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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776821/wide-step-width-reduces-knee-abduction-moment-of-obese-adults-during-stair-negotiation
#1
Derek Yocum, Joshua T Weinhandl, Jeffrey T Fairbrother, Songning Zhang
PURPOSE: An increased likelihood of developing obesity-related knee osteoarthritis may be associated with increased peak internal knee abduction moments (KAbM). Increases in step width (SW) may act to reduce this moment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of increased SW on knee biomechanics during stair negotiation of healthy-weight and obese participants. METHODS: Participants (24: 10 obese and 14 healthy-weight) used stairs and walked over level ground while walking at their preferred speed in two different SW conditions - preferred and wide (200% preferred)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769833/effects-of-knee-alignments-and-toe-clip-on-frontal-plane-knee-biomechanics-in-cycling
#2
Guangping Shen, Songning Zhang, Hunter J Bennett, James C Martin, Scott E Crouter, Eugene C Fitzhugh
Effects of knee alignment on the internal knee abduction moment (KAM) in walking have been widely studied. The KAM is closely associated with the development of medial knee osteoarthritis. Despite the importance of knee alignment, no studies have explored its effects on knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of knee alignment and use of a toe clip on the knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. A total of 32 participants (11 varus, 11 neutral, and 10 valgus alignment) performed five trials in each of six cycling conditions: pedaling at 80 rpm and 0...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765881/determinants-of-hip-and-femoral-deformities-in-children-with-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#3
Yoona Cho, Eun Sook Park, Han Kyul Park, Jae Eun Park, Dong-Wook Rha
Objective: To find factors affecting hip and femoral deformities in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) by comparing various clinical findings with imaging studies including plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: Medical records of 709 children with spastic CP who underwent thorough baseline physical examination and functional assessment between 2 to 6 years old were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-seven children (31 boys and 26 girls) who had both plain radiography of the hip and three-dimensional CT of the lower extremities at least 5 years after baseline examination were included in this study...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746389/effect-of-sand-on-knee-load-during-a-single-leg-jump-task-implications-for-injury-prevention-and-rehabilitation-programs
#4
Mark C Richardson, Sinead Murphy, Tom Macpherson, Bryan English, Iain Spears, Paul Chesterton
Richardson, MC, Murphy, S, Macpherson, T, English, B, Spears, I, and Chesterton, P. Effect of sand on knee load during a single-leg jump task: implications for injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in landing strategies and subsequent joint loads at the knee (knee abduction moment [KAM], anterior-posterior [AP] tibial translation, and total knee shear force) when jumping onto sand and firm ground from both a level surface and a 30-cm height...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745786/loading-differences-in-single-leg-landing-in-the-forehand-and-backhand-side-courts-after-an-overhead-stroke-in-badminton-a-novel-tri-axial-accelerometer-research
#5
Shogo Sasaki, Yasuharu Nagano, Hiroshi Ichikawa
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in badminton commonly occur during single-leg landing after an overhead stroke in the backhand-side court. This study compared differences in trunk acceleration and kinematic variables during single-leg landing in the forehand- and backhand-side courts after an overhead stroke. Eighteen female junior badminton players performed two singles games while wearing a tri-axial accelerometer. The moment that over 4g of resultant acceleration was generated was determined using synchronised video cameras...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721781/implicit-video-feedback-produces-positive-changes-in-landing-mechanics
#6
Tijana Popovic, Shane V Caswell, Anne Benjaminse, Tarique Siragy, Jatin Ambegaonkar, Nelson Cortes
BACKGROUND: Implicit (IF) and explicit (EF) feedback are two motor learning strategies demonstrated to alter movement patterns. There is conflicting evidence on which strategy produces better outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reduced IF and EF video feedback on lower extremity landing mechanics. METHODS: Thirty participants (24 ± 2 years, 1.7 ± 0.1 m, 70 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: IF (n = 10), EF (n = 10), and control (CG) (n = 10)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713340/supine-percutaneous-nephrolithotripsy-in-double-s-position
#7
Giuseppe Giusti, Antonello De Lisa
Background: At present, the percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) is performed both in supine and in prone position. The aim of this paper is to describe an innovative position during PCNL. Methods: We describe a supine position. The patient's legs are slightly abducted at the hips. The thorax is laterally tilted (inclination 30°-35°) and kept in the right position by one or two gel pads placed between the scapula and the vertebrae. External genitalia can be accessed at any time, so that it is always possible to use flexible instruments in the upper urinary tract...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709723/the-effect-of-functional-bracing-on-the-arthrokinematics-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injured-knees-during-lunge-exercise
#8
Maryam Jalali, Farzam Farahmand, Fateme Esfandiarpour, Seyed Ali Golestanha, Mohammad Akbar, Amirhosein Eskandari, Seyed Ebrahim Mousavi
BACKGROUND: Functional knee braces are extensively used for partially and completely torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients and those who have undergone ACL graft reconstruction, in order to support the healing ACL, improve the joint's functional stability, and restore the normal joint kinematics. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does wearing braces alter the arthrokinematics of the ACL deficient knees during lung exercise? METHODS: For ten male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, 3D knee models were reconstructed from CT images, acquired in rest position...
