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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637576/antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-in-australia-aura-surveillance-system-coordinating-national-data-on-antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-for-australia
#1
John D Turnidge, Kathy T Meleady
Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the process of establishment and coordination of the national Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system.Methods Existing surveillance programs conducted by health organisations at state or multi-jurisdictional levels were reviewed, and gaps and opportunities identified for the development of a national system. In view of the time frame available as part of the Australian Government Department of Health funding agreement, the strategy used by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care was to commence work with existing surveillance programs, expanding and enhancing them and developing new systems where gaps were identified...
June 22, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637486/a-guide-to-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework-of-behaviour-change-to-investigate-implementation-problems
#2
Lou Atkins, Jill Francis, Rafat Islam, Denise O'Connor, Andrea Patey, Noah Ivers, Robbie Foy, Eilidh M Duncan, Heather Colquhoun, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Rebecca Lawton, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Implementing new practices requires changes in the behaviour of relevant actors, and this is facilitated by understanding of the determinants of current and desired behaviours. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed by a collaboration of behavioural scientists and implementation researchers who identified theories relevant to implementation and grouped constructs from these theories into domains. The collaboration aimed to provide a comprehensive, theory-informed approach to identify determinants of behaviour...
June 21, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633647/meeting-the-oral-health-needs-of-12-year-olds-in-china-human-resources-for-oral-health
#3
Xiangyu Sun, Eduardo Bernabé, Xuenan Liu, Shuguo Zheng, Jennifer E Gallagher
BACKGROUND: An appropriate level of human resources for oral health [HROH] is required to meet the oral health needs of population, and enable maximum improvement in health outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the required HROH to meet the oral health needs of the World Health Organization [WHO] reference group of 12-year-olds in China and consider the implications for education, practice, policy and HROH nationally. METHODS: We estimated the need of HROH to meet the needs of 12-year-olds based on secondary analysis of the epidemiological and questionnaire data from the 3rd Chinese National Oral Health Survey, including caries experience and periodontal factors (calculus), dentally-related behaviour (frequency of toothbrushing and sugar intake), and social factors (parental education)...
June 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633358/phylogeography-of-herbarium-specimens-of-asexually-propagated-paper-mulberry-broussonetia-papyrifera-l-l-h%C3%A3-r-ex-vent-moraceae-reveals-genetic-diversity-across-the-pacific
#4
Claudia Payacan, Ximena Moncada, Gloria Rojas, Andrew Clarke, Kuo-Fang Chung, Robin Allaby, Daniela Seelenfreund, Andrea Seelenfreund
Background and Aims: Paper mulberry or Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. (Moraceae) is a dioecious species native to continental South-east Asia and East Asia, including Taiwan, that was introduced to the Pacific by pre-historic voyagers and transported intentionally and propagated asexually across the full range of Austronesian expansion from Taiwan to East Polynesia. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dispersal of paper mulberry into Oceania through the genetic analysis of herbaria samples which represent a more complete coverage of the historical geographical range of the species in the Pacific before later introductions and local extinctions occurred...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632591/acetabular-retroversion-but-not-increased-acetabular-depth-or-coverage-in-slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis-a-matched-cohort-study
#5
Tobias Hesper, Sarah D Bixby, Young-Jo Kim, Yi-Meng Yen, Garrett Bowen, Patricia Miller, Michael B Millis, Eduardo N Novais
BACKGROUND: Femoral head overcoverage by a deep and retroverted acetabulum has been postulated as a mechanical factor in slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). We assessed acetabular depth, coverage, and version in the hips of patients with unilateral SCFE; in the contralateral, uninvolved hips; and in healthy control hips. METHODS: Thirty-six patients affected by unilateral SCFE were matched to 36 controls on the basis of sex and age. The acetabular depth-width ratio (ADR), the lateral center-edge angle (LCEA), the anterior and posterior acetabular sector angle (ASA), and version (10 mm distal to the highest point of the acetabular dome and at the level of the femoral head center) were assessed on computed tomography (CT)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630595/qsar-models-of-human-data-can-enrich-or-replace-llna-testing-for-human-skin-sensitization
#6
Vinicius M Alves, Stephen J Capuzzi, Eugene Muratov, Rodolpho C Braga, Thomas Thornton, Denis Fourches, Judy Strickland, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Carolina H Andrade, Alexander Tropsha
Skin sensitization is a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Although many chemicals have been evaluated in humans, there have been no efforts to model these data to date. We have compiled, curated, analyzed, and compared the available human and LLNA data. Using these data, we have developed reliable computational models and applied them for virtual screening of chemical libraries to identify putative skin sensitizers. The overall concordance between murine LLNA and human skin sensitization responses for a set of 135 unique chemicals was low (R = 28-43%), although several chemical classes had high concordance...
