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plastic pupil

Anne Bergt, Anne E Urai, Tobias H Donner, Lars Schwabe
At any time, we are processing thousands of stimuli, but only few of them will be remembered hours or days later. Is there any way to predict which ones? Here, we tested whether the pupil response to ongoing stimuli, an indicator of physiological arousal known to be relevant for memory formation, is a reliable predictor of long-term memory for these stimuli, over at least one day. Pupil dilation was tracked while participants performed visual and auditory encoding tasks. Memory was tested immediately after encoding and 24 hours later...
June 4, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Paola Binda, Claudia Lunghi
Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception...
2017: Neural Plasticity
Jin Xu, Xiao-Ming Deng, Ling-Xin Wei, Dong Yang, Ju-Hui Liu, Juan Zhi, Ya-Nan Li
Objective To observe the effects of two different intranasal dexmedetomidine doses as premedication on the EC50 of sevoflurane for successful laryngeal mask airway placement in children. Methods Children aged 3-6 years, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1, and scheduled for plastic surgery were enrolled in this study. Children were assigned to receive either spray administration of intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg (group D1, n=21) or 2 μg/kg (group D2, n=20) approximately 30 minutes before anesthesia...
December 20, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
A Reiner, T T Wong, C C Nazor, N Del Mar, M E C Fitzgerald
The medial part of the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EWM) in birds mediates light-regulated adaptive increases in choroidal blood flow (ChBF). We sought to characterize the effect of loss of EWM-mediated ChBF regulation on photoreceptor health in pigeons housed in either moderate intensity diurnal or constant light (CL). Photoreceptor abundance following complete EWM destruction was compared to that following a lesion in the pupil control circuit (as a control for spread of EWM lesions to the nearby pupil-controlling lateral EW) or following no EW damage...
January 2016: Visual Neuroscience
Babar Sultan, Dane J Genther, Stephen W Perkins
Importance: Transcutaneous lower eyelid blepharoplasty is a commonly performed procedure with a postoperative risk of eyelid malposition. Objective: To quantify the change in lower eyelid position after transcutaneous lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective medical record review describes patients who underwent transcutaneous blepharoplasty at a private facial plastic surgery practice. Patients with less than 3 months of follow-up, a history of periocular trauma, and concurrent midface lift were excluded...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Kunal R Sinha, Daniel B Rootman, Babak Azizzadeh, Robert A Goldberg
IMPORTANCE: Understanding the prevalence and clinical features of eyelid malpositions in facial nerve palsy (FNP) may inform proper management of patients with FNP and supplement our knowledge of eyelid physiology. OBJECTIVE: To describe eyelid malposition in FNP. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with FNP seen at the Center for Advanced Facial Plastic Surgery and Jules Stein Eye Institute between January 1, 1999, and June 1, 2014, were reviewed for study inclusion...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Alex Christoff
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Certified orthoptists are routinely required, as a standard component of outpatient care, to examine and identify the cause of double vision described by neuro-ophthalmology and oculo-plastics patients. Peer-reviewed articles in the strabismus literature describing the significance of this role of the orthoptists, especially in more complex cases of strabismus, do exist, but are outdated. The importance of creating a differential diagnosis in the understanding of the disease process is a well-recognized component of medical education and modern medicine...
2015: American Orthoptic Journal
E Szabó, N Erdei, Sz Bene
Several studies state that there might be a difference in the physical development and the motor performance of the mentally non-handicapped children and those with intellectual and development disabilities. The aim of our research was to compare the two groups from these aspects. The study included the assessment of the physical development and motor performance of altogether 225 primary school pupils (mentally non-handicapped and with intellectual and development disabilities) aged 8-11. The following indicators of physical development and build were examined: body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI), musculoskeletal plasticity index, biceps and triceps skinfold thickness...
September 2015: Acta Physiologica Hungarica
François Derquenne
After World War, especially during the interwar years, new plastic surgical techniques were highly developed by I two French surgeons: Dr Raymond Passot, a pupil of Pr Hippolyte Morestin, Head of surgery department in Val-de-Grâce military hospital, Father of the Gueules cassées and Dr François Dubois, a pupil of Pr Sébileau, head of ear nose throat disorders department at Lariboisière Hospital in Paris. By the way of papers, publications and interviews to media, they described new French cosmetic techniques (rhitidectomy, sutures, liposuccion) and extensively developed this outpatient surgery...
January 2015: Histoire des Sciences Médicales
Kazunori Hirasawa, Nobuyuki Shoji, Karen Isono, Manami Tsuchiya
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings. METHODS: Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy young participants were examined by automated kinetic perimetry (Octopus 900) using Goldmann stimuli III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e. Each stimulus was presented with a velocity of 3°/s at 24 meridians with 15° intervals. Four levels of intraocular stray light were induced using non-white opacity filter (WOF) filters and WOFs applied to the clear plastic eye covers of the participants...