April 22, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695317/influence-of-joint-kinematics-on-polyethylene-wear-in-anatomic-shoulder-joint-arthroplasty
#9
Steffen Braun, Stefan Schroeder, Ulrike Mueller, Robert Sonntag, Matthias Buelhoff, Jan Philippe Kretzer
BACKGROUND: Despite the positive results in total shoulder arthroplasties (TSAs), a higher revision rate is documented compared with total hip and knee replacements. Wear is the possible main cause of TSA failure in the long-term. This study investigated the effect of joint kinematics and the influence of the rotator cuff on the polyethylene wear performance in an anatomic TSA. METHODS: Lifting a load of 2 kg with an abduction/adduction of 0° to 90° was simulated for 2 × 106 cycles as a primary motion using a fully kinematic joint simulator...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687012/sex-based-differences-of-medial-collateral-ligament-and-anterior-cruciate-ligament-strains-with-cadaveric-impact-simulations
#10
Nathan D Schilaty, Nathaniel A Bates, Christopher V Nagelli, Aaron J Krych, Timothy E Hewett
Background: Female patients sustain noncontact knee ligament injuries at a greater rate compared with their male counterparts. The cause of these differences in the injury rate and the movements that load the ligaments until failure are still under dispute in the literature. Purpose/Hypotheses: This study was designed to determine differences in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) strains between male and female cadaveric specimens during a simulated athletic task...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680311/midtarsal-locking-the-windlass-mechanism-and-running-strike-pattern-a-kinematic-and-kinetic-assessment
#11
Dustin A Bruening, Michael B Pohl, Kota Z Takahashi, Joaquin A Barrios
Changes in running strike pattern affect ankle and knee mechanics, but little is known about the influence of strike pattern on the joints distal to the ankle. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of forefoot strike (FFS) and rearfoot strike (RFS) running patterns on foot kinematics and kinetics, from the perspectives of the midtarsal locking theory and the windlass mechanism. Per the midtarsal locking theory, we hypothesized that the ankle would be more inverted in early stance when using a FFS, resulting in decreased midtarsal joint excursions and increased dynamic stiffness...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673341/runners-with-patellofemoral-pain-demonstrate-sub-groups-of-pelvic-acceleration-profiles-using-hierarchical-cluster-analysis-an-exploratory-cross-sectional-study
#12
Ricky Watari, Sean T Osis, Angkoon Phinyomark, Reed Ferber
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that distinct and homogenous sub-groups of gait patterns exist among runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP), based on gait analysis. However, acquisition of 3D kinematic data using optical systems is time consuming and prone to marker placement errors. In contrast, axial segment acceleration data can represent an overall running pattern, being easy to acquire and not influenced by marker placement error. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if pelvic acceleration patterns during running could be used to classify PFP patients into homogeneous sub-groups...
April 19, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671383/sport-specific-biomechanical-responses-to-an-acl-injury-prevention-programme-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Jeffrey B Taylor, Kevin R Ford, Randy J Schmitz, Scott E Ross, Terry A Ackerman, Sandra J Shultz
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programmes have not been as successful at reducing injury rates in women's basketball as in soccer. This randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02530333) compared biomechanical adaptations in basketball and soccer players during jump-landing activities after an ACL injury prevention programme. Eighty-seven athletes were cluster randomised into intervention (6-week programme) and control groups. Three-dimensional biomechanical analyses of drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg (SAG-SL) sagittal, and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) frontal plane jump landing tasks were tested before and after the intervention...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665801/an-extended-opensim-knee-model-for-analysis-of-strains-of-connective-tissues
#14
M Marieswaran, Arnab Sikidar, Anu Goel, Deepak Joshi, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram
BACKGROUND: OpenSim musculoskeletal models provide an accurate simulation environment that eases limitations of in vivo and in vitro studies. In this work, a biomechanical knee model was formulated with femoral articular cartilages and menisci along with 25 connective tissue bundles representing ligaments and capsules. The strain patterns of the connective tissues in the presence of femoral articular cartilage and menisci in the OpenSim knee model was probed in a first of its kind study...
