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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332113/the-critical-power-concept-applications-to-sports-performance-with-a-focus-on-intermittent-high-intensity-exercise
#1
REVIEW
Andrew M Jones, Anni Vanhatalo
The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330959/predominantly-myalgic-phenotype-caused-by-the-c-3466g-a-p-a1156t-mutation-in-scn4a-gene
#2
Johanna Palmio, Satu Sandell, Michael G Hanna, Roope Männikkö, Sini Penttilä, Bjarne Udd
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical phenotype in patients with p.A1156T sodium channel mutation. METHODS: Twenty-nine Finnish patients identified with the c.3466G>A p.A1156T mutation in the SCN4A gene were extensively examined. In a subsequent study, 63 patients with similar myalgic phenotype and with negative results in myotonic dystrophy type 2 genetic screening (DM2-neg group) and 93 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were screened for the mutation. Functional consequences of the p...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302456/association-between-modified-shuttle-walk-test-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-overweight-obese-adults-with-primary-hypertension-exerdiet-hta-study
#3
Borja Jurio-Iriarte, Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga, G Rodrigo Aispuru, Javier Pérez-Asenjo, Peter H Brubaker, Sara Maldonado-Martín
The aims of the study were to evaluate the relationship between Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) with peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) in overweight/obese people with primary hypertension (HTN) and to develop an equation for the MSWT to predict V˙O2peak. Participants (N = 256, 53.9 ± 8.1 years old) with HTN and overweight/obesity performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test to peak exertion on an upright bicycle ergometer using an incremental ramp protocol and the 15-level MSWT. The formula of Singh et al was used as a template to predict V˙O2peak, and a new equation was generated from the measured V˙O2peak-MSWT relationship in this investigation...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293100/adenosine-a2a-receptor-agonist-prevents-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-male-rats-after-myocardial-infarction
#4
Jaqueline S da Silva, Daniele Gabriel-Costa, Roberto T Sudo, Hao Wang, Leanne Groban, Emanuele B Ferraz, José Hamilton M Nascimento, Carlos Alberto M Fraga, Eliezer J Barreiro, Gisele Zapata-Sudo
BACKGROUND: This work evaluated the hypothesis that 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone (LASSBio-294), an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, could be beneficial for preventing cardiac dysfunction due to hypertension associated with myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into four groups (six animals per group): sham-operation (SHR-Sham), and myocardial infarction rats (SHR-MI) were treated orally either with vehicle or LASSBio-294 (10 and 20 mg...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292861/assessment-of-diffuse-ventricular-myocardial-fibrosis-using-native-t1-in-children-with-repaired-tetralogy-of-fallot
#5
Deane Yim, Eugenie Riesenkampff, Pablo Caro-Dominguez, Shi-Joon Yoo, Mike Seed, Lars Grosse-Wortmann
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is linked with adverse clinical outcomes in adults after tetralogy of Fallot repair (rTOF). Native T1 times (T1) by cardiac magnetic resonance have been shown to be a surrogate marker of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The objective was to quantify native T1 in children post-rTOF and to evaluate their relationship with surgical, imaging, and clinical factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Midventricular native T1 were obtained in 100 children post-rTOF using a modified look-locker inversion recovery cardiac magnetic resonance sequence and compared with 35 pediatric controls...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284391/neuromuscular-manifestations-in-mitochondrial-diseases-in-children
#6
Andrés Nascimento, Carlos Ortez, Cristina Jou, Mar O'Callaghan, Federico Ramos, Àngels Garcia-Cazorla
Mitochondrial diseases exhibit significant clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that are the major contributor of adenosine triphosphate, through oxidative phosphorylation. These disorders may be developed at any age, with isolated or multiple system involvement, and in any pattern of inheritance. Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle and peripheral nerves, causing exercise intolerance, cramps, recurrent myoglobinuria, or fixed weakness, which often affects extraocular muscles and results in droopy eyelids (ptosis), progressive external ophthalmoplegia, peripheral ataxia, and peripheral polyneuropathy...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279569/lifetime-exercise-intolerance-with-lactic-acidosis-as-key-manifestation-of-novel-compound-heterozygous-acad9-mutations-causing-complex-i-deficiency
#7
Bertold Schrank, Benedikt Schoser, Thomas Klopstock, Peter Schneiderat, Rita Horvath, Angela Abicht, Elke Holinski-Feder, Sarunas Augustis
We report a 36-year-old female having lifetime exercise intolerance and lactic acidosis with nausea associated with novel compound heterozygous Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 gene (ACAD9) mutations (p.Ala390Thr and p.Arg518Cys). ACAD9 is an assembly factor for the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. ACAD9 mutations are recognized as frequent causes of complex I deficiency. Our patient presented with exercise intolerance, rapid fatigue, and nausea since early childhood. Mild physical workload provoked the occurrence of nausea and vomiting repeatedly...
