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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230860/carma2sh-and-ulk2-control-pathogen-associated-molecular-patterns-recognition-in-human-keratinocytes-psoriasis-linked-carma2sh-mutants-escape-ulk2-censorship
#1
Ivan Scudiero, Pellegrino Mazzone, Luca E D'Andrea, Angela Ferravante, Tiziana Zotti, Gianluca Telesio, Gabriele De Rubis, Carla Reale, Maddalena Pizzulo, Shanmugakonar Muralitharan, Pasquale Vito, Romania Stilo
The molecular complexes formed by specific members of the family of CARMA proteins, the CARD domain-containing adapter molecule BCL10 and MALT1 (CBM complex) represent a central hub in regulating activation of the pleiotropic transcription factor NF-κB. Recently, missense mutations in CARMA2sh have been shown to cause psoriasis in a dominant manner and with high penetrancy. Here, we demonstrate that in human keratinocytes CARMA2sh plays an essential role in the signal transduction pathway that connects pathogen-associated molecular patterns recognition to NF-κB activation...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230773/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-tumor-expression-is-associated-with-a-better-prognosis-and-diabetic-disease-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients
#2
Gerardo Botti, Francesca Collina, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Federica Rao, Valentina Peluso, Rossella De Cecio, Michela Piezzo, Gabriella Landi, Michelino De Laurentiis, Monica Cantile, Maurizio Di Bonito
Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC) subtype is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. The only treatment available is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a trans-membrane protein expressed on a wide variety of cells including immune cells, epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Recently, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway signaling was described as an adaptive immune resistance mechanism enacted by the tumor cells to evade the immune response. Its presence on tumor cell membranes, acquired for this reason, through time, is an important prognostic value...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230282/ablation-of-cyclophilin-d-results-in-an-activation-of-fak-akt-and-erk-pathways-in-the-mouse-heart
#3
Jelena Klawitter, Tamas Seres, Alexander Pennington, Jonathan-Thomas Beatty, Jost Klawitter, Uwe Christians
Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a mitochondrial chaperone that regulates the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Metabolically, deletion of Ppif (the gene encoding CypD) in mice is associated with elevated levels of mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) that leads to increased glucose as relative to fatty acid oxidation. Here, we characterized the adaptive mechanisms involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism including the regulation of Akt and ERK kinases that we evaluated by Western blot analysis of Ppif-/-in comparison to wild type (WT) mouse hearts...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228761/innate-immune-activity-in-glomerular-podocytes
#4
REVIEW
Hong Xia, Wenduona Bao, Shaolin Shi
Glomerular podocytes are specialized in structure and play an essential role in glomerular filtration. In addition, podocyte stress can initiate glomerular damage by inducing the injury of other glomerular cell types. Studies have shown that podocytes possess the property of immune cells and may be involved in adaptive immunity. Emerging studies have also shown that podocytes possess signaling pathways of innate immune responses and that innate immune responses often result in podocyte injury. More recently, mitochondrial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs) have been shown to play a critical role in a variety of pathological processes in cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228720/motor-learning-abilities-are-similar-in-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy-compared-to-controls-as-assessed-by-adaptation-to-unilateral-leg-weighting-during-gait-part-i
#5
Diane L Damiano, Christopher J Stanley, Thomas C Bulea, Hyung Soon Park
