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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103778/the-role-of-the-world-health-organization-in-eliminating-iodine-deficiency-worldwide
#1
Paulina Karwowska, Joao Breda
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency has been one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world, causing many health disorders, particularly in pregnant women and children. Despite increased salt iodization in some countries and regions, the process has lacked global coordination and sustainability, two prerequisites for reaching the aim of eliminating iodine deficiency. This goal can be reached only by evidence-based, effectively monitored joint and committed actions of all countries...
January 18, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102118/myeloid-cells-in-asthma
#2
Bart N Lambrecht, Emma K Persson, Hamida Hammad
Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, and not surprisingly, many myeloid cells play a crucial role in pathogenesis. Antigen-presenting dendritic cells are the first to recognize the allergens, pollutants, and viruses that are implicated in asthma pathogenesis, and subsequently initiate the adaptive immune response by migrating to lymph nodes. Eosinophils are the hallmark of type 2 inflammation, releasing toxic compounds in the airways and contributing to airway remodeling. Mast cells and basophils control both the early- and late-phase allergic response and contribute to alterations in smooth muscle reactivity...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097735/autoimmune-enteropathy-and-hepatitis-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipient
#3
Kimberly Lewis, Ryan Butts, J Antonio Quiros, Michelle Hudspeth, Katherine Twombley, Andrew Savage, Sally Self, Ali Burnette, Shaoli Sun
AIE is a rare disorder in children that presents with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, caused by immune-mediated damage to intestinal mucosa. AIE is often associated with various syndromes of immunodeficiency including IPEX syndrome (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, X-linked). Dysfunctional T regulatory cells are the source of pathology in both IPEX syndrome and AIE as they are essential in maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and eliminating autoreactive B cells. This case report describes a 10-year-old cardiac transplant and total thymectomy patient on chronic immunosuppression with tacrolimus that presented with AIE and extraintestinal manifestations of cyclical hepatitis...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095356/a-systems-pharmacology-perspective-to-decipher-the-mechanism-of-action-of-parangichakkai-chooranam-a-siddha-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#4
Sudharsana Sundarrajan, Mohanapriya Arumugam
Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing immune mediated disorder of the skin. The disease presents itself with well featured clinical and histological characteristics however the aetiology of the disease still remains obscure. The current systemic therapies aim to eliminate the symptoms of disease rather than offering a complete cure. Parangichakkai chooranam (PC), a Siddha oral herbal formulation has been widely prescribed for the treatment of psoriasis. Though the medication is highly prescribed by the Siddha healers the mechanism of PC for the treatment of psoriasis remains to be elucidated...
January 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092709/the-centrality-of-philosophical-anthropology-to-a-future-environmental-ethics
#5
Arran Gare
While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092273/in-vivo-testing-of-extracorporeal-membrane-ventilators-ila-activve%C3%A2-vs-prototype-i-lung%C3%A2
#6
Sabine Kischkel, Stefan Bergt, Beate Brock, Johan von Grönheim, Anne Herbst, Marc-Jonas Epping, Georg Matheis, Esther Novosel, Joerg Schneider, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski, Jan P Roesner, Peter I Lelkes, Brigitte Vollmar
A side-by-side comparison of the decarboxylation efficacy of two pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal lung assist devices, i.e. a first prototype of the new miniaturized ambulatory extracorporeal membrane ventilator, I-lung® versus the commercial system iLA-activve® over a period of 72 hours in a large animal model.Fifteen German Landrace pigs were anesthetized and underwent mechanical hypoventilation to induce severe hypercapnia. Decarboxylation was accomplished by either the I-lung® or the iLA-activve® via a double lumen catheter in the jugular vein...
