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adaptive pathways

Udita Brahmachari, Zhanjun Guo, Sara E Konecny, Emmanuela N C Obi, Bridgette A Barry
Photosystem II oxidizes water at a Mn4 CaO5 cluster. Oxygen evolution is accompanied by proton release through a 35 Å hydrogen-bonding network to the lumen. The mechanism of this proton-transfer reaction is not known, but the reaction is dependent on chloride. Here, vibrational spectroscopy defines the functional properties of the proton-transfer network using chloride, bromide, and nitrate as perturbative agents. As assessed by peptide C═O frequencies, bromide substitution yields a spectral Stark shift because of its increase in ionic radius...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Sarah J Barfield, Galina V Aglyamova, Line K Bay, Mikhail V Matz
Reef-building corals can increase their resistance to heat-induced bleaching through adaptation and acclimatization and/or by associating with a more thermo-tolerant strain of algal symbiont (Symbiodinium sp.). Here, we show that these two adaptive pathways interact. We collected Acropora millepora corals from two contrasting thermal environments on the Great Barrier Reef: cooler, mid-latitude Orpheus Island, where all corals hosted a heat-sensitive clade C Symbiodinium, and warmer, low-latitude Wilkie Island, where corals hosted either a clade C or a more thermotolerant clade D...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Ádám Sturm, Éva Saskoi, Kovács Tibor, Nóra Weinhardt, Tibor Vellai
RNA interference (RNAi) technology used for the functional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans genes frequently leads to phenotypes with low penetrance or even proves completely ineffective. The methods previously developed to solve this problem were built on mutant genetic backgrounds, such as those defective for rrf-3, in which endogenous RNAi pathways are overexpressed. These mutations, however, interferes with many other genetic pathways so that the detected phenotype cannot always be clearly linked to the RNAi-exposed gene...
June 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yichi Zhang, Simon G English, Kenneth B Storey
Xenopus laevis, otherwise known as the African clawed frog, undergoes natural dehydration of up to 30% of its total body water during the dry season in sub-Saharan Africa. To survive under these conditions, a variety of physiological and biochemical changes take place in X. laevis. We were interested in understanding the role that the calcineurin-NFAT pathway plays during dehydration stress response in the skeletal muscles of X. laevis. Immunoblotting was performed to characterize the protein levels of NFATc1-4, calcium signalling proteins, in addition to myogenic proteins (MyoD, MyoG, myomaker)...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
A V Shalygin, M A Ryazantseva, L N Glushankova, K O Gusev, D O Kolesnikov, V A Vigont, A Yu Skopin, K V Skobeleva, E V Kaznacheeva
Store-operated channels activated in response to intracellular calcium store depletion represent the main pathway of calcium entry from the extracellular space in nonelectroexcitable cells. Adapter proteins organize the components of this system into integral complex. We studied the influence of adapter proteins of the Homer family on endogenous store-operated calcium Imin channels in A431 cells. Monomeric Homer 1a proteins increase activity of Imin channels, but did not modulate their electrophysiological properties...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Vusala Snyder, Tamika C Reed-Newman, Levi Arnold, Sufi Mary Thomas, Shrikant Anant
Malignant tumors contain heterogeneous populations of cells in various states of proliferation and differentiation. The presence of cancer stem or initiating cells is a well-established concept wherein quiescent and poorly differentiated cells within a tumor mass contribute to drug resistance, and under permissive conditions, are responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. A number of studies have identified molecular markers that are characteristic of tissue-specific cancer stem cells (CSCs). Isolation of CSCs has enabled studies on the metabolic status of CSCs...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Pierre Rosenbaum, Nicolas Tchitchek, Candie Joly, Lev Stimmer, Hakim Hocini, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Anne-Sophie Beignon, Catherine Chapon, Yves Levy, Roger Le Grand, Frédéric Martinon
New vaccine design approaches would be greatly facilitated by a better understanding of the early systemic changes, and those that occur at the site of injection, responsible for the installation of a durable and oriented protective response. We performed a detailed characterization of very early infection and host response events following the intradermal administration of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a live attenuated vaccine model in non-human primates. Integrated analysis of the data obtained from in vivo imaging, histology, flow cytometry, multiplex cytokine, and transcriptomic analysis using tools derived from systems biology, such as co-expression networks, showed a strong early local and systemic inflammatory response that peaked at 24 h, which was then progressively replaced by an adaptive response during the installation of the host response to the vaccine...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Matthew A Turk, Christina Z Chung, Emad Manni, Stephanie A Zukowski, Anish Engineer, Yasaman Badakhshi, Yumin Bi, Ilka U Heinemann
microRNA (miRNA) activity and regulation are of increasing interest as new therapeutic targets. Traditional approaches to assess miRNA levels in cells rely on RNA sequencing or quantitative PCR. While useful, these approaches are based on RNA extraction and cannot be applied in real-time to observe miRNA activity with single-cell resolution. We developed a green fluorescence protein (GFP)-based reporter system that allows for a direct, real-time readout of changes in miRNA activity in live cells. The miRNA activity reporter (MiRAR) consists of GFP fused to a 3′ untranslated region containing specific miRNA binding sites, resulting in miRNA activity-dependent GFP expression...