Introduction: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) demonstrate high response variability to motor training insufficiently accounted for by age or severity. We propose here that differences in the inherent ability to learn new motor tasks may explain some of this variability. Damage to motor pathways involving the cerebellum, which may be a direct or indirect effect of the brain injury for many with CP, has been shown to adversely affect the ability to learn new motor tasks and may be a potential explanation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228478/an-engineered-tgf-%C3%AE-monomer-that-functions-as-a-dominant-negative-to-block-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#6
Sun Kyung Kim, Lindsey Barron, Cynthia S Hinck, Elyse M Petrunak, Kristin E Cano, Avinash Thangirala, Brian Iskra, Molly Brothers, Machell Vonberg, Belinda Leal, Blair Richter, Ravindra Kodali, Alex B Taylor, Shoucheng Du, Christopher O Barnes, Traian Sulea, Guillermo Calero, P John Hart, Matthew J Hart, Borries Demeler, Andrew P Hinck
The transforming growth factor beta isoforms, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3 are small secreted homodimeric signaling proteins with essential roles in regulating the adaptive immune system and maintaining the extracellular matrix. However, dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway is responsible for promoting the progression of several human diseases, including cancer and fibrosis. In spite of the known importance of TGF-βs in promoting disease progression, no inhibitors have been approved for use in humans. Herein, we describe an engineered TGF-β monomer, lacking the heel helix, a structural motif essential for binding the TGF-β type I receptor, TβRI, but dispensible for binding the other receptor required for TGF-β signaling, the TGF-β type II receptor, TβRII, as an alternative therapeutic modality for blocking TGF-β signaling in humans...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227847/a-compact-representation-for-the-auditory-full-range-response-and-its-fast-denoising-using-an-image-filter-based-on-the-radon-transform
#7
Manuel C Kohl, Daniel J Strauss, Manuel C Kohl, Daniel J Strauss, Daniel J Strauss, Manuel C Kohl
The Auditory Brainstem, Middle-Latency and Late Responses, a class of event-related potentials (ERPs), are of considerable interest in neuroscience research as robust neural correlates of different processing stages along the auditory pathway. While most research to date centers around one of the responses at a time for practical reasons, recent efforts indicate a paradigm shift towards acquiring them together, enabling the simultaneous monitoring of all auditory processing stages from the brainstem to the cortex...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226195/global-transcriptional-response-of-human-liver-cells-to-ethanol-stress-of-different-strength-reveals-hormetic-behavior
#8
Wolfgang Schmidt-Heck, Eva C Wönne, Thomas Hiller, Uwe Menzel, Dirk Koczan, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Fanny Knöspel, Nora Freyer, Reinhard Guthke, Steven Dooley, Katrin Zeilinger
BACKGROUND: The liver is the major site for alcohol metabolism in the body and therefore, the primary target organ for ethanol-induced toxicity. In this study, we investigated the in vitro response of human liver cells to different ethanol concentrations in a perfused bioartificial liver device that mimics the complex architecture of the natural organ. METHODS: Primary human liver cells were cultured in the bioartificial liver device and treated for 24 hours with medium containing 150 mM (low), 300 mM (medium) or 600 mM (high) ethanol, while a control culture was kept untreated...
February 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225753/complement-drives-glucosylceramide-accumulation-and-tissue-inflammation-in-gaucher-disease
#9
Manoj K Pandey, Thomas A Burrow, Reena Rani, Lisa J Martin, David Witte, Kenneth D Setchell, Mary A Mckay, Albert F Magnusen, Wujuan Zhang, Benjamin Liou, Jörg Köhl, Gregory A Grabowski
