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limbic escape

Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
BACKGROUND: An excitatory imbalance in the hypothalamus of rodents caused by local chemical stimulation elicits fear-related defensive reactions such as escape and freezing. In addition, these panic attack-like defensive reactions induced by hypothalamic neurons may cause antinociception. However, there is a shortage of studies showing the participation of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus in these adaptive defensive mechanisms. Nitric oxide (NO) donors have been shown to evoke fear-related defensive responses when microinjected into paralimbic and limbic structures, and this excitatory neuromodulation can recruit the glutamatergic system...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Albert J Hunt, Rajan Dasgupta, Shivakumar Rajamanickam, Zhiying Jiang, Michael Beierlein, C Savio Chan, Nicholas J Justice
Stress evokes directed movement to escape or hide from potential danger. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons are highly activated by stress; however, it remains unclear how this activity participates in stress-evoked movement. The external globus pallidus (GPe) expresses high levels of the primary receptor for CRF, CRFR1, suggesting the GPe may serve as an entry point for stress-relevant information to reach basal ganglia circuits, which ultimately gate motor output. Indeed, projections from CRF neurons are present within the GPe, making direct contact with CRFR1-positive neurons...
March 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Erin C Kerfoot, Cedric L Williams
The nucleus accumbens shell is a site of converging inputs during memory processing for emotional events. The accumbens receives input from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) regarding changes in peripheral autonomic functioning following emotional arousal. The shell also receives input from the amygdala and hippocampus regarding affective and contextual attributes of new learning experiences. The successful encoding of affect or context is facilitated by activating noradrenergic systems in either the amygdala or hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kostas Dervenis, Evangelos Tsialogiannis
Close Combat may be identified as a physical confrontation involving armed or unarmed fighting, lethal and/or non-lethal methods, or even simply escape from and/or de-escalation of the confrontation. Our model hypothesizes that distinct areas of the brain are utilized for specific levels of violence, based on evolutionary criteria, and that these levels of violence bring into effect distinct physiological criteria and kinesiology. This model is outlined similar to Paul D. MacLean's triune brain theory, but incorporates distinct processes inherent to the autonomic nervous system (i...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Jade Pissamiglio Cysne Coimbra, Carlos Júlio Laure, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Using an innovative approach to study the neural bases of psychiatric disorders, this study investigated the behavioral, morphological and pharmacological bases of panic attack-induced responses in a prey-versus-coral snake paradigm. Mesocricetus auratus was chronically treated with intraperitoneal administration of the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor paroxetine or the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor agonist alprazolam at three different doses and were then confronted with a venomous coral snake (Micrurus frontalis, Reptilia, Elapidae)...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Susann Becker, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Positive and negative feedback learning is essential to optimize behavioral performance. We used the two-way active avoidance (TWA) task as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning with the aim to test the hypothesis that neuronal ensembles activate the activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc/Arg3.1) protein during different phases of avoidance learning and during retrieval. A variety of studies in humans and other animals revealed that the ability of aversive feedback learning emerges postnatally...
March 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Erik Höglund, Patricia I M Silva, Marco A Vindas, Øyvind Øverli
Individual variation in the ability to modify previously learned behavior is an important dimension of trait correlations referred to as coping styles, behavioral syndromes or personality. These trait clusters have been shaped by natural selection, and underlying control mechanisms are often conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. In teleost fishes, behavioral flexibility and coping style have been studied in the high (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout lines. Generally, proactive LR trout show a behavior guided by previously learned routines, while HR trout show a more flexible behavior relying on environmental cues...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Marianne Aincy, Hamid Meziane, Yann Herault, Yann Humeau
The amygdala is a part of the limbic circuit that has been extensively studied in terms of synaptic connectivity, plasticity and cellular organization since decades (Ehrlich et al., 2009; Ledoux, 2000; Maren, 2001). Amygdala sub-nuclei, including lateral, basolateral and central amygdala appear now as "hubs" providing in parallel and in series neuronal processing enabling the animal to elicit freezing or escaping behavior in response to external threats. In rodents, these behaviors are easily observed and quantified following associative fear conditioning...
August 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Lilla Otrokocsi, Ágnes Kittel, Beáta Sperlágh
Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments; however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
E R de Kloet, M L Molendijk
In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive "coping" was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification...
2016: Neural Plasticity
E Li, Haifeng Deng, Bo Wang, Wan Fu, Yong You, Shaowen Tian
Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor (APJ). The localization of APJ in limbic structures suggests a potential role for apelin in emotional processes. However, the role of apelin in the regulation of stress-induced responses such as depression and memory impairment is largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of apelin-13 in the regulation of stress-induced depression and memory impairment in rats. We report that repeated intracerebroventricular injections of apelin-13 reversed behavioral despair (immobility) in the forced swim (FS) test, a model widely used for the selection of new antidepressant agents...