June 19, 2018: Genes
Shohreh Majd, John H T Power, Timothy K Chataway, Hugh J M Grantham
BACKGROUND: Cellular energy failure in high metabolic rate organs is one of the underlying causes for many disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathies, liver and renal failures. In the past decade, numerous studies have discovered the cellular axis of LKB1/AMPK/mTOR as an essential modulator of cell homeostasis in response to energy stress. Through regulating adaptive mechanisms, this axis adjusts the energy availability to its demand by a systematized control on metabolism...
June 19, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Asiel Yair Adan Sanchez, Elizabeth McMillan, Amit Bhaduri, Nancy Pehlivan, Katherine Monson, Paul Badcock, Katherine Thompson, Eoin Killackey, Andrew Chanen, Brian O'Donoghue
AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviours, sequelae and associated factors in young people attending a youth mental health service. METHODS: The study design was a cross-sectional survey of 103 young people aged between 15-25 years carried out across four specialist mental health clinics. A questionnaire on the sexual health of secondary level students was adapted for this study. Mental health symptomatology was assessed through the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)...
June 19, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Bing Chen, Martin E Feder, Le Kang
Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and their cognates are primary mitigators of cell stress. With increasingly severe impacts of climate change and other human modifications of the biosphere, the ability of the heat-shock system to affect evolutionary fitness in environments outside the laboratory and to evolve in response are topics of growing importance. Since the last major reviews, several advances have occurred. First, demonstrations of the heat-shock response outside the laboratory now include many additional taxa and environments...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Ruth Anne Eatock
During rapid locomotion, the vestibular inner ear provides head-motion signals that stabilize posture, gaze, and heading. Afferent nerve fibers from central (striolar) and peripheral (extrastriolar) zones of vestibular sensory epithelia use temporal and rate encoding, respectively, to emphasize different aspects of head motion: central- and striolar-zone afferents adapt faster to sustained head position and favor higher stimulus frequencies, reflecting specializations at each stage from motion of the accessory structure to spike propagation to the brain...
June 18, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Sang-Hyuck Park, John Kyndt, Kapeel Chougule, Jeong-Jin Park, Judith K Brown
Despite the capacity to accumulate ~70% w/w of lipids, commercially produced unicellular green alga A. protothecoides may become compromised due to the high cost of phosphate fertilizers. To address this limitation A. protothecoides was selected for adaptation to conditions of 100× and 5× lower phosphate and peptone, respectively, compared to 'wild-type media'. The A. protothecoides showed initial signs of adaptation by 45-50 days, and steady state growth at ~100 days. The low phosphate (P)-adapted strain produced up to ~30% greater biomass, while total lipids (~10% w/w) remained about the same, compared to the wild-type strain...