2015: PloS One
Belle Marie D Nibblett, Mary Mauldin Pereira, Julie A Williamson, Fortune Sithole
A validated teaching model for canine fundoscopic examination was developed to improve Day One fundoscopy skills while at the same time reducing use of teaching dogs. This novel eye model was created from a hollow plastic ball with a cutout for the pupil, a suspended 20-diopter lens, and paint and paper simulation of relevant eye structures. This eye model was mounted on a wooden stand with canine head landmarks useful in performing fundoscopy. Veterinary educators performed fundoscopy using this model and completed a survey to establish face and content validity...
2015: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Sakiko Nonomura, Toshiyuki Oshitari, Gen Miura, Akihiro Chiba, Shuichi Yamamoto
PURPOSE: We report a case of unilateral blindness due to ophthalmic artery occlusion following injection of hyaluronic acid into the glabellar area for facial soft-tissue augmentation. CASE: A 20-year old woman underwent injection of hyaluronic acid into the glabellar area at an aesthetic plastic clinic. Immediately after injection, she suffered nausea, pain, paralysis of limbs and visual loss in her right eye. Hyaluronidase was instanly injected into the same place, but these symptoms did not improve...
September 2014: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Kristian I Macdonald, Adrian I Mendez, Robert D Hart, S Mark Taylor
INTRODUCTION: In evaluation for blepharoplasty, patients often desire improved cosmesis and/or correction of visual field deficits. However, patients are usually unaware of eyelid or brow asymmetry. Furthermore, the prevalence of eyelid and brow asymmetry is infrequently reported in the medical literature. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of brow and eyelid asymmetry in patients evaluated for upper lid blepharoplasty. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients evaluated for upper lid blepharoplasty were included in the study...
2014: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Seong Kee Kim, Seung Hyun Cha, Kun Hwang, Se Won Hwang, Young Suk Kim
The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype...
July 2014: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Marijn A Huijing, Job van der Palen, Berend van der Lei
BACKGROUND: Although upper eyelid blepharoplasty is one of the most frequently performed facial plastic surgical procedures, there is no consensus of opinion about the effect of an upper eyelid blepharoplasty on the position of the eyebrows in a general population. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine this effect and to investigate whether preoperative compensatory rhytidosis of the forehead may cause a significantly greater postoperative lowering of the eyebrows...
September 2014: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Jan Fliedner, Christian Heine, Georg Bretthauer, Helmut Wilhelm
PURPOSE: After cataract surgery, the ability to accommodate is lost. For this reason, a mechatronic IOL is being developed at the moment: The Artificial Accommodation System. This device requires an easily measureable indicator of the distance of the observed object to determine the demand of accommodation. As the pupil constricts with near vision, pupil size might be such an indicator. Our research focused on whether the pupil can control an artificial lens. METHODS: A study with 14 healthy subjects aged between 24 and 64 years was conducted...
February 2014: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Massimo Silvetti, Ruth Seurinck, Marlies E van Bochove, Tom Verguts
Decision making under uncertainty is challenging for any autonomous agent. The challenge increases when the environment's stochastic properties change over time, i.e., when the environment is volatile. In order to efficiently adapt to volatile environments, agents must primarily rely on recent outcomes to quickly change their decision strategies; in other words, they need to increase their knowledge plasticity. On the contrary, in stable environments, knowledge stability must be preferred to preserve useful information against noise...
2013: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sunni R Patel, Chris Hudson, John G Flanagan, Rebekka Heitmar
To assess the impact of light scatter, similar to that introduced by cataract on retinal vessel blood oxygen saturation measurements using poly-bead solutions of varying concentrations. Eight healthy, young, non-smoking individuals were enrolled for this study. All subjects underwent digital blood pressure measurements, assessment of non-contact intraocular pressure, pupil dilation and retinal vessel oximetry using dual wavelength photography (Oximetry Module, Imedos Systems, Germany). To simulate light scatter, cells comprising a plastic collar and two plano lenses were filled with solutions of differing concentrations (0...
November 2013: Experimental Eye Research
Veerle Van Raemdonck, Koenraad G Monsieurs, Dirk Aerenhouts, Kristine De Martelaer
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training at school is recommended. Limited school resources prevent implementation. The learning efficacy of low-cost training strategies is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of different CPR learning strategies using low-cost didactic tools. METHODS: Children (n=593, 15-16 years) were randomized to four training conditions: (1) manikin+teacher instruction (control group), (2) manikin+video instruction, (3) foam dice+plastic bag+peer training+teacher instruction, and (4) foam dice+plastic bag+peer training+video instruction...
August 2014: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
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