February 14, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275353/advances-in-the-evaluation-of-respiratory-pathophysiology-during-exercise-in-chronic-lung-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Denis E O'Donnell, Amany F Elbehairy, Danilo C Berton, Nicolle J Domnik, J Alberto Neder
Dyspnea and exercise limitation are among the most common symptoms experienced by patients with various chronic lung diseases and are linked to poor quality of life. Our understanding of the source and nature of perceived respiratory discomfort and exercise intolerance in chronic lung diseases has increased substantially in recent years. These new mechanistic insights are the primary focus of the current review. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides a unique opportunity to objectively evaluate the ability of the respiratory system to respond to imposed incremental physiological stress...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275174/physiological-and-clinical-relevance-of-exercise-ventilatory-efficiency-in-copd
#9
REVIEW
J Alberto Neder, Danilo C Berton, Flavio F Arbex, Maria Clara Alencar, Alcides Rocha, Priscila A Sperandio, Paolo Palange, Denis E O'Donnell
Exercise ventilation (V'E) relative to carbon dioxide output (V'CO2 ) is particularly relevant to patients limited by the respiratory system, e.g. those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). High V'E-V'CO2 (poor ventilatory efficiency) has been found to be a key physiological abnormality in symptomatic patients with largely preserved forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Establishing an association between high V'E-V'CO2 and exertional dyspnoea in mild COPD provides evidence that exercise intolerance is not a mere consequence of detraining...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274927/endothelial-dysfunction-correlates-with-exaggerated-exercise-pressor-response-during-whole-body-maximal-exercise-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Ryan M Downey, Peizhou Liao, Erin C Millson, Arshed A Quyyumi, Salman Sher, Jeanie Park
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have exercise intolerance associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies demonstrate that blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nerve responses to handgrip exercise are exaggerated in CKD. These patients also have decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction which could potentially lead to an impaired ability to vasodilate during exercise. We hypothesized that CKD patients have exaggerated BP responses during maximal whole body exercise and that endothelial dysfunction correlates with greater exercise pressor responses in these patients...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266825/cardiovascular-disease-update-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Johnathan D McDivitt, Craig Barstow
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a spectrum disorder with multiple causes of the elevation of pressure in the lungs. It often is difficult to diagnose because it mimics many commonly reported symptoms (eg, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, chest pain). Diagnosis is made via right heart catheterization; however, transthoracic echocardiography may show evidence of elevated pulmonary pressure as the first clue to the diagnosis. Diagnostic tests to consider include a liver panel, complete blood count, and thyroid function test; electrocardiogram; chest x-ray; pulmonary function testing; and possibly lung imaging via computed tomography scan or ventilation-perfusion scan...
March 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262570/peripheral-muscle-abnormalities-in-cystic-fibrosis-etiology-clinical-implications-and-response-to-therapeutic-interventions
#12
Mathieu Gruet, Thierry Troosters, Samuel Verges
Peripheral muscle dysfunction is an important systemic consequence of cystic fibrosis (CF) with major clinical implications, such as exercise intolerance and reduced quality of life. Evidence is now accumulating that lack of physical activity is unlikely to be the sole explanation for peripheral muscle dysfunction of patients with CF. Particularly, the demonstration of CFTR expression in both murine and human skeletal muscle suggests the potential implication of intrinsic CF-related factors. By combining data from both human and animal models, this review describes CF peripheral muscle abnormalities and critically reviews the advances in understanding the impact of the underlying mechanisms...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262206/chronotropic-incompetence-and-its-relation-to-exercise-intolerance-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
Hai-Jian Liu, Jian Guo, Qin-Hua Zhao, Lan Wang, Wen-Lan Yang, Jing He, Su-Gang Gong, Jin-Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: To study the relationship between chronotropic incompetence (CI) and disease severity and to assess the effect of CI on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Arterial blood gas analysis, pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were conducted in 60 patients with stable COPD and 45 healthy volunteers. CI was defined using the chronotropic response index (CRI = (peak heart rate-resting heart rate) / (220-age-resting heart rate)...
March 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255866/heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-skeletal-muscle-physiology
#14
REVIEW
Stephen D Farris, Farid Moussavi-Harami, April Stempien-Otero
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for half of all heart failure in the USA, increases in prevalence with aging, and has no effective therapies. Intriguingly, the pathophysiology of HFpEF has many commonalities with the aged cardiovascular system including reductions in diastolic compliance, chronotropic defects, increased resistance in the peripheral vasculature, and poor energy substrate utilization. Decreased exercise capacity is a cardinal symptom of HFpEF. However, its severity is often out of proportion to changes in cardiac output...
