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Beta cell mass

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328551/higher-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-greater-proportions-of-effector-cd8-t-cells-expressing-cd57-in-women-living-with-hiv
#1
Michael J A Reid, Sanjiv M Baxi, Lila A Sheira, Alan L Landay, Edward A Frongillo, Adebola Adedimeji, Mardge H Cohen, Eryka Wentz, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel Merenstein, Peter W Hunt, Phyllis C Tien, Sheri D Weiser
BACKGROUND: A low proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells that express CD57 is associated with increased mortality in HIV infection. The effect of increasing BMI changes in the proportion of CD57+CD28-CD8+ T cells among HIV-infected individuals on ART is unknown. SETTING: In a U.S. cohort of HIV-infected women, we evaluated associations of BMI and waist circumference with 3 distinct CD8+ T cell phenotypes: % CD28-CD57+CD8+ T cells, % CD57+ of CD28-CD8+ T cells and % CD28- of all CD8 T cells...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320046/increased-insulin-resistance-and-glucagon-levels-in-mild-inactive-systemic-lupus-patients-despite-normal-glucose-tolerance
#2
Cíntia Nh Miyake, Bruno Gualano, Wagner S Dantas, Renato T Pereira, William Neves, Vanessa O Zambelli, Samuel K Shinjo, Rosa M Pereira, Elizabeth R Silva, Ana Lúcia Sá-Pinto, Eduardo Borba, Hamilton Roschel, Eloisa Bonfá, Fabiana B Benatti
OBJECTIVE: To assess insulin sensitivity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in response to a meal tolerance test (MTT). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 33 adult females mild/inactive SLE and 16 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched female healthy controls (CTRL) underwent a MTT and were assessed for insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. Skeletal muscle protein expressions of total and membrane GLUT-4 were also evaluated (SLE, n=10; CTRL, n=5); muscle biopsies were performed after MTT...
March 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319674/assessment-of-circulating-betatrophin-concentrations-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Onur Erol, Mustafa Kemal Özel, Hamit Yaşar Ellidağ, Tayfun Toptaş, Aysel Uysal Derbent, Necat Yılmaz
The aims of the current study were to investigate the betatrophin levels in lean glucose-tolerant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to explore the relationships between these levels and antropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. The study population consisted of 50 lean (body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m(2)) women diagnosed with PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria, and 60 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls without any features of clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism. Before recruitment, glucose tolerance was evaluated in all of the subjects using the 2-h 75 g oral glucose-tolerance test, and only those exhibiting normal glucose tolerance were enrolled...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284910/a-clinical-study-of-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-chronic-pancreatitis
#4
K V S Hari Kumar, Manish Manrai, A K Sood, Rahul Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) and beta cell dysfunction are the pathophysiological determinants of the diabetes mellitus (DM). We investigated the presence of IR in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and compared the same with the underlying etiology. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, observational study, we included serial patients of CP presented to our hospital. The study population is in different stages of CP and are grouped as alcoholic CP (Group 1; N=67) and tropical CP (Group 2; N=35)...
March 6, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280900/paracrine-gaba-and-insulin-regulate-pancreatic-alpha-cell-proliferation-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#5
Allen L Feng, Yun-Yan Xiang, Le Gui, Gesthika Kaltsidis, Qingping Feng, Wei-Yang Lu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of increased proliferation of alpha cells in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells express GAD and produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits alpha cell secretion of glucagon. We explored the roles of GABA in alpha cell proliferation in conditions corresponding to type 1 diabetes in a mouse model and in vitro. METHODS: Type 1 diabetes was induced by injecting the mice with streptozotocin (STZ)...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276579/glucose-homeostasis-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-resistance-in-relation-to-vitamin-d-status-after-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Nael Shaat, Claes Ignell, Anastasia Katsarou, Kerstin Berntorp
INTRODUCTION: We wanted to determine vitamin D status after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to evaluate whether levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3 ) are associated with beta cell function, insulin resistance, or a diagnosis of diabetes after GDM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Glucose homeostasis was assessed during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test 1-2 years after delivery in 376 women with previous GDM (287 European and 78 non-European, including 33 Arab and 35 Asian women)...
March 9, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273212/role-of-micrornas-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#7
Z Zhu, J Yin, D C Li, Z Q Mao
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the peripheral blood microRNAs (miRNAs) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). miRNAs are small 20- to 22-nucleotide (nt) noncoding RNAs. They constitute a novel class of gene regulators that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs play an important role in several biological processes. Twelve patients with T2DM who were scheduled to undergo laparoscopic RYGB surgery were separated into two groups, using a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 as a cut-off point...