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in GBA1, which encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 mutations drive extensive accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC) in multiple innate and adaptive immune cells in the spleen, liver, lung and bone marrow, often leading to chronic inflammation. The mechanisms that connect excess GC to tissue inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that activation of complement C5a and C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) controls GC accumulation and the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical Gaucher disease...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224334/the-trpm4-channel-is-functionally-important-for-the-beneficial-cardiac-remodeling-induced-by-endurance-training
#10
Mélanie Gueffier, Justin Zintz, Karen Lambert, Amanda Finan, Franck Aimond, Nourdine Chakouri, Christophe Hédon, Mathieu Granier, Pierre Launay, Jérôme Thireau, Sylvain Richard, Marie Demion
Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is an adaptive process that exists in two distinct forms and allows the heart to adequately respond to an organism's needs. The first form of CH is physiological, adaptive and reversible. The second is pathological, irreversible and associated with fibrosis and cardiomyocyte death. CH involves multiple molecular mechanisms that are still not completely defined but it is now accepted that physiological CH is associated more with the PI3-K/Akt pathway while the main signaling cascade activated in pathological CH involves the Calcineurin-NFAT pathway...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224277/energy-metabolism-during-endurance-flight-and-the-post-flight-recovery-phase
#11
REVIEW
Susanne Jenni-Eiermann
Migrating birds are known to fly non-stop for thousands of kilometres without food or water intake and at a high metabolic rate thereby relying on energy stores which were built up preceding a flight bout. Hence, from a physiological point of view the metabolism of a migrant has to switch between an active fasting phase during flight and a fuelling phase during stopover. To meet the energetic and water requirements of endurance flight, migratory birds have to store an optimal fuel composition and they have to be able to quickly mobilize and deliver sufficient energy to the working flight muscles...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223384/tolerance-to-caspofungin-in-candida-albicans-is-associated-with-at-least-three-distinctive-mechanisms-that-govern-expression-of-fks-genes-and-cell-wall-remodeling
#12
Feng Yang, Lulu Zhang, Hironao Wakabayashi, Jason Myers, Yuanying Jiang, Yongbing Cao, Cristina Jimenez-Ortigosa, David S Perlin, Elena Rustchenko
Expanding echinocandin use to prevent or treat invasive fungal infections has led to an increase in the number of breakthrough infections due to resistant Candida species. Although uncommon, echinocandin resistance is well documented for Candida albicans, which is among the most prevalent bloodstream organisms. A better understanding is needed to assess the cellular factors that promote tolerance and predispose infecting cells for clinical breakthrough. We have previously showed that some mutants adapted to growth in the presence of toxic sorbose due to loss of one chromosome 5 (Ch5) also became more tolerant to caspofungin...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223351/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-proteome-analysis-of-hiv-1-infected-human-cd4-t-cells
#13
Johannes Nemeth, Valentina Vongrad, Karin J Metzner, Victoria Strouvelle, Rainer Weber, Patrick Pedrioli, Ruedi Aebersold, Huldrych Guenthard, Ben C Collins
Host directed therapies against HIV-1 are thought to be critical for long term containment of the HIV-1 pandemic but remain elusive. Since HIV-1 infects and manipulates important effectors of both the innate and adaptive immune system, identifying modulations of the host cell systems in humans during HIV-1 infection may be crucial for the development of immune based therapies. Here, we quantified the changes of the proteome in human CD4+ T cells upon HIV-1 infection, both in vitro and in vivo. A SWATH-MS approach was used to measure the proteome of human primary CD4+ T cells infected with HIV-1 in vitro as well as CD4+ T cells from HIV-1 infected patients with paired samples on and off antiretroviral treatment...
