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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029259/first-experimental-assessment-of-protein-intrinsic-disorder-involvement-in-an-rna-virus-natural-adaptive-process
#1
Justine Charon, Amandine Barra, Jocelyne Walter, Pauline Millot, Eugénie Hébrard, Benoît Moury, Thierry Michon
Intrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins is defined as a lack of stable structure in physiological conditions. Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are highly abundant in some RNA virus proteomes. Low topological constraints exerted on IDRs are expected to buffer the effect of numerous deleterious mutations and could be related to the remarkable adaptive potential of RNA viruses to overcome resistance of their host. To experimentally test this hypothesis in a natural pathosystem, a set of four variants of Potato virus Y (PVY; Potyvirus genus) containing various ID degrees in the Viral genome-linked (VPg) protein, a key determinant of potyvirus adaptation, was designed...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029226/new-insights-into-the-genetic-basis-of-monge-s-disease-and-adaptation-to-high-altitude
#2
Tsering Stobdan, Ali Akbari, Priti Azad, Dan Zhou, Orit Poulsen, Otto Appenzeller, Gustavo F Gonzales, Amalio Telenti, Emily H M Wong, Shubham Saini, Ewen F Kirkness, J Craig Venter, Vineet Bafna, Gabriel G Haddad
Human high-altitude (HA) adaptation or mal-adaptation is explored to understand the physiology, pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms that underlie long-term exposure to hypoxia. Here we report the results of an analysis of the largest whole-genome-sequencing of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) and non-CMS individuals, identified candidate genes and functionally validated these candidates in a genetic model system (Drosophila). We used PreCIOSS algorithm that uses Haplotype Allele Frequency score to separate haplotypes carrying the favored allele from the non-carriers and accordingly prioritize genes associated with the CMS or non-CMS phenotype...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029017/region-specific-suppression-of-hypothalamic-responses-to-insulin-to-adapt-to-elevated-maternal-insulin-secretion-during-pregnancy
#3
S R Ladyman, D R Grattan
As part of the adaptation of maternal glucose regulation during pregnancy to ensure glucose provision to the fetus, maternal insulin concentrations become elevated. However, increased central actions of insulin, such as suppression of appetite, would be maladaptive during pregnancy. We hypothesized that central nervous system targets of insulin become less responsive during pregnancy to prevent overstimulation by the increased circulating insulin concentrations. To test this hypothesis, we have measured insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt) in specific hypothalamic nuclei as an index of hypothalamic insulin responsiveness...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028909/the-systematic-analysis-of-ultraconserved-genomic-regions-in-the-budding-yeast
#4
Zhi-Kai Yang, Feng Gao
Motivation: In the evolution of species, a kind of special sequences, termed ultraconserved sequences (UCSs), have been inherited without any change, which strongly suggests those sequences should be crucial for the species to survive or adapt to the environment. However, the UCSs are still regarded as mysterious genetic sequences so far. Here, we present a systematic study of ultraconserved genomic regions in the budding yeast based on the publicly available genome sequences, in order to reveal their relationship with the adaptability or fitness advantages of the budding yeast...
September 27, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028886/analysis-of-protein-targets-in-pathogen-host-interaction-in-infectious-diseases-a-case-study-on-plasmodium-falciparum-and-homo-sapiens-interaction-network
#5
Sovan Saha, Kaustav Sengupta, Piyali Chatterjee, Subhadip Basu, Mita Nasipuri
Infection and disease progression is the outcome of protein interactions between pathogen and host. Pathogen, the role player of Infection, is becoming a severe threat to life as because of its adaptability toward drugs and evolutionary dynamism in nature. Identifying protein targets by analyzing protein interactions between host and pathogen is the key point. Proteins with higher degree and possessing some topologically significant graph theoretical measures are found to be drug targets. On the other hand, exceptional nodes may be involved in infection mechanism because of some pathway process and biologically unknown factors...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028410/development-of-an-inhibitor-screening-assay-for-mono-adp-ribosyl-hydrolyzing-macrodomains-using-alphascreen-technology
#6
Teemu Haikarainen, Mirko M Maksimainen, Ezeogo Obaji, Lari Lehtiö
Protein mono-ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification involved in the regulation of several cellular signaling pathways. Cellular ADP-ribosylation is regulated by ADP-ribose hydrolases via a hydrolysis of the protein-linked ADP-ribose. Most of the ADP-ribose hydrolases share a macrodomain fold. Macrodomains have been linked to several diseases, such as cancer, but their cellular roles are mostly unknown. Currently, there are no inhibitors available targeting the mono-ADP-ribose hydrolyzing macrodomains...