March 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255088/oral-n-acetylcysteine-and-exercise-tolerance-in-mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
Daniel M Hirai, Joshua H Jones, Joel T Zelt, Marianne L da Silva, Robert F Bentley, Brittany Ann Edgett, Brendon James Gurd, Michael E Tschakovsky, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
Heightened oxidative stress is implicated in the progressive impairment of skeletal muscle vascular and mitochondrial function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether accumulation of reactive oxygen species contribute to exercise intolerance in the early stages of COPD is unknown. We examined the effects of oral antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on respiratory, cardiovascular and locomotor muscle function and exercise tolerance in patients with mild COPD. Thirteen patients with forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) < lower limit of normal (LLN) and FEV1 ≥ LLN were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized crossover study to receive NAC (1800 mg/day) or placebo for 4 days...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240427/mitral-systolic-velocity-at-peak-exercise-predicts-impaired-exercise-capacity-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#16
Kenji Masada, Takayuki Hidaka, Yu Harada, Mirai Kinoshita, Kiho Itakura, Akifumi Higashi, Hiroto Utsunomiya, Yasuki Kihara
BACKGROUND: Nearly half of patients with heart failure have normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), but their prognosis is no better than those with reduced LVEF. Although peak oxygen consumption (VO2 ) is an independent predictor of mortality in heart failure, it is unclear how cardiac function during exercise contributes to peak VO2 . Therefore, we explored the useful parameters measured by exercise stress echocardiography to predict peak VO2 in patients with heart failure with preserved LVEF (HFpEF)...
February 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236163/comparison-of-patients-undergoing-surgical-versus-transcatheter-pulmonary-valve-replacement-criteria-for-referral-and-mid-term-outcome
#17
Jenny E Zablah, Nilanjana Misra, Dorota Gruber, Dipak Kholwadwala, Shilpi Epstein
Pulmonary regurgitation and/or stenosis (PS) is challenging in patients with congenital heart defects. Our aim was to identify if criteria for referral were different between surgical (SPVR) and transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) populations, and to further assess if any baseline differences influence the resultant ventricular remodeling at medium-term follow-up. Retrospective chart review of patients post-SPVR or TPVR at our center from 2013 to 2015 was conducted. Volumetric data from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), 1 year before and 1 year after PVR was obtained...
March 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235857/combined-long-term-caffeine-intake-and-exercise-inhibits-the-development-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-oletf-rats
#18
Masato Suzuki, Daisuke Shindo, Ryuichiro Suzuki, Yoshiaki Shirataki, Hidefumi Waki
This study was performed to examine the effects of long-term caffeine-intake, with and without exercise, on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in an obese diabetic rat model. Thirty-two male Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were assigned to sedentary (OLETF-Sed), exercise (OLETF-Ex), caffeine-intake (OLETF-Caf), and combined (OLETF-Caf & Ex) groups. Caffeine-intake groups were fed rat chow containing caffeine (90.7 ± 4.7 mg/kg/day). The OLETF-Ex and OLETF-Caf & Ex groups were able to run voluntarily at any time using a rotatory wheel...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225292/-the-importance-of-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-the-ventilation-ve-vco2-slope-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#19
Filip Dosbaba, Petra Žurková, Ladislav Baťalík, Hana Dosbaba, Marián Felšőci, Robert Vysoký, Jindřich Špinar, Ondřej Ludka
Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) is accompanied by a whole range of symptoms, which significantly decrease the quality of life; these typically concern dyspnoea, fatigue and exercise intolerance. The objectification of the patients condition but must have an effective means of evaluation. One such resource is cardiopolmonary exercise (CPX) testing with it is functional parameters. CPX test with its functional parameters is one of such means. VO2peak is undoubtebly the parameter, which was used the most often in the past 25 years, however, it has many limitations...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220526/balloon-valvuloplasty-of-tricuspid-stenosis-a-retrospective-study-of-5-labrador-retriever-dogs
#20
G A Lake-Bakaar, L G Griffiths, M D Kittleson
BACKGROUND: There are limited reports of severe tricuspid valve stenosis in dogs and limited data regarding treatment and outcome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical signs, echocardiographic features, and outcome of balloon valvuloplasty (BV) in dogs with severe tricuspid valve stenosis (TVS) in which BV was attempted. ANIMALS: Five client-owned dogs with severe TVS. METHODS: Records were retrospectively reviewed and data collected regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic findings, procedures, and outcome...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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