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limbic escape

E R de Kloet, M L Molendijk
In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive "coping" was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification...
2016: Neural Plasticity
E Li, Haifeng Deng, Bo Wang, Wan Fu, Yong You, Shaowen Tian
Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor (APJ). The localization of APJ in limbic structures suggests a potential role for apelin in emotional processes. However, the role of apelin in the regulation of stress-induced responses such as depression and memory impairment is largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of apelin-13 in the regulation of stress-induced depression and memory impairment in rats. We report that repeated intracerebroventricular injections of apelin-13 reversed behavioral despair (immobility) in the forced swim (FS) test, a model widely used for the selection of new antidepressant agents...
March 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tang-Peng Ou-Yang, Ge-Min Zhu, Yin-Xiu Ding, Feng Yang, Xiao-Long Sun, Wen Jiang
Accumulating data suggest that sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs) play a key role in modulating seizure activity by regulating neuronal pH in the brain. Amiloride, an inhibitor of NHEs, has been demonstrated to be effective in many seizure models, although its efficacy for prolonged febrile seizures (FS) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether amiloride could produce neuroprotective effects in a prolonged FS model in which FS were induced in rat pups at postnatal day 10 using a heated air approach...
April 2016: Neurochemical Research
Natalia Arias, Marta Méndez, Guillermo Vallejo, Jorge L Arias
Mastering the Morris water maze (MWM) requires the animal to consolidate, retain and retrieve spatial localizations of relevant visual cues. However, it is necessary to investigate whether a reorganization of the neural networks takes place when part of the spatial information is removed. We conducted four experiments using the MWM. A classical reference memory procedure was performed over five training days, RM5 (n=7), and eight days, RM8 (n=7), with the whole room and all the spatial cues presented. Another group of animals were trained in the same protocol, but they received an additional day of training with only partial cues, PC (n=8)...
November 2, 2015: Brain Research
M Méndez-López, M Méndez, J Arias, J L Arias
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological complication observed in patients with liver disease. Patients who suffer from HE present neuropsychiatric, neuromuscular and behavioral symptoms. Animal models proposed to study HE resulting from cirrhosis mimic the clinical characteristics of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and require the administration of hepatotoxins such as thioacetamide (TAA). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a high protein diet on motor function, anxiety and memory processes in a model of cirrhosis induced by TAA administration...
October 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
M C Carvalho, J M Santos, M L Brandão
Electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) in rats generates defensive responses that are characterized by freezing and escape behaviors, followed by post-stimulation freezing that resembles symptoms of panic attacks. dPAG post-stimulation freezing involves the processing of ascending aversive information to prosencephalic centers, including the amygdala, which allows the animal to evaluate the consequences of stressful situations. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is thought to act as a filter for innate and learned aversive information that is transmitted to higher structures...
May 2015: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jinwoo Park, Elizabeth S Bucher, Evgeny A Budygin, R Mark Wightman
Central dopamine and norepinephrine regulate behavioral and physiological responses during rewarding and aversive stimuli. Here, we investigated and compared norepinephrine and dopamine transmission in 2 limbic structures, the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the nucleus accumbens shell of anesthetized rats, respectively, in response to acute tail pinch, a noxious stimulus. Norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis responded monophasically, increasing at the time of the tail pinch and remaining elevated for a period after its cessation...
February 2015: Pain
Anju Sharma, Abhishek Rale, Kaweri Utturwar, Aurnab Ghose, Nishikant Subhedar
Abundance of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide in the limbic areas like the olfactory system, central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), ventral bed nucleus of stria terminalis (vBNST) and the hypothalamus suggests involvement of the peptide in emotive processing. We examined the role of CART in mediating fear, a strong emotion with profound survival value. Rats, exposed to 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a predator related cue extracted from fox feces, showed significant increase in freezing, escape and risk assessment behavior, whereas grooming was reduced...
