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Homocysteine and gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782204/paraoxonase-1-q192r-genotype-and-activity-affect-homocysteine-thiolactone-levels-in-humans
#1
Joanna Perła-Kaján, Kamila Borowczyk, Rafał Głowacki, Ottar Nygård, Hieronim Jakubowski
Genetic or nutritional deficiencies in 1 carbon and homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism elevate Hcy-thiolactone levels and are associated with cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. Hcy-thiolactone causes protein damage, cellular toxicity, and proatherogenic changes in gene expression in human cells and tissues. A polymorphic cardio-protective enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1), hydrolyzes Hcy-thiolactone in vitro. However, whether Hcy-thiolactone hydrolysis is a physiologic function of the PON1 protein and whether polymorphisms in the PON1 gene affect Hcy-thiolactone levels in humans was unknown...
May 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777793/homocysteine-induces-vascular-inflammatory-response-via-smad7-hypermethylation-in-human-umbilical-vein-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
Li-Hua Wei, Nai-Xia Chao, Si Gao, Ya-Ting Yu, Lin Shi, Xin-Bo Ma, Na Liao, Ke Lan, Yu Luo, Zheng-Yi Xie, Yuan-Yuan Li
Homocysteine (Hcy) can induce atherosclerosis through the inflammatory response and DNA methylation disorder. Our recent study has reported a novel epigenetic modified gene related to atherosclerosis -SMAD7. To further understand the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the current study was designed to investigate an inflammatory role of Hcy in human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) through interfering with SMAD7 methylation. Using MALDI-TOF MS, we found that Hcy increased DNA methylation levels of SMAD7 promoter in a dose and time-dependent manner in HUVSMCs...
May 16, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774011/metabolomics-analysis-of-the-toxic-effects-of-the-production-of-lycopene-and-its-precursors
#3
April M Miguez, Monica P McNerney, Mark P Styczynski
Using cells as microbial factories enables highly specific production of chemicals with many advantages over chemical syntheses. A number of exciting new applications of this approach are in the area of precision metabolic engineering, which focuses on improving the specificity of target production. In recent work, we have used precision metabolic engineering to design lycopene-producing Escherichia coli for use as a low-cost diagnostic biosensor. To increase precursor availability and thus the rate of lycopene production, we heterologously expressed the mevalonate pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758262/s-adenosylhomocysteine-hydrolase-participates-in-dna-methylation-inheritance
#4
V K Chaithanya Ponnaluri, Pierre-Olivier Estève, Cristian I Ruse, Sriharsa Pradhan
DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is essential for mammalian development and maintenance of DNA methylation following DNA replication in cells. The DNA methylation process generates S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, a strong inhibitor of DNMT1. Here we report that S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH/AHCY), the only mammalian enzyme capable of hydrolyzing S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine binds to DNMT1 during DNA replication. SAHH enhances DNMT1 activity in vitro, and its overexpression in mammalian cells led to hypermethylation of the genome, whereas its inhibition by adenosine periodate or siRNA mediated knock down resulted in hypomethylation of the genome...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715682/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-roots-of-intercropped-peanut-and-maize-reveals-novel-insights-into-peanut-iron-nutrition
#5
Jing Dai, Wei Qiu, Nanqi Wang, Hiromi Nakanishi, Yuanmei Zuo
Intercropping is a vital technology in resource-limited agricultural systems with low inputs. Peanut/maize intercropping enhances iron (Fe) nutrition in calcareous soil. In this study, the transcriptome of peanut and maize roots was analyzed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and microarray analysis separately. We constructed four SSH libraries using the cDNA of peanut roots based on two cropping patterns: monocropping and intercropping, and two growth stages: vegetative stage and reproductive stage...