October 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028369/toll-like-receptors-significance-ligands-signaling-pathways-and-functions-in-mammals
#7
Mallenahally Kusha Vidya, V Girish Kumar, Veerasamy Sejian, Madiajagan Bagath, Govindan Krishnan, Raghavendra Bhatta
This review attempts to cover the implication of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) in controlling immune functions with emphasis on their significance, function, regulation and expression patterns. The tripartite TLRs are type I integral transmembrane receptors that are involved in recognition and conveying of pathogens to the immune system. These paralogs are located on cell surfaces or within endosomes. The TLRs are found to be functionally involved in the recognition of self and non-self-antigens, maturation of DCs and initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune responses as they bridge the innate and adaptive immunity...
October 13, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028206/grouped-gene-selection-of-cancer-via-adaptive-sparse-group-lasso-based-on-conditional-mutual-information
#8
Juntao Li, Wenpeng Dong, Deyuan Meng
This paper deals with the problems of cancer classification and grouped gene selection. The weighted gene co-expression network on cancer microarray data is employed to identify modules corresponding to biological pathways, based on which a strategy of dividing genes into groups is presented. Using the conditional mutual information within each divided group, an integrated criterion is proposed and the data-driven weights are constructed. They are shown with the ability to evaluate both the individual gene significance and the influence to improve correlation of all the other pairwise genes in each group...
October 11, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028178/zika-virus-immune-evasion-mechanisms-currently-available-therapeutic-regimens-and-vaccines
#9
Arun Asif, Sobia Manzoor, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, Muhammad Saalim, Maliha Ashraf, Javeria Ishtiyaq, Madiha Khalid
The sudden emergence of infectious pathogens such as Zika virus (ZIKV) holds global health concerns. Recent dissemination of ZIKV from Pacific to Americas with an upsurge of congenital anomalies and Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in adults has created an alarming situation. High-throughput studies are in progress to understand ZIKV's mode of pathogenesis and mechanism of immune escape, yet the pathogenesis remains obscure. Mainly ZIKV's envelope (E) protein and nonstructural proteins (mainly NS1 and NS5) manipulate host cell to support viral immune escape by modulation of the interferon pathway and complement antagonism...
October 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028112/the-role-of-declining-adaptive-homeostasis-in-ageing
#10
Laura C D Pomatto, Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive homeostasis is, 'the transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range for any given physiological parameter in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signalling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events (Davies, 2016a)." Adaptive homeostasis enables biological systems to make continuous short-term adjustments for optimal functioning despite ever-changing internal and external environments. Initiation of adaptation in response to an appropriate signal allows organisms to successfully cope with much greater, normally toxic, stresses...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027347/a-two-step-evolutionary-process-establishes-a-non-native-vitamin-b6-pathway-in-bacillus-subtilis
#11
Jonathan Rosenberg, KahYen C Yeak, Fabian M Commichau
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the most important form of vitamin B6 serves as a cofactor for many proteins. Two alternative pathways for de novo PLP biosynthesis are known: the short deoxy-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP)-independent pathway, which is present in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the longer DXP-dependent pathway, which has been intensively studied in the Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli. Previous studies revealed that bacteria contain many promiscuous enzymes causing a so-called "underground metabolism", which can be important for the evolution of novel pathways...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027228/high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-orchestrates-responses-to-tissue-damage-via-inflammation-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-and-tissue-repair
#12
REVIEW
Marco E Bianchi, Massimo P Crippa, Angelo A Manfredi, Rosanna Mezzapelle, Patrizia Rovere Querini, Emilie Venereau
A single protein, HMGB1, directs the triggering of inflammation, innate and adaptive immune responses, and tissue healing after damage. HMGB1 is the best characterized damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), proteins that are normally inside the cell but are released after cell death, and allow the immune system to distinguish between antigens that are dangerous or not. Notably, cells undergoing severe stress actively secrete HMGB1 via a dedicated secretion pathway: HMGB1 is relocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and then to secretory lysosomes or directly to the extracellular space...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027226/efferocytosis-of-dying-cells-differentially-modulate-immunological-outcomes-in-tumor-microenvironment
#13
REVIEW
Sushil Kumar, David Calianese, Raymond B Birge
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an integral part of tissue homeostasis in complex organisms, allowing for tissue turnover, repair, and renewal while simultaneously inhibiting the release of self antigens and danger signals from apoptotic cell-derived constituents that can result in immune activation, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Unlike cells in culture, the physiological fate of cells that die by apoptosis in vivo is their rapid recognition and engulfment by phagocytic cells (a process called efferocytosis)...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027032/cocaine-increases-dopaminergic-connectivity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#14
