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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938416/pancreatic-histopathology-of-human-monogenic-diabetes-due-to-causal-variants-in-kcnj11-hnf1a-gata6-and-lmna
#1
May Sanyoura, Laura Jacobsen, David Carmody, Daniela Del Gaudio, Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu, Kelly Arndt, Ying Ying Hu, Frances Kobiernicki, Irina Kusmartseva, Mark A Atkinson, Louis H Philipson, Desmond Schatz, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Siri Atma W Greeley
Context: Monogenic diabetes is thought to account for 2% of all diabetes cases but most patients are misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes. To date, little is known about the histopathological features of pancreases from patients with monogenic diabetes. Objective: Retrospective study of the JDRF Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes biorepository was used to identify possible cases with monogenic diabetes and to compare effects of genetic variants on pancreas histology...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923327/vitamin-e-deficiency-and-oxidative-status-are-associated-with-prediabetes-in-apparently-healthy-subjects
#2
Gabriela Rodríguez-Ramírez, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Manuela de la A Carrera-Gracia, Martha-Angélica Quintanar-Escorza
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that vitamin E deficiency and oxidative stress affect the beta cell function. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between vitamin E deficiency and oxidative status with prediabetes in apparently healthy subjects. METHODS: Apparently healthy men and women aged 18-65 years were enrolled in a case-control study. Individuals with new diagnosis of prediabetes were considered as cases and compared with a control group of individuals with normal glucose tolerance...
April 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919426/improving-glycemic-control-in-model-mice-with-type-2-diabetes-by-increasing-superoxide-dismutase-sod-activity-using-silk-fibroin-hydrolysate-sfh
#3
Harry Jung, Yoo Yeon Kim, Boyoung Kim, Hajin Nam, Jun Gyo Suh
Islet cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes is primarily attributed to the increased apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells. Silk fibroin hydrolysate (SFH) has an effect on blood in type 2 diabetes model mice (C57BL/KsJ-db/db). However, its exact mechanism is unknown. The type 2 diabetes model mice were randomly divided into non-diabetic mice (ND), diabetic mice (DB), and diabetic mice treated with silk fibroin hydrolysate (DB-SFH). The results showed that SFH significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904862/t-darpp-is-an-elongated-monomer-that-binds-calcium-and-is-phosphorylated-by-cyclin-dependent-kinases-1-and-5
#4
Jamil Momand, Patrycja Magdziarz, You Feng, Dianlu Jiang, Elizabeth Parga, Arianna Celis, Erin Denny, Xiaoying Wang, Martin L Phillips, Estuardo Monterroso, Susan E Kane, Feimeng Zhou
t-Darpp (truncated isoform of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein) is a protein encoded by the PPP1R1B gene and is expressed in breast, colon, esophageal, gastric, and prostate cancers, as well as in normal adult brain striatal cells. Overexpression of t-Darpp in cultured cells leads to increased protein kinase A activity and increased phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B). In HER2+ breast cancer cells, t-Darpp confers resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent trastuzumab. To shed light on t-Darpp function, we studied its secondary structure, oligomerization status, metal-binding properties, and phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 5...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904585/is-it-the-monster-teratoma-or-simply-meningomyelocele-our-experience-of-histological-surprise
#5
Suyash Singh, Jayesh Sardhara, Pradeep Sharma, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Kuntal Kanti Das, Kamlesh S Bhaisora, Anant Mehrotra, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari, Raj Kumar