April 23, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693751/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-microrna-383-3p-interacting-with-il1r2-against-homocysteine-induced-endothelial-injury-in-rat-coronary-arteries
#6
Zheng Lian, Feng-Feng Lv, Jing Yu, Jia-Wang Wang
MicroRNAs (miRs) are widely reported to be novel biomarkers involved in the process of coronary atherosclerosis (CAS). Hence, this study aims to explore the function of miR-383-3p targeting IL1R2 on inflammatory injury of coronary artery endothelial cells (CAECs) in CAS. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of miR-383-3p were analyzed in concert with the treatment of miR-383-3p mimics, miR-383-3p inhibitors, and the combination of miR-383-3p inhibitors and siRNA against IL1R2 in homocysteine (HCY)-induced CAECs...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684914/serum-calcium-is-related-to-the-degree-of-artery-stenosis-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#7
Jiayan Wu, Junchao Xie, Yanxin Zhao, Li Gong, Xueyuan Liu, Wangmi Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute ischemic stroke is caused by stenosis of artery supplying to brain. We aimed to detect some metabolites in the serum that would be related to the degree of artery stenosis and to analyze potential mechanisms. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were divided into two groups according to their degree of artery stenosis (which was determined by computed tomographic angiography): a mild group (stenosis ≤ 30%) and a severe group (stenosis > 30%)...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679893/identification-of-homocysteine-suppressive-mitochondrial-etc-complex-genes-and-tissue-expression-profile-novel-hypothesis-establishment
#8
Ramon Cueto, Lixiao Zhang, Hui Min Shan, Xiao Huang, Xinyuan Li, Ya-Feng Li, Jahaira Lopez, William Y Yang, Muriel Lavallee, Catherine Yu, Yong Ji, Xiaofeng Yang, Hong Wang
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) which has been implicated in matochondrial (Mt) function impairment. In this study, we characterized Hcy metabolism in mouse tissues by using LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, established tissue expression profiles for 84 nuclear-encoded Mt electron transport chain complex (nMt-ETC-Com) genes in 20 human and 19 mouse tissues by database mining, and modeled the effect of HHcy on Mt-ETC function. Hcy levels were high in mouse kidney/lung/spleen/liver (24-14 nmol/g tissue) but low in brain/heart (~5 nmol/g)...
April 4, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677135/molecular-evolution-and-expression-divergence-of-hmt-gene-family-in-plants
#9
Man Zhao, Peng Chen, Wenyi Wang, Fengjie Yuan, Danhua Zhu, Zhao Wang, Xiangxian Ying
Homocysteine methyltransferase (HMT) converts homocysteine to methionine using S -methylmethionine (SMM) or S -adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl donors in organisms, playing an important role in supplying methionine for the growth and the development of plants. To better understand the functions of the HMT genes in plants, we conducted a wide evolution and expression analysis of these genes. Reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationship showed that the HMT gene family was divided into Class 1 and Class 2...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669328/tagging-functional-polymorphism-in-3-untranslated-region-of-methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase-and-risk-of-ischemic-stroke
#10
Jiajia Shi, Wei He, Yu Wang, Jiajia Hua
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The association between genetic polymorphisms in the exon or untranslated region of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) and the risk of human ischemic stroke (IS) has been well-documented. In this study, we focused on a polymorphism previously screened by high-throughput analysis and on its potential function in patients with IS Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was conducted in 400 patients and 400 healthy volunteers. Genotyping was conducted using TaqMan probes...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608906/excess-homocysteine-upregulates-the-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway-in-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cells
#11
Soumya Navneet, Xuezhi Cui, Jing Zhao, Jing Wang, Navneet Ammal Kaidery, Bobby Thomas, Kathryn E Bollinger, Yisang Yoon, Sylvia B Smith
This study evaluated the effects of elevated homocysteine (Hcy) on the oxidative stress response in retinal Müller glial cells. Elevated Hcy has been implicated in retinal diseases including glaucoma and optic neuropathy, which are characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. To understand the mechanisms of Hcy-induced RGC loss, in vitro and in vivo models have been utilized. In vitro isolated RGCs are quite sensitive to elevated Hcy levels, while in vivo murine models of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) demonstrate a more modest RGC loss (∼20%) over a period of many months...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596860/endothelial-dysfunction-endothelial-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-5-methyltetrahydrofolate-in-cardiovascular-disease-where-are-we-with-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Matthew F Yuyun, Leong L Ng, G André Ng
Homeostasis around vascular endothelium is a function of the equilibrium between the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and oxidizing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Within the vascular endothelium, NO enhances vasodilatation, reduces platelet aggression and adhesion (anti-thrombotic), prevents smooth muscle proliferation, inhibits adhesion of leukocytes and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes (anti-inflammatory), and counters the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. A shift in the equilibrium that favours NO deficiency and ROS formation leads to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease...