2018: PloS One
Robert M W Ferguson, Frédéric Coulon, Raffaella Villa
454-Pyrosequencing and lipid fingerprinting were used to link anaerobic digestion (AD) process parameters (pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas production and methane content) with the reactor microbial community structure and composition. AD microbial communities underwent stress conditions after changes in organic loading rate and digestion substrates. 454-Pyrosequencing analysis showed that, irrespectively of the substrate digested, methane content and pH were always significantly, and positively, correlated with community evenness...
June 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alyssa Huff, Trevor A Day, Mason English, Mitchell D Reed, Shaelynn Zouboules, Gurkarn Saran, Jack K Leacy, Carli Mann, Joel D B Peltonen, Ken D O'Halloran, Mingma T Sherpa, Teresa Pitts
Swallow and breathing are highly coordinated behaviors reliant on shared anatomical space and neural pathways. Incremental ascent to high altitudes results in hypoxia/hypocapnic conditions altering respiratory drive, however it is not known whether these changes also alter swallow. We examined the effect of incremental ascent (1,045 m, 3,440 m and 4,371 m) on swallow motor pattern and swallow-breathing coordination in seven healthy adults. Submental surface electromyograms (sEMG) and spirometry were used to evaluate swallow triggered by saliva and water infusion...
June 16, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Zhan Qi Wang, Xiulian Zhou, Lixiang Dong, Jiena Guo, Yueyue Chen, Yuyuan Zhang, Lifang Wu, Maojun Xu
Phosphate (Pi) deficiency significantly limits plant growth in natural and agricultural systems. Accumulation of anthocyanins in shoots is a common response of Arabidopsis thaliana to Pi deficiency. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying Pi deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation, we employed a proteomic approach based on isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to investigate protein expression profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings subjected to Pi deficiency for 7 days. In total, 5106 proteins were identified, of which 156 displayed significant changes in abundance upon Pi deficiency...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Karl W Barber, Chad J Miller, Jay W Jun, Hua Jane Lou, Benjamin E Turk, Jesse Rinehart
The human proteome encodes >500 protein kinases and hundreds of thousands of potential phosphorylation sites. However, the identification of kinase-substrate pairs remains an active area of research because the relationships between individual kinases and these phosphorylation sites remain largely unknown. Many techniques have been established to discover kinase substrates but are often technically challenging to perform. Moreover, these methods frequently rely on substrate reagent pools that do not reflect human protein sequences or are biased by human cell line protein expression profiles...
June 19, 2018: Biochemistry
James W Fielding, Emma J Hodson, Xiaotong Cheng, David J P Ferguson, Luise Eckardt, Julie Adam, Philomena Lip, Matthew Maton-Howarth, Indrika Ratnayaka, Christopher W Pugh, Keith J Buckler, Peter J Ratcliffe, Tammie Bishop
The carotid body is a peripheral chemoreceptor that plays a central role in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. In response to sustained hypoxia, it manifests rapid cellular proliferation and an associated increase in responsiveness to hypoxia. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes is of interest both to specialised chemoreceptive functions of that organ and potentially to the general physiology and pathophysiology of cellular hypoxia. We have combined cell lineage tracing technology and conditionally inactivated alleles in recombinant mice to examine the role of components of the HIF hydroxylase pathway in specific cell types within the carotid body...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Gianni Giorgi
OBJECTIVES: The increase in the average life expectancy entails elderly and chronic patients as hospital users, often dependents and requiring recurrent hospitalizations. In this framework, an innovative model of care management is essential to ensure appropriateness and sustainability of health services. METHODS: A highly specialized care-related prevention-treatment-rehabilitation approach in which pharmacological, surgical, physical and intellectual disability therapies coexist in a synergistic manner, is the answer to this new emerging need...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
David H Lloyd, Stephen W Page
While antimicrobial resistance is already a public health crisis in human medicine, therapeutic failure in veterinary medicine due to antimicrobial resistance remains relatively uncommon. However, there are many pathways by which antimicrobial resistance determinants can travel between animals and humans: by close contact, through the food chain, or indirectly via the environment. Antimicrobial stewardship describes measures that can help mitigate the public health crisis and preserve the effectiveness of available antimicrobial agents...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
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