January 4, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#7
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079265/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-in-hematologic-malignancies
#8
Brandon R Shank, Bryan Do, Adrienne Sevin, Sheree E Chen, Sattva S Neelapu, Sandra B Horowitz
Patients with B cell hematologic malignancies who progress through first or second line chemotherapy have a poor prognosis. Early clinical trials with autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have demonstrated promising results for patients who have relapsed or refractory disease. Lymphodepleting conditioning regimens including cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, pentostatin, bendamustine, interleukin-2, and total body irradiation are often administered prior to infusion of CAR T cells, allowing for greater T cell expansion...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059446/elimination-of-pain-improves-specificity-of-clinical-diagnostic-criteria-for-adult-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#9
Scott D Hirsch, Evan R Reiter, Laurence J DiNardo, Wen Wan, Theodore A Schuman
OBJECTIVE: Determine whether the elimination of pain improves accuracy of clinical diagnostic criteria for adult chronic rhinosinusitis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: History, symptoms, nasal endoscopy, and computed tomography (CT) results were analyzed for 1,186 adults referred to an academic otolaryngology clinic with presumptive diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. Clinical diagnosis was rendered using the 1997 Rhinosinusitis Taskforce (RSTF) Guidelines and a modified version eliminating facial pain, ear pain, dental pain, and headache...
January 6, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058428/incorporation-of-aspirin-modulates-the-dynamical-and-phase-behavior-of-the-phospholipid-membrane
#10
V K Sharma, E Mamontov, M Ohl, M Tyagi
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most widely used medications in the world for their analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory actions, despite a well-known incidence of a wide spectrum of their adverse effects. To a great extent, beneficial action and side effects of NSAIDs are associated with the interaction of these drugs at the cell membrane level. Here, we use neutron scattering to combine elastic intensity scans, quasielastic and neutron spin echo (NSE) measurements to understand the effect of aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, on the dynamical and phase behavior of the membrane of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), a prominent representative of phospholipids residing in the outer leaflet of the human erythrocyte membrane...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055126/neuromodulation-therapies-for-alcohol-addiction-a-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Celeste A Azevedo, Antonios Mammis
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review is to explore alternative neurological therapies in the treatment of alcohol use disorder; including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation (DBS), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and the off-label use of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through EBSCOhost regarding the neurological therapies in the treatment of alcoholism discussed in this paper...
January 5, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045949/influence-of-volatile-anesthesia-on-the-release-of-glutamate-and-other-amino-acids-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-a-rat-model-of-alcohol-withdrawal-a-pilot-study
#12
Thomas Seidemann, Claudia Spies, Rudolf Morgenstern, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Nicolai Netzhammer
BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition, which can occur when patients with alcohol use disorders undergo general anesthesia. Excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate, act as neurotransmitters and are known to play a key role in alcohol withdrawal syndrome. To understand this process better, we investigated the influence of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane anesthesia on the profile of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of alcohol-withdrawn rats (AWR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042525/gambling-disorder-in-the-dsm-5-opportunities-to-improve-diagnosis-and-treatment-especially-in-substance-use-and-homeless-populations
#13
Carla J Rash, Nancy M Petry
In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder (GD) underwent several changes. This paper reviews recent research related to the revisions, including the elimination of the illegal acts criterion and the newly lowered diagnostic threshold. These studies suggest the removal of the illegal acts criterion has little impact in terms of prevalence or loss of diagnostic status among gamblers, especially when considered in combination with the newly lowered diagnostic threshold...
September 2016: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039536/cardiolipin-in-central-nervous-system-physiology-and-pathology
#14
REVIEW
Caitlin B Pointer, Andis Klegeris
Cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid found primarily in the inner mitochondrial membrane, has many well-defined roles within the peripheral tissues, including the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane fluidity and the regulation of mitochondrial functions. Within the central nervous system (CNS), cardiolipin is found within both neuronal and non-neuronal glial cells, where it regulates metabolic processes, supports mitochondrial functions, and promotes brain cell viability. Furthermore, cardiolipin has been shown to act as an elimination signal and participate in programmed cell death by apoptosis of both neurons and glia...