March 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tang-Peng Ou-Yang, Ge-Min Zhu, Yin-Xiu Ding, Feng Yang, Xiao-Long Sun, Wen Jiang
Accumulating data suggest that sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs) play a key role in modulating seizure activity by regulating neuronal pH in the brain. Amiloride, an inhibitor of NHEs, has been demonstrated to be effective in many seizure models, although its efficacy for prolonged febrile seizures (FS) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether amiloride could produce neuroprotective effects in a prolonged FS model in which FS were induced in rat pups at postnatal day 10 using a heated air approach...
April 2016: Neurochemical Research
Natalia Arias, Marta Méndez, Guillermo Vallejo, Jorge L Arias
Mastering the Morris water maze (MWM) requires the animal to consolidate, retain and retrieve spatial localizations of relevant visual cues. However, it is necessary to investigate whether a reorganization of the neural networks takes place when part of the spatial information is removed. We conducted four experiments using the MWM. A classical reference memory procedure was performed over five training days, RM5 (n=7), and eight days, RM8 (n=7), with the whole room and all the spatial cues presented. Another group of animals were trained in the same protocol, but they received an additional day of training with only partial cues, PC (n=8)...
November 2, 2015: Brain Research
M Méndez-López, M Méndez, J Arias, J L Arias
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological complication observed in patients with liver disease. Patients who suffer from HE present neuropsychiatric, neuromuscular and behavioral symptoms. Animal models proposed to study HE resulting from cirrhosis mimic the clinical characteristics of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and require the administration of hepatotoxins such as thioacetamide (TAA). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a high protein diet on motor function, anxiety and memory processes in a model of cirrhosis induced by TAA administration...
October 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
M C Carvalho, J M Santos, M L Brandão
Electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) in rats generates defensive responses that are characterized by freezing and escape behaviors, followed by post-stimulation freezing that resembles symptoms of panic attacks. dPAG post-stimulation freezing involves the processing of ascending aversive information to prosencephalic centers, including the amygdala, which allows the animal to evaluate the consequences of stressful situations. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is thought to act as a filter for innate and learned aversive information that is transmitted to higher structures...
May 2015: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jinwoo Park, Elizabeth S Bucher, Evgeny A Budygin, R Mark Wightman
Central dopamine and norepinephrine regulate behavioral and physiological responses during rewarding and aversive stimuli. Here, we investigated and compared norepinephrine and dopamine transmission in 2 limbic structures, the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the nucleus accumbens shell of anesthetized rats, respectively, in response to acute tail pinch, a noxious stimulus. Norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis responded monophasically, increasing at the time of the tail pinch and remaining elevated for a period after its cessation...
February 2015: Pain
Anju Sharma, Abhishek Rale, Kaweri Utturwar, Aurnab Ghose, Nishikant Subhedar
Abundance of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide in the limbic areas like the olfactory system, central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), ventral bed nucleus of stria terminalis (vBNST) and the hypothalamus suggests involvement of the peptide in emotive processing. We examined the role of CART in mediating fear, a strong emotion with profound survival value. Rats, exposed to 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a predator related cue extracted from fox feces, showed significant increase in freezing, escape and risk assessment behavior, whereas grooming was reduced...
December 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Anthony D Umpierre, Gregory J Remigio, E Jill Dahle, Kate Bradford, Anitha B Alex, Misty D Smith, Peter J West, H Steve White, Karen S Wilcox
Viral infection of the CNS can result in encephalitis and acute seizures, increasing the risk for later-life epilepsy. We have previously characterized a novel animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy that recapitulates key sequela in the development of epilepsy following viral infection. C57BL/6J mice inoculated with the Daniel's strain of Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV; 3×10(5) PFU, i.c.) display acute limbic seizures that secondarily generalize. A majority of acutely seized animals develop spontaneous seizures weeks to months later...
April 2014: Neurobiology of Disease
M C Carvalho, J M Santos, G S Bassi, M L Brandão
The amygdala, medial hypothalamus, dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), superior and inferior colliculus together constitutes the encephalic aversion system which has been considered the main neural substrate for the integration of unconditioned aversive behavioral states. Within the amygdala the basolateral nucleus (BLA) is thought to act as a filter for innate and learned aversive information to higher structures, whereas the central nucleus (CeA) is considered the main output for the expression of fear reactions through projections to limbic and brainstem regions...
May 2013: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Michael D Reed, Katherine E Price, Jonathan Archbold, Anthony Moffa, Marcelo Febo
Modulators of unconditioned fear are potential targets for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. We used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI to investigate the pattern of brain activity during the presentation of a predator odor (cat fur) and a repulsive novel odor, butyric acid (BA), to awake rats. We further tested whether odor-evoked BOLD activation involved oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin V(1a) receptors. Animals were subdivided into groups either administered an intracerebroventricular injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), an OT receptor antagonist or a V(1a) antagonist (125 ng/10 μL each) 90 min before studies...
February 4, 2013: Brain Research
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