Marc Dos Santos, Emma N Cahill, Gregory Dal Bo, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Bruno Giros, Nicolas Heck
The development of addictive behavior is associated with functional and structural plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Increased connectivity upon cocaine administration has been inferred from increases in dendritic spine density, but without observations of presynaptic elements. Recently, we established a method that enables analyses of both dendritic spines and glutamatergic boutons and presented evidence that cocaine induces changes in striatal connectivity. As the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cocaine directly implicate dopaminergic neurons and their afferents, a remaining question is whether dopaminergic striatal innervations also undergo structural plasticity...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026980/evolution-of-the-androgen-induced-male-phenotype
#15
REVIEW
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Barney A Schlinger
The masculine reproductive phenotype varies significantly across vertebrates. As a result, biologists have long recognized that many of the mechanisms that support these phenotypes-particularly the androgenic system-is evolutionarily labile, and thus susceptible to the effects of selection for different traits. However, exactly how androgenic signaling systems vary in a way which results in dramatically different functional outputs, remain largely unclear. We explore this topic here by outlining four key-but non-mutually exclusive-hypotheses that propose how the mechanisms of androgenic signaling might change over time to potentiate the emergence of phenotypical variation in masculine behavior and physiology...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026117/involvement-of-the-accumbal-osteopontin-interacting-transmembrane-protein-168-in-methamphetamine-induced-place-preference-and-hyperlocomotion-in-mice
#16
Kequan Fu, Yoshiaki Miyamoto, Kazuya Otake, Kazuyuki Sumi, Eriko Saika, Shohei Matsumura, Naoki Sato, Yuka Ueno, Seunghee Seo, Kyosuke Uno, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Atsumi Nitta
Chronic exposure to methamphetamine causes adaptive changes in brain, which underlie dependence symptoms. We have found that the transmembrane protein 168 (TMEM168) is overexpressed in the nucleus accumbens of mice upon repeated methamphetamine administration. Here, we firstly demonstrate the inhibitory effect of TMEM168 on methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes in mice, and attempt to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition. We overexpressed TMEM168 in the nucleus accumbens of mice by using an adeno-associated virus vector (NAc-TMEM mice)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025916/a-predictive-model-for-time-to-flowering-in-the-common-bean-based-on-qtl-and-environmental-variables
#17
Mehul S Bhakta, Salvador A Gezan, Jose A Clavijo Michelangeli, Melissa Carvalho, Li Zhang, James W Jones, Kenneth J Boote, Melanie J Correll, James Beaver, Juan M Osorno, Raphael Colbert, Idupulapati Rao, Stephen Beebe, Abiezer Goanzalez, Jaumer Ricaurte, C Eduardo Vallejos
The common bean is a tropical facultative short day legume that is now grown in tropical and temperate zones. This observation underscores how domestication and modern breeding can change the adaptive phenology of a species. A key adaptive trait is the optimal timing of the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. This trait is responsive to genetically controlled signal transduction pathways and local climatic cues. A comprehensive characterization of this trait can be started by assessing the quantitative contribution of the genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions...
October 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025294/the-role-of-the-ipsilesional-side-in-the-rehabilitation-of-post-stroke-subjects
#18
Augusta Silva, Andreia S P Sousa, Cláudia Costa Silva, Rubim Santos, João Manuel R S Tavares, Filipa Sousa
Most stroke lesions occur in the middle cerebral artery territory, presenting a high probability of damage of pathways with predominant ipsilesional disposition, mainly related to postural control. Despite the high probability of bilateral postural control dysfunction based on neuroanatomical fundaments, both research and clinical rehabilitation involving stroke subjects have been focused on contralesional side (also named affected side) impairments, while ipsilesional side (also named non-affected side) impairments have been attributed to an adaptive strategy...
October 12, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024335/fifty-shades-of-sumo-its-role-in-immunity-and-at-the-fulcrum-of-growth-defense-balance
#19
Vivek Verma, Fenella Crolley, Ari Sadanandom
The sessile nature of plants requires them to cope with an ever changing environment. Effective adaptive responses require sophisticated cellular mechanisms at post-transcriptional and -translational levels. Post-translational modification by Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) proteins is emerging as a key player in these adaptive responses. SUMO conjugation can rapidly change the overall fate of target proteins by altering their stability or interaction with partner proteins or DNA. SUMOylation entails an enzyme cascade that leads to the activation, conjugation and ligation of SUMO to lysine residues of target proteins...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023795/real-time-ecg-simulation-for-hybrid-mock-circulatory-loops
#20
Leonie Korn, Daniel Rüschen, Niklas Zander, Steffen Leonhardt, Marian Walter
Classically, mock circulatory loops only simulate mechanical properties of the circulation. To connect the hydraulic world with electrophysiology, we present a real-time electrical activity model of the heart and show how to integrate this model into a real-time mock loop simulation. The model incorporates a predefined conduction pathway and a simplified volume conductor to solve the bidomain equations and the forward problem of electrocardiography, resulting in a physiological simulation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) at arbitrary electrode positions...
October 12, 2017: Artificial Organs
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