March 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272542/self-assembly-and-anti-amyloid-cytotoxicity-activity-of-amyloid-beta-peptide-derivatives
#8
V Castelletto, P Ryumin, R Cramer, I W Hamley, M Taylor, D Allsop, M Reza, J Ruokolainen, T Arnold, D Hermida-Merino, C I Garcia, M C Leal, E Castaño
The self-assembly of two derivatives of KLVFF, a fragment Aβ(16-20) of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, is investigated and recovery of viability of neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ (1-42) is observed at sub-stoichiometric peptide concentrations. Fluorescence assays show that NH2-KLVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse and amyloid formation at the same critical aggregation concentration (cac). In contrast, NH2-K(Boc)LVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse at a low concentration, followed by amyloid formation at a higher cac...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271032/bezafibrate-ameliorates-diabetes-via-reduced-steatosis-and-improved-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-diabetic-tallyho-mice
#9
Andras Franko, Susanne Neschen, Jan Rozman, Birgit Rathkolb, Michaela Aichler, Annette Feuchtinger, Laura Brachthäuser, Frauke Neff, Marketa Kovarova, Eckhard Wolf, Helmut Fuchs, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Peter, Martin Hrabě de Angelis
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we have shown that Bezafibrate (BEZ), the pan-PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) activator, ameliorated diabetes in insulin deficient streptozotocin treated diabetic mice. In order to study whether BEZ can also improve glucose metabolism in a mouse model for fatty liver and type 2 diabetes, the drug was applied to TallyHo mice. METHODS: TallyHo mice were divided into an early (ED) and late (LD) diabetes progression group and both groups were treated with 0...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270438/menin-and-prmt5-suppress-glp1-receptor-transcript-and-pka-mediated-phosphorylation-of-foxo1-and-creb
#10
Abdul Bari Muhammad, Bowen Xing, Chengyang Liu, Ali Naji, Xiaosong Ma, Rebecca A Simmons, Xianxin Hua
Menin is a scaffold protein that interacts with several epigenetic mediators to regulate gene transcription, and suppresses pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Tamoxifen inducible deletion of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, which encodes the protein menin, increases beta cell mass in multiple murine models of diabetes and ameliorates diabetes. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP1) is another key physiological modulator of beta cell mass and glucose homeostasis. However, it is not clearly understood whether menin crosstalks with GLP1 signaling...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265302/increased-risk-of-metabolic-disorders-in-healthy-young-adults-with-family-history-of-diabetes-from-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-survey
#11
Joon Ho Moon, Eun Roh, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Soo Lim, Hak Chul Jang, Sung Hee Choi
BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of a family history of diabetes on type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and behavioral traits in young Korean adults. METHODS: Subjects aged 25-44 years were included, and the presence of a family history of diabetes was obtained by a self-reported questionnaire (the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010). We compared the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and other metabolic parameters, including blood pressure and lipid profile...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261303/stimulation-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-plays-a-protective-role-via-increased-expression-of-raf-1-and-pdx-1-in-hyperglycemic-rat-pancreatic-islet-rin-m5f-cells
#12
Sher Zaman Safi, Rajes Qvist, Gracie Ong, Hamed Karimian, Muhammad Imran, Ikram Shah
INTRODUCTION: It is a widely held view that a progressive reduction of beta-cell mass occurs in the progression of diabetes. RAF-1 kinase and pancreas duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1) are major factors that promote survival of cells and maintain normal insulin functions. In this study we investigated the effect of a β-adrenergic receptor agonist and antagonist on RAF-1 and PDX-1, and their respective effects on apoptosis and insulin release in RIN-m5F cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: RIN-m5F cells were cultured in normal (5 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose to mimic diabetic conditions, followed by treatment with 5 µM, 10 µM and 20 µM of isoproterenol and isoproterenol + propranolol for 6, 12 and 24 h...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259539/oxidative-and-energetic-stresses-mediate-beta-cell-dysfunction-induced-by-pgc-1%C3%AE
#13
A Besseiche, J-P Riveline, L Delavallée, F Foufelle, J-F Gautier, B Blondeau
AIM: Alteration of functional beta-cell mass in adults can be programmed by adverse events during fetal life. Previously, it was demonstrated that high glucocorticoid (GC) levels during fetal life participate in this programming by inhibition of beta-cell development. More specifically, GC levels stimulate expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a transcriptional co-regulator of the GC receptor (GR), which per se impairs beta-cell mass and function when overexpressed...
