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elimination disorders

Sanni Kumar, Ena Gupta, Sanket Kaushik, Anupam Jyoti
Neutrophils are the forerunner in innate immunity by defending the host organisms against infectious pathogens. During such process, neutrophils reach the site of inflammation/infection and eliminate the pathogens by phagocytosis as well as by forming the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs trap and eradicate a number of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses. NETs consist of DNA which is decorated with histones and granular proteins such as neutrophil elastase (NE), gelatinase, myeloperoxidase...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
N Morchiladze, B Tkeshelashvili, T Gagua, D Gagua
The isolated hypothyroxinemia of pregnancy (IHP) has gained specific attention in the specialized literature during the recent years as the possible factor impeding the intellectual development of fetus and increasing the risk of complications related with pregnancy, delivery and perinatal period. Aim of the study was to define the importance of isolated hypothyroxinemia in the development of obstetric and somatic pathologies in outpatient population of pregnant females. The study of prospective design was performed at the base of "David Gagua Clinic" Ltd...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Alina Kułakowska, Joanna Tarasiuk, Katarzyna Kapica-Topczewska, Monika Chorąży, Robert Pogorzelski, Agnieszka Kulczyńska-Przybik, Barbara Mroczko, Robert Bucki
BACKGROUND: The extracellular actin scavenging system (EASS) is composed of plasma Gc-globulin and gelsolin, and is responsible for the elimination of toxic actin from the bloodstream. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we assessed the actin-free Gc-globulin concentrations in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from subjects with neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in a control group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we measured the actinfree Gc-globulin concentrations in blood plasma and CSF obtained from subjects diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 20), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (n = 12), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 42), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) (n = 12), and from a control group (n = 20)...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Ronak Rengarajan, Peter A McCullough, Anima Chowdhury, Kristen M Tecson
Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare lipid disorder posing significant clinical burdens on patients. Due to its rarity, variety of presentations, and lack of universal diagnostic criteria, patients see an average of five physicians before diagnosis. We screened adults for a triglyceride level ≥1000 mg/dL from September 2015 to September 2016 and a history of pancreatitis and performed a thorough chart review on those who met the criteria. An adjudication panel used a definition that also called for supportive information including history of hypertriglyceridemia or family history of pancreatitis/hypertriglyceridemia...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
David A Diamond, Jonathan Swartz, Amy Tishelman, Judith Johnson, Yee-Ming Chan
INTRODUCTION: A central ethical dilemma in management of the patient with a disorder of sex development (DSD) is the potential conflict between respect for the fundamental right of the child for physical and emotional integrity and self-determination, and the right of parents to serve as surrogate decision-makers and act in their child's best interest. METHODS: Over the past 2 years we have encountered three complex DSD cases on the spectrum of mixed gonadal dysgenesis to ovotesticular DSD in which gender assignment and therefore optimal surgical management was uncertain...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Kristin M Leiferman, Margot S Peters
Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells that infiltrate skin and mucous membrane in a broad spectrum of primary and reactive inflammatory diseases and malignancies. The eosinophil has potent proinflammatory activities, particularly, through the effects of its toxic granule proteins. In addition, eosinophils have prothrombotic and profibrotic activities. Eosinophil participation in the pathogenesis of certain diseases without identifiable intact eosinophil infiltration may not be recognized because eosinophil degranulation is poorly visualized on hematoxylin-and-eosin stained histopathology sections...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Stella Baliou, Maria Adamaki, Anthony M Kyriakopoulos, Demetrios A Spandidos, Michalis Panagiotidis, Ioannis Christodoulou, Vassilis Zoumpourlis
One of the fundamental discoveries in the field of biology is the ability to modulate the genome and to monitor the functional outputs derived from genomic alterations. In order to unravel new therapeutic options, scientists had initially focused on inducing genetic alterations in primary cells, in established cancer cell lines and mouse models using either RNA interference or cDNA overexpression or various programmable nucleases [zinc finger nucleases (ZNF), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)]...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Gargi Saran, Deepak Umapathy, Neeta Misra, Shivakumar Ganiga Channaiah, Priya Singh, Saurabh Srivastava, Sahana Shivakumar