April 17, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660080/contributions-of-ankle-knee-hip-and-trunk-muscle-function-to-gait-performance-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#15
Mark M Mañago, Jeffrey R Hebert, John Kittelson, Margaret Schenkman
Background: The relative importance of lower extremity and trunk muscle function to gait in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of lower extremity and trunk muscle function with gait performance in people who have MS and mild to moderate disability. Design: This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: Participants were people who had an Expanded Disability Status Scale score of ≤ 5...
April 6, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653340/magnitude-and-variability-of-gait-characteristics-when-walking-on-an-irregular-surface-at-different-speeds
#16
Stephanie Blair, Mark J Lake, Rui Ding, Thorsten Sterzing
Different modes of perturbations have been used to understand how individuals negotiate irregular surfaces, with a general notion that increased locomotion variability induces a positive training stimulus. Individuals tend to walk slower when initially exposed to such locomotion tasks, potentially influencing the magnitude and variability of biomechanical parameters. This study investigated theeffects of gait speed on lower extremity biomechanics when walking on an irregular (IS) and regular surface (RS). Twenty physically active males walked on a RS and IS at three different speeds (4 km/h, 5 km/h, 6 km/h)...
April 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651893/differences-among-overhand-three-quarter-and-sidearm-pitching-biomechanics-in-professional-baseball-players
#17
Rafael F Escamilla, Jonathan S Slowik, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig
The purpose of this study was to assess biomechanical differences among overhand, three-quarter, and sidearm arm-slot professional baseball pitchers. It was hypothesized that kinematic-and-kinetic differences would be found among the three groups, with sidearm pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the transverse plane, and overhead pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the sagittal plane. Based upon arm-slot-angle at ball-release, 30-overhand, 156-three-quarter, and 21-sidearm pitchers were tested using a 240-Hz-motion-analysis-system, and 37 kinematic-and-kinetic parameters were calculated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613820/the-effects-of-walking-workstations-on-biomechanical-performance
#18
Daniel M Grindle, Lauren Baker, Mike Furr, Tim Puterio, Brian Knarr, Jill Higginson
Prolonged sitting has been associated with negative health effects. Walking workstations have become increasingly popular in the workplace. There is a lack of research on the biomechanical effect of walking workstations. This study analyzed whether walking while working alters normal gait patterns. Nine participants completed four walking trials at 2.4 km·h-1 and 4.0 km·h-1 : baseline walking condition, walking while performing a math task, a reading task, and a typing task. Biomechanical data were collected using standard motion capture procedures...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600305/comparison-of-lower-extremity-muscle-flexibility-in-amateur-and-trained-bharatanatyam-dancers-and-nondancers
#19
Monica Sharma, Shibili Nuhmani, Deepti Wardhan, Qassim I Muaidi
OBJECTIVE: This study compared lower limb muscle flexibility between amateur and trained female Bharatanatyam dancers and nondancers. METHODS: Subjects consisted of 105 healthy female volunteers, with 70 female Bharatanatyam dancers (35 trained, 35 amateurs) and 35 controls, with a mean (±SD) age of 16.2±1.04 yrs, height 155.05±4.30 cm, and weight 54.54±2.77 kg. Participants were assessed for range of motion (ROM) in hip flexion, hip extension, hip abduction and adduction, hip external rotation, hip internal rotation, knee flexion, knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion (DF), and ankle plantar flexion (PF) by using a standardized goniometer...
March 2018: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596450/manual-muscle-testing-and-hand-held-dynamometry-in-people-with-inflammatory-myopathy-an-intra-and-interrater-reliability-and-validity-study
#20
Pierrette Baschung Pfister, Eling D de Bruin, Iris Sterkele, Britta Maurer, Rob A de Bie, Ruud H Knols
Manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) are commonly used in people with inflammatory myopathy (IM), but their clinimetric properties have not yet been sufficiently studied. To evaluate the reliability and validity of MMT and HHD, maximum isometric strength was measured in eight muscle groups across three measurement events. To evaluate reliability of HHD, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), the standard error of measurements (SEM) and smallest detectable changes (SDC) were calculated...
2018: PloS One
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