March 1, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258214/identification-of-a-feedback-loop-involving-beta-glucosidase-2-and-its-product-sphingosine-sheds-light-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-in-gaucher-disease
#14
Sophie Schonauer, Heinz G Körschen, Anke Penno, Andreas Rennhack, Bernadette Breiden, Konrad Sandhoff, Katharina Gutbrod, Peter Dörmann, Diana N Raju, Per Haberkant, Mathias J Gerl, Britta Brügger, Hila Zigdon, Ayelet Vardi, Anthony H Futerman, Christoph Thiele, Dagmar Wachten
The lysosomal acid beta-glucosidase GBA1 and the non-lysosomal beta-glucosidase GBA2 degrade glucosylceramide (GlcCer) to glucose and ceramide in different cellular compartments. Loss of GBA2 activity and the resulting accumulation of GlcCer results in male infertility, whereas mutations in the GBA1 gene and loss of GBA1 activity cause the lipid-storage disorder Gaucher disease. However, the role of GBA2 in Gaucher disease pathology and its relationship to GBA1 is not well understood. Here, we report a GBA1-dependent down-regulation of GBA2 activity in patients with Gaucher disease...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254488/the-small-rna-mir-375-a-pancreatic-islet-abundant-mirna-with-multiple-roles-in-endocrine-beta-cell-function
#15
Lena Eliasson
The pathophysiology of diabetes is complex and recent research put focus on the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and the insulin-secreting beta cells as central in the development of the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the small non-coding RNAs regulating post-transcriptional gene expression, are significant regulators of beta cell function. One of the most abundant miRNAs in the islets is miR-375. This review focus on the role of miR-375 in beta cell function, including effects in development and differentiation, proliferation and regulation of insulin secretion...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246291/-11-c-5-hydroxy-tryptophan-pet-for-assessment-of-islet-mass-during-progression-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
Lina Carlbom, Daniel Espes, Mark Lubberink, Mats Martinell, Lars Johansson, Håkan Ahlström, Per-Ola Carlsson, Olle Korsgren, Olof Eriksson
[(11)C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP) PET of the pancreas has been shown to be a surrogate imaging biomarker of pancreatic islet mass. The change in islet mass in different stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as measured by non-invasive imaging is currently unknown. Here, we describe a cross-sectional study where subjects at different stages of T2D development with expected stratification of pancreatic islet mass were examined in relation to non-diabetic individuals. The primary outcome was the [(11)C]5-HTP uptake and retention in pancreas, as a surrogate marker for the endogenous islet mass...
February 28, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236856/could-mucin-16-and-colony-stimulating-factor-2-receptor-beta-possible-graft-versus-host-disease-biomarkers-medical-hypotheses
#17
Milena Monteiro de Souza, Fabiana Martins de Paula, Ricardo Hsieh, Maria Cristina Martins Almeida Macedo, Marcelo Andreetta Corral, Thaís Borguezan Nunes, Fernanda De Paula, Silvia Vanessa Lourenço
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurs after bone marrow transplantation and is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Reviews demonstrated GVHD patients with involvement of various tissues and organs, such as salivary glands. The diagnosis of acute GVHD has been the biopsies and the histopathologic evaluation of tissue from an involved organ. These procedures are invasive. Saliva proteins as possible biomarker for GVHD could facilitate the management and diagnosis accuracy. For support the proposed hypotheses, in this pilot study we collected whole saliva samples from patients with undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and from healthy subjects...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229927/alteration-of-n-glycan-expression-profile-and-glycan-pattern-of-glycoproteins-in-human-hepatoma-cells-after-hcv-infection
#18
Tian Xiang, Ganglong Yang, Xiaoyu Liu, Yidan Zhou, Zhongxiao Fu, Fangfang Lu, Jianguo Gu, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Zengqi Tan, Xi Chen, Yan Xie, Feng Guan, Xiao-Lian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases, liver fibrosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However little is known about any information of N-glycan pattern in human liver cell after HCV infection. METHODS: The altered profiles of N-glycans in HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cell were analyzed by using mass spectrometry. Then, lectin microarray, lectin pull-down assay, reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western-blotting were used to identify the altered N-glycosylated proteins and glycosyltransferases...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#19
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207764/didehydrophenylalanine-an-abundant-modification-in-the-beta-subunit-of-plant-polygalacturonases
#20
Kjell Sergeant, Bruno Printz, Annelie Gutsch, Marc Behr, Jenny Renaut, Jean-Francois Hausman
The structure and the activity of proteins are often regulated by transient or stable post- translational modifications (PTM). Different from well-known, abundant modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation some modifications are limited to one or a few proteins across a broad range of related species. Although few examples of the latter type are known, the evolutionary conservation of these modifications and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis suggest an important physiological role. Here, the first observation of a new, fold-directing PTM is described...
2017: PloS One
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