Background: : Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a most prevalent potentially malignant disorder associated with betel quid chewing frequently observed in the Indian population. The present study conducted is much of a keen interest because there is much new information, both in the press and the medical literature, about the benefits of fresh fruits and vegetables and antioxidants (such as lycopene and curcumin) for both prevention and treatment of diseases. As clinicians, we often prescribe medications with significant adverse effects, and certainly, if armed with evidence to support using such antioxidants as safer therapeutic alternatives for treatment of OSMF...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Allie J Widman, Amy E Stewart, Elise M Erb, Elizabeth Gardner, Lori L McMahon
In the past 20 years, ketamine has become a promising treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) due to its rapid and sustain antidepressant effects in patients. A single ketamine treatment causes improvement in depressive symptoms within hours and can last weeks, long after it is eliminated. Previous studies have demonstrated increased synaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses in hippocampus (HPC) 24 h post ketamine treatment suggesting increased activity-dependent hippocampal function may underlie the antidepressant effects of ketamine...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Damodar Gullipalli, Fengkui Zhang, Sayaka Sato, Yoshiyasu Ueda, Yuko Kimura, Madhu Golla, Takashi Miwa, Jianxiang Wang, Wen-Chao Song
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a serious blood disorder characterized by dysregulated complement activation on blood cells. Eculizumab, the current standard therapy and a humanized anti-C5 mAb, relieves anemia and thrombosis symptoms of PNH patients by preventing complement-dependent intravascular hemolysis (IVH). However, up to 20% of PNH patients on long-term eculizumab treatment still suffer from significant anemia and are transfusion dependent because of extravascular hemolysis (EVH) of C3-opsonized PNH erythrocytes...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Ahmad Salimi, Jalal Pourahmad
Recent discoveries have focused on mitochondria functions in the neuroscience research for approaches to study mitochondria dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrion is one of the organelles that is possibly worst affected in cognitive impairments. These are known as "powerhouse" of the cell as they are the main source of generation of ATP through aerobic respiration. They have role in oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism, they play central role in cell differentiation, apoptosis, oxygen sensing and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, innate immunity, mitochondrial matrix calcium, and maintenance of cell quality and regulation of cytoplasmic...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yixin Zhang, Cong Du, Wei Wang, Wen Chen, Ping Shao, Chongdan Wang, Junhong Leng, Jun Shen, Long Tan, Wanqi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal TSH screening is effective in detecting congenital hypothyroidism and estimating iodine status in a given population, but various factors influence TSH levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal and neonatal factors on neonatal TSH levels. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data were obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study. A total of 988 pregnant women and their newborn infants participated in the study from April 2015 to May 2017 at Tianjin Maternal and Child Health Center and Tanggu Maternity Hospital in Tianjin, China...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Zhifang Wang, Mingluan Xing, Wenming Zhu, Guangming Mao, Zhe Mo, Yuanyang Wang, Zhijian Chen, Xiaoming Lou, Shichang Xia, Xiaofeng Wang
Zhejiang introduced universal salt iodization (USI) programme in 1995 and has achieved the goal of elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) since 2011. However, no systematical data of iodine nutritional status in population in pregnancy is available. In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women were interviewed to complete questionnaires in addition to handing in samples of urine and household table salt between March 2016 to February 2017. Date of birth, age of pregnancy, ethnicity and dietary iodine habits were recorded...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Min-Jing Lee, Miao-Chun Chou, Wen-Jiun Chou, Chien-Wei Huang, Ho-Chang Kuo, Sheng-Yu Lee, Liang-Jen Wang
Background: Heavy metals are known to be harmful for neurodevelopment and they may correlate to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we aim to explore the relationships between multiple heavy metals (manganese, lead, cadmium, mercury, antimony, and bismuth), neurocognitive function, and ADHD symptoms. Methods: We recruited 29 patients with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I), 47 patients with ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity type (ADHD-H/I), and 46 healthy control children. Urine samples were obtained to measure the levels of the aforementioned heavy metals in each child...