February 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223316/energy-metabolism-drives-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-differentiation-and-functions-in-pathology
#14
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Laura Strauss
Over the last decade, a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with major regulatory functions has been described in cancer and other pathologic conditions and ultimately defined as MDSCs. Most of the early work on the origins and functions of MDSCs has been in murine and human tumor bearers in which MDSCs are known to be immunosuppressive and to result in both reduced immune surveillance and antitumor cytotoxicity. More recent studies, however, suggest that expansion of these immature myeloid cells may be linked to most, if not all, chronic and acute inflammatory processes...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223135/cell-physiology-regulation-by-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-targeting-oxygen-related-nanomachineries-of-hypoxic-cells
#15
REVIEW
Morteza Eskandani, Somayeh Vandghanooni, Jaleh Barar, Hossein Nazemiyeh, Yadollah Omidi
Any dysfunctionality in maintaining the oxygen homeostasis by mammalian cells may elicit hypoxia/anoxia, which results in inescapable oxidative stress and possible subsequent detrimental impacts on certain cells/tissues with high demands to oxygen molecules. The ischemic damage in turn can trigger initiation of a number of diseases including organs ischemia, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, different types of malignancies, and alteration in wound healing process. Thus, full comprehension of molecular mechanism(s) and cellular physiology of the oxygen homeostasis is the cornerstone of the mammalian cells metabolism, energetic pathways and health and disease conditions...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222393/caffeine-prevents-changes-in-muscle-caused-by-high-intensity-interval-training
#16
Juliano M Vieira, Jessié M Gutierres, Fabiano B Carvalho, Luciane B Pereira, Liziele S Oliveira, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Marília V Rodrigues, Jossiele Leitemperger, Vânia Loro, Cristina C Krewer, Marina S Vencato, Roselia M Spanevello
The use of ergogenic substances such as caffeine has become a strategy to enhance sports performance. In the present study we evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) associated with caffeine intake on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Ca(2+)ATPase activity and glycogen levels in the muscles of rats were evaluated. The animals were divided in groups: control, caffeine 4 or 8mg/kg, HIIT, HIIT plus caffeine 4 or caffeine 8mg/kg. Our results showed a decrease in glycogen levels in muscle in all trained groups after acute session exercise, while that an increase in glycogen levels was observed in all groups in relation to control in chronic exercise protocol...
February 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222087/repetitive-negative-thinking-the-link-between-caregiver-burden-and-depressive-symptoms
#17
Amanda Mitchell, Patrick Pössel
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore whether repetitive negative thinking (RNT) mediates the pathway between subscales of caregiver burden and depressive symptoms. 
. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study. 
. SETTING: Bone marrow unit at the University of Louisville Hospital in Kentucky and caregiver support organizations in Louisville.
. SAMPLE: 49 current cancer caregivers who were primarily spouses or partners of individuals with lymphoma or leukemia and provided care for a median of 30 hours each week for 12 months...
March 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221171/pathogenesis-of-severe-pneumonia-advances-and-knowledge-gaps
#18
Joseph P Mizgerd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumonia is a common disease that becomes severe in a subset of patients, dependent on host biology including mechanisms of immune resistance and tissue resilience. This review emphasizes discoveries in pneumonia biology from 2016, highlighting questions and directions that are especially pressing or newly emerging. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel cell-cell interactions mediating innate immune responses against microbes in the lung have been elucidated, between distinct leukocyte subtypes as well as between leukocytes and the structural cells of the lung...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220501/chronic-alcohol-feeding-potentiates-hormone-induced-calcium-signalling-in-hepatocytes
#19
Paula J Bartlett, Anil Noronha Antony, Amit Agarwal, Mauricette Hilly, Victoria L Prince, Laurent Combettes, Jan B Hoek, Lawrence D Gaspers
"Adaptive" responses of the liver to chronic alcohol consumption may underlie the development of cell and tissue injury. Alcohol administration can perturb multiple signalling pathways including phosphoinositide-dependent cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) increases, which can adversely affect mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels, reactive oxygen species production and energy metabolism. Our data indicate that chronic alcohol feeding induces a leftward shift in the dose-response for Ca(2+) -mobilizing hormones resulting in more sustained and prolonged [Ca(2+) ]i increases in both cultured hepatocytes and hepatocytes within the intact perfused liver...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220138/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-phomopsis-liquidambari-provides-insights-into-genes-associated-with-different-lifestyles-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#20
Jun Zhou, Xin Li, Yan Chen, Chuan-Chao Dai
The mechanisms that trigger the switch from endophytic fungi to saprophytic fungi are largely unexplored. Broad host range Phomopsis liquidambari is established in endophytic and saprophytic systems with rice (Oryza sativa L.). Endophytic P. liquidambari promotes rice growth, increasing rice yield and improving the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. This species's saprophytic counterpart can decompose rice litterfall, promoting litter organic matter cycling and the release of nutrients and improving the soil microbial environment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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