Teratomas are one of the most common tumors in newborn with excellent prognosis arises from totipotent primordial germ cells harboring two or three germ cell layers. The tumor has been titled "Great masquerade." The teratomas of sacrococcygeal region present with lower limb weakness, urinary or bowel obstruction, and swelling at lower back or intrauterine mass in ultrasound or complicated delivery. A 2-month-old male child presented with complaints of swelling over lumbosacral region with discharging punctum since birth...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901194/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#6
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is associated with a poor prognosis. Generally, the kidneys are assumed to not be no direct targets of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to 2 different intensity protocols...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900540/treatment-of-diabetic-mice-with-the-sglt2-inhibitor-ta-1887-antagonizes-diabetic-cachexia-and-decreases-mortality
#7
Taichi Sugizaki, Shunshun Zhu, Ge Guo, Akiko Matsumoto, Jiabin Zhao, Motoyoshi Endo, Haruki Horiguchi, Jun Morinaga, Zhe Tian, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Keishi Miyata, Hiroshi Itoh, Yuichi Oike
A favorable effect of an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2i) on mortality of diabetic patients was recently reported, although mechanisms underlying that effect remained unclear. Here, we examine SGLT2i effects on survival of diabetic mice and assess factors underlying these outcomes. To examine SGLT2i treatment effects in a model of severe diabetes, we fed genetically diabetic db/db mice a high-fat diet and then assessed outcomes including diabetic complications between SGLT2i TA-1887-treated and control mice...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899909/depletion-of-the-mrna-translation-initiation-inhibitor-programmed-cell-death-protein-4-pdcd4-impairs-l6-myotube-formation
#8
Naomi Maeda, Abdikarim Abdullahi, Brendan Beatty, Zameer Dhanani, Olasunkanmi A J Adegoke
The mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is vital for optimal muscle mass and function. Although the significance of mTORC1 in stimulating muscle growth is unequivocal, evidence in support of its role during muscle regeneration is less clear. Here, we showed that the abundance (protein and mRNA) of the mTORC1/S6K1 substrate, programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4), is upregulated at the onset of differentiation of L6 and C2C12 cells. The increase in PDCD4 was not associated with any changes in S6K1 activation, but the abundance of beta transducing repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP), the ubiquitin ligase that targets PDCD4 for degradation, increased...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898917/technical-aspects-of-endoscopic-ultrasound-eus-guided-sampling-in-gastroenterology-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-technical-guideline-march-2017
#9
Marcin Polkowski, Christian Jenssen, Philip Kaye, Silvia Carrara, Pierre Deprez, Angels Gines, Gloria Fernández-Esparrach, Pierre Eisendrath, Guruprasad P Aithal, Paolo Arcidiacono, Marc Barthet, Pedro Bastos, Adele Fornelli, Bertrand Napoleon, Julio Iglesias-Garcia, Andrada Seicean, Alberto Larghi, Cesare Hassan, Jeanin E van Hooft, Jean-Marc Dumonceau
For routine EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and lymph nodes (LNs) ESGE recommends 25G or 22G needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation); fine needle aspiration (FNA) and fine needle biopsy (FNB) needles are equally recommended (high quality evidence, strong recommendation).When the primary aim of sampling is to obtain a core tissue specimen, ESGE suggests using 19G FNA or FNB needles or 22G FNB needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).ESGE recommends using 10-mL syringe suction for EUS-guided sampling of solid masses and LNs with 25G or 22G FNA needles (high quality evidence, strong recommendation) and other types of needles (low quality evidence, weak recommendation)...