June 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Bharat Singh Negi, Sunil Kumar Joshi, Minato Nakazawa, Tomohiro Kotaki, Anup Bastola, Masanori Kameoka
INTRODUCTION: The April 2015 Nepal earthquake resulted in more than 8,700 deaths and 22,000 casualties including damage to health facilities. The impact of this situation on chronic conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) may become a long-lasting public health threat. Therefore, the objectives of this study were i) to assess the association of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence with mental health problems, and social behaviors, ii) to examine factors affecting treatment failure, and iii) to investigate changes in ART adherence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people living with HIV 6 and 12 months after the disaster...
2018: PloS One
Hideyori Sengyoku, Tomoshi Tsuchiya, Tomohiro Obata, Ryoichiro Doi, Yasumasa Hashimoto, Mitsutoshi Ishii, Hiromi Sakai, Naoto Matsuo, Daisuke Taniguchi, Takashi Suematsu, Murray Lawn, Keitaro Matsumoto, Takuro Miyazaki, Takeshi Nagayasu
Lung transplantation is the last option for the treatment of end stage chronic lung disorders. Because the shortage of donor lung organs represents the main hurdle, lung regeneration has been considered to overcome this hurdle. Recellularization of decellularized organ scaffold is a promising option for organ regeneration. Although detergents are ordinarily used for decellularization, other approaches are possible. Here we used high alkaline (pH12) sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-PBS solution without detergents for lung decellularization and compared the efficacy on DNA elimination and ECM preservation with detergent based decellularization solutions CHAPS and SDS...
June 11, 2018: Organogenesis
Zijian Li, Yue You, Noreen Griffin, Juan Feng, Fengping Shan
Naltrexone, a non-selective antagonist of opioid receptors, is mainly used as rehabilitation therapy for discharged opiate addicts to eliminate addiction in order to maintain a normal life and prevent or reduce relapse. In recent years, there have been some novel and significant findings on the off-label usage of naltrexone. Within a specific dosage window, LDN can act as an immunomodulator in multiple autoimmune diseases and malignant tumors as well as alleviate the symptoms of some mental disorders. The results of increasing studies indicate that LDN exerts its immunoregulatory activity by binding to opioid receptors in or on immune cells and tumor cells...
June 6, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Alan T Nurden
Patients with the inherited bleeding disorder Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) possess platelets that lack αIIbβ3 integrin and fail to aggregate, and have moderate to severe mucocutaneous bleeding. Many become refractory to platelet transfusions due to the formation of isoantibodies to αIIbβ3 with the rapid elimination of donor platelets and/or a block of function. Epitope characterization has shown isoantibodies to be polyclonal and to recognize different epitopes on the integrin with β3 a major site and αvβ3 on endothelial and vascular cells a newly recognized target...
May 23, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Pavle Jovanov, Milan Vraneš, Marijana Sakač, Slobodan Gadžurić, Jovana Panić, Aleksandar Marić, Sergej Ostojić
The biosynthesis of creatine (Cr) is closely related to the bioavailability of guanidinoacetate (GAA). The lack of one or the other may compromise their role in the energy transport and cell signaling. A reliable estimate of their levels in biological samples is imperative since they are important markers of many metabolic disorders. Therefore, a new LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination and quantification of GAA and Cr by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was developed based on the hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and response surface methodology (RSM) for the optimization of chromatographic parameters...
October 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Lingyu Zhang, Tiantian Zhang, Lin Ding, Jie Xu, Changhu Xue, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Yaoguang Chang, Yuming Wang
SCOPE: Cerebroside is an active component extracted from sea cucumber (SCC), which is a traditional tonic food in China. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of SCC on atherogenesis and determined the possible underlying mechanism. METHOD AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J obese mice were firstly used to explore the impact of SCC at different doses on alleviating lipid disorders and insulin sensitivity. Then ApoE-/- mice were used to evaluate the protective activities of SCC on atherosclerosis...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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