December 21, 2016: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629463/how-understanding-and-application-of-drug-related-legal-instruments-affects-harm-reduction-interventions-in-cambodia-a-qualitative-study
#7
Sovannary Tuot, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Sochenda Sou, Ghazal Sawez, Phylicia Morgan, Mony Srey, Tola Chan, Pheak Chhoun, Olga Golichenko, Sok Chamreun Choub, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction interventions in Cambodia face numerous obstacles because of conflicting understanding and interests and inconsistencies in the implementation by law enforcement officials. This study aims to examine how understanding and application of Drug Control Law (DCL) and Village/Commune Safety Policy (VCSP) affects harm reduction interventions in Cambodia from the standpoints of law enforcement officials, people who inject drugs and people who use drugs (PWID/PWUD), as well as other key stakeholders...
June 19, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623146/an-update-of-the-global-burden-of-pertussis-in-children-younger-than-5-years-a-modelling-study
#8
Karene Hoi Ting Yeung, Philippe Duclos, E Anthony S Nelson, Raymond Christiaan W Hutubessy
BACKGROUND: Since the publication in 2003 of a model to estimate the disease burden of pertussis, new evidence of the protective effect of incomplete pertussis vaccination against severe pertussis has been reported. We revised the model to provide new estimates of regional and global pertussis cases and deaths for children younger than 5 years. METHODS: We developed a revised model with data from 2014 to estimate pertussis cases and deaths. Pertussis cases were defined according to the WHO clinical case definition, as a coughing illness lasting at least 2 weeks with paroxysms of coughing, inspiratory whooping, or post-tussive vomiting...
June 13, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619124/multiplex-tests-to-identify-gastrointestinal-bacteria-viruses-and-parasites-in-people-with-suspected-infectious-gastroenteritis-a-systematic-review-and-economic-analysis
#9
Karoline Freeman, Hema Mistry, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Pam Royle, Noel McCarthy, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Rohini Manuel, James Mason
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a common, transient disorder usually caused by infection and characterised by the acute onset of diarrhoea. Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify common bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens using molecular testing. By providing test results more rapidly than conventional testing methods, GPP tests might positively influence the treatment and management of patients presenting in hospital or in the community. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence for GPP tests [xTAG(®) (Luminex, Toronto, ON, Canada), FilmArray (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and Faecal Pathogens B (AusDiagnostics, Beaconsfield, NSW, Australia)] and to develop a de novo economic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of GPP tests with conventional testing in England and Wales...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618868/appropriate-use-criteria-for-hyaluronic-acid-in-the-treatment-of-knee-osteoarthritis-in-the-united-states
#10
Arup K Bhadra, Roy Altman, Vinod Dasa, Karen Myrick, Jeffrey Rosen, Vijay Vad, Peter Vitanzo, Michelle Bruno, Hillary Kleiner, Caryn Just
OBJECTIVE: A workgroup of clinical experts has developed an Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The increasingly broad and varied use of HA injections, lack of published clinical guidance, and limited coverage for their use has created the imperative to establish appropriateness criteria. METHODS: The experts of this workgroup represent rheumatology, orthopedic surgery, physiatry, sports medicine, and nursing clinicians with substantive knowledge of intra-articular HA therapy...
July 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617175/operator-models-for-delivering-municipal-solid-waste-management-services-in-developing-countries-part-a-the-evidence-base
#11
David C Wilson, Jennifer Bangirana Kanjogera, Reka Soós, Cosmin Briciu, Stephen R Smith, Andrew D Whiteman, Sandra Spies, Barbara Oelz
This article presents the evidence base for 'operator models' - that is, how to deliver a sustainable service through the interaction of the 'client', 'revenue collector' and 'operator' functions - for municipal solid waste management in emerging and developing countries. The companion article addresses a selection of locally appropriate operator models. The evidence shows that no 'standard' operator model is effective in all developing countries and circumstances. Each city uses a mix of different operator models; 134 cases showed on average 2...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615990/the-challenges-and-opportunities-of-translating-best-practice-immunisation-strategies-among-low-performing-general-practices-to-reduce-equity-gaps-in-childhood-immunisation-coverage-in-new-zealand
#12
Nikki M Turner, Nadia A Charania, Angela Chong, Joanna Stewart, Lynn Taylor
BACKGROUND: Immunisation coverage rates vary considerably at the local level across New Zealand and challenges remain with effectively translating best available research evidence into public health practice. This study aimed to translate best practices from high performing general practices into strategies to improve childhood immunisation coverage among low performing practices. METHODS: An intervention study was undertaken of general practices with low immunisation coverage rates and a high percentage of the enrolled population being of Māori ethnicity...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607675/improving-coverage-measurement-for-reproductive-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-gaps-and-opportunities
#13
Melinda K Munos, Cynthia K Stanton, Jennifer Bryce