December 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Anthony D Umpierre, Gregory J Remigio, E Jill Dahle, Kate Bradford, Anitha B Alex, Misty D Smith, Peter J West, H Steve White, Karen S Wilcox
Viral infection of the CNS can result in encephalitis and acute seizures, increasing the risk for later-life epilepsy. We have previously characterized a novel animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy that recapitulates key sequela in the development of epilepsy following viral infection. C57BL/6J mice inoculated with the Daniel's strain of Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV; 3×10(5) PFU, i.c.) display acute limbic seizures that secondarily generalize. A majority of acutely seized animals develop spontaneous seizures weeks to months later...
April 2014: Neurobiology of Disease
M C Carvalho, J M Santos, G S Bassi, M L Brandão
The amygdala, medial hypothalamus, dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), superior and inferior colliculus together constitutes the encephalic aversion system which has been considered the main neural substrate for the integration of unconditioned aversive behavioral states. Within the amygdala the basolateral nucleus (BLA) is thought to act as a filter for innate and learned aversive information to higher structures, whereas the central nucleus (CeA) is considered the main output for the expression of fear reactions through projections to limbic and brainstem regions...
May 2013: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Michael D Reed, Katherine E Price, Jonathan Archbold, Anthony Moffa, Marcelo Febo
Modulators of unconditioned fear are potential targets for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. We used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI to investigate the pattern of brain activity during the presentation of a predator odor (cat fur) and a repulsive novel odor, butyric acid (BA), to awake rats. We further tested whether odor-evoked BOLD activation involved oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin V(1a) receptors. Animals were subdivided into groups either administered an intracerebroventricular injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), an OT receptor antagonist or a V(1a) antagonist (125 ng/10 μL each) 90 min before studies...
February 4, 2013: Brain Research
V Voikar, N Kulesskaya, T Laakso, J Lauren, S M Strittmatter, M S Airaksinen
The LRRTM family proteins have been shown to act as synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules via interaction with presynaptic neurexins and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. LRRTM1-knockout mice have subtle morphological deficits in excitatory hippocampal synapses and were suggested to have impaired cognitive function. Here we report that LRRTM1-knockout mice exhibit an extraordinary phenotype of avoiding small enclosures. In the light-dark box, the knockout mice escape to dark through a standard opening as quickly as wild-type littermates but avoid escaping through a small doorway...
February 1, 2013: Behavioural Brain Research
John M Marzluff, Robert Miyaoka, Satoshi Minoshima, Donna J Cross
Crows pay close attention to people and can remember specific faces for several years after a single encounter. In mammals, including humans, faces are evaluated by an integrated neural system involving the sensory cortex, limbic system, and striatum. Here we test the hypothesis that birds use a similar system by providing an imaging analysis of an awake, wild animal's brain as it performs an adaptive, complex cognitive task. We show that in vivo imaging of crow brain activity during exposure to familiar human faces previously associated with either capture (threatening) or caretaking (caring) activated several brain regions that allow birds to discriminate, associate, and remember visual stimuli, including the rostral hyperpallium, nidopallium, mesopallium, and lateral striatum...
September 25, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jocelyn M Richard, Kent C Berridge
BACKGROUND: Corticolimbic circuits, including direct projections from prefrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens (NAc), permit top-down control of intense motivations generated by subcortical circuits. In rats, localized disruptions of glutamate signaling within medial shell of NAc generate desire or dread, anatomically organized along a rostrocaudal gradient analogous to a limbic keyboard. At rostral locations in shell, these disruptions generate appetitive eating, but at caudal locations the disruptions generate progressively fearful behaviors (distress vocalizations, escape attempts, and antipredator reactions)...
February 15, 2013: Biological Psychiatry
Megan L Uhelski, Matthew A Davis, Perry N Fuchs
Multidimensional models of pain processing distinguish the sensory, motivational, and affective components of the pain experience. Efforts to understand underlying mechanisms have focused on isolating the roles of specific brain structures, including both limbic and non-limbic cortical areas, in the processing of nociceptive stimuli. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the somatosensory cortex in both sensory and affective aspects of pain processing. It was hypothesized that animals with lesions of the hind limb area of the somatosensory cortex would demonstrate altered sensory processing (asomaesthesia, a deficit in the ability to detect and identify somatic sensation) in the presence of an inflammatory state when compared to animals with sham lesions...