September 12, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898241/alterations-in-the-programming-of-energy-metabolism-in-adolescents-with-background-exposure-to-dioxins-dl-pcbs-and-pbdes
#10
Marike M Leijs, Janna G Koppe, Thomas Vulsma, Kees Olie, Wim M C van Aalderen, Pim de Voogt, Juliette Legler, Gavin W Ten Tusscher
OBJECTIVES: Dioxins and PCBs are highly toxic and persistent environmental pollutants that are measurable in humans worldwide. These persistent organic pollutants are associated with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus. We hypothesise that perinatal (background) exposure to industrial pollutants like dioxins also influences body mass development and energy metabolism in later life. STUDY DESIGN: In The Netherlands, the perinatal exposure (prenatal exposure and postnatal lactational intake) to dioxins has been studied prospectively since 1987...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895584/effects-of-lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-on-adipose-tissue-remodeling-and-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissue-development-in-db-db-mice
#11
G Kim, Y-H Lee, M R Yun, J-Y Lee, E G Shin, B-W Lee, E S Kang, B-S Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of long-term treatment with lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione-based activator of PPARγ, on adipose tissue (AT), focusing on its effects on insulin resistance in obese db/db mice. METHODS: Seven-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated (n=8) or lobeglitazone-treated (n=8) group. Lobeglitazone (1 mg/kg daily) was injected intraperitoneally for 20 weeks. RESULTS: Lobeglitazone treatment for 20 weeks resulted in a remarkably improved glycemic index, including significantly decreased glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and preserved pancreatic beta cells...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891030/species-differences-in-pancreatic-binding-of-do3a-vs-cys-40-exendin4
#12
Olof Eriksson, Ulrika Rosenström, Ram K Selvaraju, Barbro Eriksson, Irina Velikyan
AIMS: Radiolabeled Exendin-4 has been proposed as suitable imaging marker for pancreatic beta cell mass quantification mediated by Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). However, noticeable species variations in basal pancreatic uptake as well as uptake reduction degree due to selective beta cell ablation were observed. METHODS: In vitro and ex vivo autoradiography studies of pancreas were performed using [(177)Lu]Lu-DO3A-VS-Cys(40)-Exendin4, in order to investigate the mechanism of uptake as well as the islet uptake contrast in mouse, rat, pig, and non-human primate...
September 11, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888750/primary-mediastinal-pure-seminomatous-germ-cell-tumor-germinoma-as-a-rare-cause-of-precocious-puberty-in-a-9-year-old-patient
#13
Alejandra Bravo-Balado, Lynda Torres Castellanos, Adriana Carrillo Rodríguez, Daniel Gómez Zapata, Juan Javier Lammoglia Hoyos, Rafael Andrade, Jaime Pérez Niño
Less than 5-7% of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are extragonadal, being the central nervous system (CNS) the most common location in children, followed by retroperitoneum and mediastinum. Only 10% of mediastinal tumors are malignant and one third of these are pure seminomas (germinomas). We report the case of a 9 year-old boy with development of secondary sexual characteristics. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG) was elevated and a mediastinal mass was found. Final histology showed a pure seminomatous germ cell tumor (SGCT)...
September 6, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883757/time-dependent-proteomic-and-genomic-alterations-in-toll-like-receptor-4-activated-human-chondrocytes-increased-expression-of-lamin-a-c-and-annexins
#14
Seung Hee Ha, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Nguyen Thi Tuyet Anh, Nari Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) in articular chondrocytes increases the catabolic compartment and leads to matrix degradation during the development of osteoarthritis. In this study, we determined the proteomic and genomic alterations in human chondrocytes during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of TLR-4 activation. Human chondrocytes were cultured with LPS for 12, 24, and 36 h to induce TLR-4 activation. The TLR-4-induced inflammatory response was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of increased interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression levels...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880710/serum-immune-proteins-in-limb-lymphedema-reflecting-tissue-processes-caused-by-lymph-stasis-and-chronic-dermato-lymphangio-adenitis-cellulitis
#15
Marzanna T Zaleska, Waldemar L Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Lymphedema of limbs affects a large mass of tissues. Pathological changes develop in skin and subcutaneous tissue. Bacterial retention in edema fluid is followed by chronic inflammatory reaction. The question arises whether the chronic processes affecting a large mass of limb tissues are reflected in the serum by appearance of specific proteins accumulating and subsequently absorbed from the lymphedematous tissues Aim: To measure the concentration of serum proteins (1) participating in cellular disintegration such as caspase 1, sFas, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and serpin, (2) cell growth regulating factors such as cortisol, human growth hormone, keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and (3) angiogenic and growth factors such as angiopoetins 1 and 2, adiponectin, leptin, and transforming growth factor beta...