December 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039160/%C3%A2-potential-roles-of-enteric-glia-in-bridging-neuro-immune-communication-in-the-gut
#15
Aaron K Chow, Brian David Gulbransen
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia that controls ongoing gastrointestinal (GI) functions. Damage or injury to the ENS can lead to functional GI disorders. Current data support the conclusion that many functional GI disorders are caused by an imbalance between gut microbes and the immune system but how the ENS is involved in these interactions is less understood. Due to the proximity of the ENS to bacteria and other foreign antigens present in the GI tract, it is important to prevent the passage of these antigens through the GI epithelium...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039080/risk-factors-for-and-the-clinical-impact-of-cytomegalovirus-and-epstein-barr-virus-infections-in-pediatric-recipients-of-tcr-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-cd19-depleted-grafts
#16
Alexandra Laberko, Anna Bogoyavlenskaya, Larisa Shelikhova, Zhanna Shekhovtsova, Dmitriy Balashov, Kirill Voronin, Elena Kurnikova, Elena Boyakova, Elena Raykina, Varvara Brilliantova, Valentina Pirumova, Galina Novichkova, Alexei Maschan, Michael Maschan
Both α/β T cell and CD19 depletion are used to improve the outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We evaluated the burden of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in pediatric patients after this HSCT type. A cohort of 182 patients with malignant (n = 114) or nonmalignant (n = 68) disorders was transplanted from either matched unrelated (n = 124) or haploidentical (n = 58) donors. The cumulative incidence of CMV and EBV viremia were 51% and 33%, respectively...
December 27, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038426/oxidized-epigallocatechin-gallate-inhibited-lysozyme-fibrillation-more-strongly-than-the-native-form
#17
Ting-Ting An, Shuang Feng, Cheng-Ming Zeng
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant flavanoid in green tea, is currently being evaluated in the clinic due to its benefits in the treatment of amyloid disorders. Its anti-amyloidogenic effect has been attributed to direct interaction of the intact molecule with misfolded polypeptides. In addition, antioxidant activity is also involved in the anti-amyloidogenic role. The detailed molecular mechanism is still unclear and requires further investigation. In the present study, the kinetics of EGCG oxidation and the anti-amyloidogenic effect of the resultant oxidation substances have been examined...
December 21, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029165/efficiency-of-endothelial-dysfunctioncorrection-in-children-residents-of-radioactively-contaminated-areas-using-the-method-of-intermittent-normobaric-hypoxi-therapy
#18
Ye I Stepanova, V Ya Berezovsky, I Ye Kolpakov, V H Kondrashova, V Yu Vdovenko, O M Lytvynets, L M Lisukha, V M Zyhalo, V I Kolos, L P Mishchenko
: Objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of intermittent normobaric hypoxi therapy as the means that can posi tively influence on the different links in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in children residents of radioactively contaminated areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Disorders of personal and emotional sphere, symptoms of asthenic vegetative and neurot ic character, the signs of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, abdominal and dyspeptic syndromes are attrib uted to the clinical signs of endothelial dysfunction...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029137/adequacy-assessment-of-a-universal-salt-iodization-program-two-decades-after-its-implementation-a-national-cross-sectional-study-of-iodine-status-among-school-age-children-in-tunisia
#19
Radhouene Doggui, Myriam El Ati-Hellal, Pierre Traissac, Lilia Lahmar, Jalila El Ati
In the framework of a worldwide policy to eliminate iodine deficiency (ID) disorders, universal salt iodization was adopted in Tunisia two decades ago. The present study aims to evaluate this strategy, using both performance and impact indicators. A total of 1560 children, aged 6-12 years, were randomly sampled using a national, two-stage, stratified, cross-sectional cluster survey in 2012. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the subjects, and household salt iodine content, were analyzed. The national median UIC was 220 µg/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 199-241), indicating an acceptable iodine status at the population level...
December 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025327/fmrp-dependent-mdm2-dephosphorylation-is-required-for-mef2-induced-synapse-elimination
#20
Nien-Pei Tsai, Julia R Wilkerson, Weirui Guo, Kimberly M Huber
The Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors suppress an excitatory synapse number by promoting degradation of the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), a process that is deficient in the mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome, Fmr1 KO. How MEF2 activation results in PSD-95 degradation and why this is defective in Fmr1 KO neurons is unknown. Here we report that MEF2 induces a Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated dephosphorylation of murine double minute-2 (Mdm2), the ubiquitin E3 ligase for PSD-95, which results in nuclear export and synaptic accumulation of Mdm2 as well as PSD-95 degradation and synapse elimination...
December 26, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
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