April 2012: Pain
Megan L Uhelski, Samara A Morris-Bobzean, Torry S Dennis, Linda I Perrotti, Perry N Fuchs
The place escape/avoidance paradigm (PEAP) is a behavioral test designed to quantify the level of unpleasantness evoked by painful stimuli by assessing the willingness of a subject to escape/avoid a preferred area when it is associated with noxious stimulation. Previous studies have demonstrated that escape/avoidance behavior is dependent on activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region of the limbic system involved in processing the emotional component of pain in humans and animals. Analysis of c-Fos expression in the ACC confirmed that the escape/avoidance response to noxious stimuli corresponds to changes in neural activation in this region...
January 18, 2012: Brain Research
Ariel Tankus, Itzhak Fried
The division of cortical visual processing into distinct dorsal and ventral streams is a key concept in primate neuroscience [Goodale, M. A., & Milner, A. D. Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neurosciences, 15, 20-25, 1992; Steele, G., Weller, R., & Cusick, C. Cortical connections of the caudal subdivision of the dorsolateral area (V4) in monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 306, 495-520, 1991]. The ventral stream is usually characterized as a "What" pathway, whereas the dorsal stream is implied in mediating spatial perception ("Where") and visually guided actions ("How")...
March 2012: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
P Marchei, S Diverio, N Falocci, J Fatjó, J L Ruiz-de-la-Torre, X Manteca
In a previous experiment, the behaviour of Oriental/Siamese/Abyssinian (OSA) kittens was compared with that of Norwegian Forest kittens (NFO) in a repeated Open Field Test (OFT), and significant differences emerged. To further investigate such variations, we analyzed kittens' responses to a potentially threatening object (TO) during the OFT. It was a metal spring enveloped in a cotton case suddenly bouncing out of the cylinder after the first 6 min of OFT exposure, and the test lasted 6 more minutes. From the 4th to the 10th week of age, during each test, the response of 43 OSA kittens and 39 NFO kittens to the TO was analyzed...
March 1, 2011: Physiology & Behavior
Paula Shimene de Melo Yamashita, Valquiria Camin de Bortoli, Helio Zangrossi
Activation of 5-HT2C receptors in limbic structures such as the amygdala and hippocampus increases anxiety. Indirect evidence obtained with non-selective 5-HT2C-interacting drugs suggests that the same may occur in the dPAG, a brainstem region consistently implicated in the genesis/regulation of panic attacks. In this study we used more selective agonists and antagonists to unveil the role played by dPAG 5-HT2C receptors in the regulation of anxiety- and panic-related defensive behaviors. Our results showed that intra-dPAG microinjection of the endogenous agonist 5-HT (20 nmol) or the 5-HT2C receptor agonists MK-212 (1 and 10 nmol) and RO-600175 (40 nmol) significantly increased inhibitory avoidance acquisition in rats tested in the elevated T-maze, suggesting an anxiogenic effect...
February 2011: Neuropharmacology
Karina Genaro Borelli, Erwin B Defensor, D Caroline Blanchard, Robert J Blanchard, Guy Griebel
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intraperitoneal (IP) administration of saredutant (SR48968), an NK2 receptor antagonist, produces anxiolytic-like effects in rodents in a number of animal models of anxiety. NK2 binding sites are present in several limbic structures in rats, including the hippocampus, thalamus, septum and prefrontal cortex, suggesting involvement in the modulation of emotional processes. The current study investigated the behavioral effects of saredutant infused into the ventral hippocampus (VH), a structure associated with cognitive and emotional processes, to clarify the neural substrate underlying the anxiolytic-like effect of the compound...
November 26, 2010: Neuroscience Letters
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