March 27, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563907/a-novel-bifunctional-amino-acid-racemase-with-multiple-substrate-specificity-maly-from-lactobacillus-sakei-lt-13-genome-based-identification-and-enzymological-characterization
#13
Shiro Kato, Tadao Oikawa
The Lactobacillus sakei strain LK-145 isolated from Moto, a starter of sake, produces potentially large amounts of three D-amino acids, D-Ala, D-Glu, and D-Asp, in a medium containing amylase-digested rice as a carbon source. The comparison of metabolic pathways deduced from the complete genome sequence of strain LK-145 to the type culture strain of Lactobacillus sakei strain LT-13 showed that the L- and D-amino acid metabolic pathways are similar between the two strains. However, a marked difference was observed in the putative cysteine/methionine metabolic pathways of strain LK-145 and LT-13...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560091/epigenetic-modifications-in-hyperhomocysteinemia-potential-role-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#14
Khaled Elmasry, Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Yutao Liu, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik
To study Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced epigenetic modifications as potential mechanisms of blood retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction, retinas isolated from three- week-old mice with elevated level of Homocysteine (Hcy) due to lack of the enzyme cystathionine β-synthase ( cbs-/- , cbs+/- and cbs+/+ ), human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs), and human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) treated with or without Hcy were evaluated for (1) histone deacetylases (HDAC), (2) DNA methylation (DNMT), and (3) miRNA analysis...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503817/cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-is-necessary-for-axis-development-in-vivo
#15
Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Chris Koceja, Anindya Dey, Shahram Eisa-Beygi, Noah R Leigh, Resham Bhattacharya, Priyabrata Mukherjee, Ramani Ramchandran
The cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) is a critical enzyme in the transsulfuration pathway and is responsible for the synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine. Cystathionine is a precursor to amino acid cysteine. CBS is also responsible for generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) from cysteine. Mutation in CBS enzyme causes homocysteine levels to rise, and gives rise to a condition called hyperhomocysteinuria. To date, numerous mouse knockout models for CBS enzyme has been generated, which show panoply of defects, reflecting the importance of this enzyme in development...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466875/impacts-of-maternal-dietary-protein-intake-on-fetal-survival-growth-and-development
#16
Cassandra M Herring, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Guoyao Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461880/expression-profiles-of-six-atherosclerosis-associated-micrornas-that-cluster-in-patients-with-hyperhomocysteinemia-a-clinical-study
#17
Kejian Liu, Saiyare Xuekelati, Kang Zhou, Zhitao Yan, Xu Yang, Azeem Inayat, Jiangdong Wu, Xiaomei Guo
The aim of this study is to discuss the hypothesis that expression of plasma atherosclerosis-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) patients could predict the presence of atherosclerosis from different channels. Six plasma miRNAs (miR-145, miR-155, miR-222, miR-133, miR-217, and miR-30) selected for our study have been confirmed as critical gene regulators involved in atherosclerosis and can be steadily determined in plasma. Expression of the above six plasma circulating miRNAs revealed significant upregulation of two miRNAs (miR-133 and miR-217) and downregulation of three miRNAs (miR-145, miR-155, and miR-222)...
March 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453283/chemical-stresses-fail-to-mimic-the-unfolded-protein-response-resulting-from-luminal-load-with-unfolded-polypeptides
#18
Timothy J Bergmann, Ilaria Fregno, Fiorenza Fumagalli, Andrea Rinaldi, Francesco Bertoni, Paul J Boersema, Paola Picotti, Maurizio Molinari
The stress sensors ATF6, IRE1, and PERK monitor deviations from homeostatic conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a protein biogenesis compartment of eukaryotic cells. Their activation elicits unfolded protein responses (UPR) to re-establish proteostasis. UPR have been extensively investigated in cells exposed to chemicals that activate ER stress sensors by perturbing calcium, N -glycans, or redox homeostasis. Cell responses to variations in luminal load with unfolded proteins are, in contrast, poorly characterized...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452261/maternal-betaine-administration-modulates-hepatic-type-1-iodothyronine-deiodinase-dio1-expression-in-chicken-offspring-through-epigenetic-modifications
#19
Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Yun Hu, Shu Yang, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
As a feed additive, betaine is widely used in livestock production for its ability to promote growth. Our previous studies had reported that maternal betaine supplementation altered hepatic metabolism in offspring. But it remains unknown whether and how maternal betaine modulates metabolism of thyroid hormones in the offspring chickens by epigenetic modification. In this study, one hundred and twenty Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens were randomly divided into two groups, and were fed basal diet with or without 0...
April 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407547/genetic-variants-of-the-folate-metabolic-system-and-mild-hyperhomocysteinemia-may-affect-adhd-associated-behavioral-problems
#20
Tanusree Saha, Mahasweta Chatterjee, Deepak Verma, Anirban Ray, Swagata Sinha, Usha Rajamma, Kanchan Mukhopadhyay
An etiologically complex disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is often associated with various levels of cognitive deficit. Folate/vitamin B9 is crucial for numerous biochemical pathways including neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation, regulation of gene expression, neurotransmitter synthesis, myelin synthesis and repair, etc. and a scarcity has often been linked to cognitive deficit. Our pilot study in the field revealed significant association of few genetic variants with ADHD...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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