BACKGROUND: Regular monitoring of coverage for reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health (RMNCH) is central to assessing progress toward health goals. The objectives of this review were to describe the current state of coverage measurement for RMNCH, assess the extent to which current approaches to coverage measurement cover the spectrum of RMNCH interventions, and prioritize interventions for a novel approach to coverage measurement linking household surveys with provider assessments...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607668/future-perspectives-on-nonmedical-prescribing
#14
REVIEW
Derek Stewart, Tesnime Jebara, Scott Cunningham, Ahmed Awaisu, Abdulrouf Pallivalapila, Katie MacLure
Many countries have implemented nonmedical prescribing (NMP) and many others are scoping prescribing practices with a view to developing NMP. This paper provides a future perspective on NMP in light of findings of an umbrella review of aspects of NMP. This is followed by coverage of the Scottish Government strategy of pharmacist prescribing and finally, consideration of two key challenges. The review identified seven systematic reviews of influences on prescribing decision-making, processes of prescribing, and barriers and facilitators to implementation...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599055/delivered-adipose-derived-stromal-cells-improve-host-derived-adipose-tissue-formation-in-composite-constructs-in-vivo
#15
Katharina Storck, Reyk Fischer, Maria Buchberger, Bernhard Haller, Sybille Regn
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Adipose tissue engineering aims to provide functional tissue surrogates for the restoration of soft tissue defects and contour deformities in the face. Many studies involve the delivery of cells; however, the impact and the exact role of the implanted cells is not yet fully elucidated. STUDY DESIGN: Animal research. METHODS: In this study, we used a mouse model for the development of volume-stable adipose tissue using polyurethane scaffolds combined with a long-term stable fibrin gel and adipose-derived stromal cells to investigate the influence of cell delivery on tissue development...
June 9, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592273/research-on-subgroups-is-not-research-on-equity-attributes-evidence-from-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews-on-vaccination
#16
REVIEW
Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Meike-Kathrin Zuske, Christian Auer
BACKGROUND: Equity remains a priority in the international health development agenda. However, major inequities in vaccination coverage jeopardise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. We aim at comprehensively describing how research has addressed equity issues related to vaccination. METHODS: We carried out an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) that explicitly explored the effects of interventions to improve vaccination in any context; for any vaccine and, in any language...
June 7, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588989/accelerating-progress-towards-universal-health-coverage-in-asia-and-pacific-improving-the-future-for-women-and-children
#17
Allison Beattie, Robert Yates, Douglas J Noble
Universal health coverage generates significant health and economic benefits and enables governments to reduce inequity. Where universal health coverage has been implemented well, it can contribute to nation-building. This analysis reviews evidence from Asia and Pacific drawing out determinants of successful systems and barriers to progress with a focus on women and children. Access to healthcare is important for women and children and contributes to early childhood development. Universal health coverage is a political process from the start, and public financing is critical and directly related to more equitable health systems...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579708/field-based-evidence-of-single-and-few-doses-of-annual-ivermectin-treatment-efficacy-in-eliminating-skin-microfilaria-load-after-a-decade-of-intervention
#18
Hudu O Osue
BACKGROUND: Impact assessment of community-based ivermectin treatment control of onchocerciasis is required to determine its effectiveness. This study was conducted to evaluate geographic coverage and demographic ivermectin treatment compliance. METHODS: The number of village dosage were obtained from the community based distributors. Bioclinical data of participants comprising gender, age, number of treatment received from inception and dosage were obtained. Each participant was subjected to physical examination for palpable nodule and other skin clinical signs and symptoms of onchocerciasis...
March 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575102/development-of-indicators-for-monitoring-community-based-rehabilitation
#19
Catherine Mason, Joerg Weber, Seryan Atasoy, Carla Sabariego, Alarcos Cieza
BACKGROUND: Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is a multi-sectoral approach working to equalize opportunities and include people with disability in all aspects of community life. Reliable and internationally comparable data needed to monitor and evaluate CBR are scarce, partially due to the absence of standardized indicators. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the collaborative development process which led to the World Health Organization's (WHO) recently launched set of standardized CBR outcome indicators...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558261/regulating-urban-surface-runoff-through-nature-based-solutions-an-assessment-at-the-micro-scale
#20
Teresa Zölch, Lisa Henze, Patrick Keilholz, Stephan Pauleit
Urban development leads to changes of surface cover that disrupt the hydrological cycle in cities. In particular, impermeable surfaces and the removal of vegetation reduce the ability to intercept, store and infiltrate rainwater. Consequently, the volume of stormwater runoff and the risk of local flooding rises. This is further amplified by the anticipated effects of climate change leading to an increased frequency and intensity of heavy rain events. Hence, urban adaptation strategies are required to mitigate those impacts...
August 2017: Environmental Research
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