September 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877242/comparative-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-disease-stratified-laser-captured-microdissected-human-islets-identifies-proteins-and-pathways-potentially-related-to-type-1-diabetes
#16
Julius O Nyalwidhe, Wojciech J Grzesik, Tanya C Burch, Michele L Semeraro, Tayab Waseem, Ivan C Gerling, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Margaret A Morris, Jerry L Nadler
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. The goal of this study was to identify novel protein signatures that distinguish Islets from patients with T1D, patients who are autoantibody positive without symptoms of diabetes, and from individuals with no evidence of disease. High resolution high mass accuracy label free quantitative mass spectrometry analysis was applied to islets isolated by laser capture microdissection from disease stratified human pancreata from the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD), these included donors without diabetes, donors with T1D-associated autoantibodies in the absence of diabetes, and donors with T1D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875999/a-comparison-of-the-human-and-mouse-protein-corona-profiles-of-functionalized-sio2-nanocarriers
#17
A Solorio-Rodríguez, V Escamilla-Rivera, M Uribe-Ramírez, A Chagolla, R Winkler, C M García-Cuellar, A De Vizcaya-Ruiz
Nanoparticles are a promising cancer therapy for their use as drug carriers given their versatile functionalization with polyethylene glycol and proteins that can be recognized by overexpressed receptors in tumor cells. However, it has been suggested that in biological fluids, proteins cover nanoparticles, which gives the proteins a biological identity that could be responsible for unexpected biological responses: the so-called protein corona. A relevant biological event that is usually ignored in protein-corona formation is the interspecies differences in protein binding, which can be involved in the discrepancies observed in preclinical studies and the nanoparticle safety and efficiency...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864535/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-cardiovascular-manifestations-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-a-narrative-review
#18
Jessica Pepe, Cristiana Cipriani, Chiara Sonato, Orlando Raimo, Federica Biamonte, Salvatore Minisola
Data on cardiovascular disease in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are controversial; indeed, at present, cardiovascular involvement is not included among the criteria needed for parathyroidectomy. Aim of this narrative review is to analyze the available literature in an effort to better characterize cardiovascular involvement in PHPT. Due to physiological effects of both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium on cardiomyocyte, cardiac conduction system, smooth vascular, endothelial and pancreatic beta cells, a number of data have been published regarding associations between symptomatic and mild PHPT with hypertension, arrhythmias, endothelial dysfunction (an early marker of atherosclerosis), glucose metabolism impairment and metabolic syndrome...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862226/serum-metabolomics-in-oral-leukoplakia-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Gokul Sridharan, Pratibha Ramani, Sangeeta Patankar
CONTEXT: Metabolomics is a core discipline of system biology focusing on the study of low molecular weight compounds in biological system. Analysis of human metabolome, which is composed of diverse group of metabolites, can aid in diagnosis and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). AIM: The aim of the present study is to analyze and identify serum metabolites in oral leukoplakia and OSCC as a potential diagnostic biomarker and a predictor for malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia...
July 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860598/wfs1-deficient-rats-develop-primary-symptoms-of-wolfram-syndrome-insulin-dependent-diabetes-optic-nerve-atrophy-and-medullary-degeneration
#20
Mario Plaas, Kadri Seppa, Riin Reimets, Toomas Jagomäe, Maarja Toots, Tuuliki Koppel, Tuuli Vallisoo, Mait Nigul, Indrek Heinla, Riho Meier, Allen Kaasik, Andres Piirsoo, Miriam A Hickey, Anton Terasmaa, Eero Vasar
Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene and is characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes, optic atrophy, hearing loss and a number of other complications. Here, we describe the creation and phenotype of Wfs1 mutant rats, in which exon 5 of the Wfs1 gene is deleted, resulting in a loss of 27 amino acids from the WFS1 protein sequence. These Wfs1-ex5-KO232 rats show progressive glucose intolerance, which culminates in the development of diabetes mellitus, glycosuria, hyperglycaemia and severe body weight loss by 12 months of age...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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