liver plays an important role in the production and metabolism of homocysteine (HCY), which is known to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. High HCY level can aggravate NAFLD by increasing the reactive oxygen species and activating oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HCY and NAFLD in euglycemic patients...
November 2, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802879/an-insulin-iapp-hybrid-peptide-is-an-endogenous-antigen-for-cd4-t-cells-in-the-non-obese-diabetic-mouse
#18
Timothy A Wiles, Thomas Delong, Rocky L Baker, Brenda Bradley, Gene Barbour, Roger L Powell, Nichole Reisdorph, Kathryn Haskins
BDC-6.9, a diabetogenic CD4 T cell clone isolated from a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, responds to pancreatic islet cells from NOD but not BALB/c mice. We recently reported that a hybrid insulin peptide (HIP), 6.9HIP, formed by linkage of an insulin C-peptide fragment and a fragment of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), is the antigen for BDC-6.9. We report here that the core 12-mer peptide from 6.9HIP, centered on the hybrid peptide junction, is also highly antigenic for BDC-6.9. In agreement with the observation that BALB/c islet cells fail to stimulate the T cell clone, a single amino acid difference in the BALB/c IAPP sequence renders the BALB/c version of the HIP only weakly antigenic...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802569/modeling-spatial-distribution-of-oxygen-in-3d-culture-of-islet-beta-cells
#19
John McReynolds, Yu Wen, Xiaofei Li, Jianjun Guan, Sha Jin
Three-dimensional (3D) scaffold culture of pancreatic β-cell has been proven to be able to better mimic physiological conditions in the body. However, one critical issue with culturing pancreatic β-cells is that β-cells consume large amounts of oxygen, and hence insufficient oxygen supply in the culture leads to loss of β-cell mass and functions. This becomes more significant when cells are cultured in a 3D scaffold. In this study, in order to understand the effect of oxygen tension inside a cell-laden collagen culture on β-cell proliferation, a culture model with encapsulation of an oxygen-generator was established...
November 1, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798858/molecular-pathology-and-novel-clinical-therapy-for-uterine-leiomyosarcoma
#20
REVIEW
Takuma Hayashi, Miki Kawano, Tomoyuki Ichimura, Koichi Ida, Hirofumi Ando, Dorit Zharhary, Yae Kanai, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Susumu Tonegawa, Tanri Shiozawa, Nobuo Yaegashi, Ikuo Konishi
Patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) typically present with vaginal bleeding, pain, and a pelvic mass, with atypical presentations of hypercalcemia and eosinophilia also being reported. Radiographic evaluation with combined positron-emission tomography/computed tomography may assist in diagnosis and surveillance in women with uterine LMS; these are commonly used with stage and tumour grade as prognostic indicators and a recently developed risk-assessment index to predict disease-specific survival. Recent studies have shown that the addition of adjuvant therapy after surgical management does not seem to improve survival, and ovarian preservation does not appear to negatively impact outcome...
October 2016: Anticancer Research
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