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Homocysteine and gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397458/mapping-of-dna-hypermethylation-and-hypomethylation-induced-by-folate-deficiency-in-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-and-clinical-implication-analysis-of-hypermethylation-pattern-in-cbs-promoter
#1
Zaizhong Zhang, Yang He, Xiaohuang Tu, Sheng Huang, Zhuo Chen, Lie Wang, Jingxiang Song
BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation patterns play a major role in tumorigenesis and the effects of nutrients, especially folate in the diet, on methylation changes is of great importance in colorectal cancer (CRC). Folate deficiency would disrupt methylation patterns; however, its exact effects on DNA methylation patterns in CRC are unclear. This study was performed to gain insight into the methylation changes induced by folate deficiency and the putative role of methylation pattern diversities of related genes in the clinical outcome of CRC...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381354/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-prevents-deleterious-effects-of-homocysteine-on-mitochondrial-function-and-redox-status-in-heart-slices
#2
Aline Longoni, Janaina Kolling, Cassiana Siebert, João Paulo Dos Santos, Jussemara Souza da Silva, Letícia F Pettenuzzo, Leo Anderson Meira-Martins, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Adriano M de Assis, Angela T S Wyse
Because homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and vitamin D deficiency can contribute to cardiovascular pathologies. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Hcy could impair energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, and redox status in heart slices of Wistar rats and that 1,25-dihydroxivitamin D3 (calcitriol) treatment could prevent such effects. Heart slices were first pretreated with 3 different concentrations of calcitriol (50, 100, and 250nmol/L) for 30minutes at 37°C, after which Hcy was added to promote deleterious effects on metabolism...
February 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374905/mtor-folate-sensing-links-folate-availability-to-trophoblast-cell-function
#3
Fredrick J Rosario, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson
Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin that is essential for cellular methylation reactions and DNA synthesis and repair. Low maternal folate levels in pregnancy are associated with fetal growth restriction, however the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) links nutrient availability to cell growth and function by regulating gene expression and protein translation. Here we show that mTOR functions as a folate sensor in primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Folate deficiency in PHT cells caused inhibition of mTOR signalling and decreased the activity of key amino acid transporters...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369960/chronic-alcohol-exposure-differentially-alters-one-carbon-metabolism-in-rat-liver-and-brain
#4
James Auta, Huaibo Zhang, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play an important role in regulating the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Chronic alcohol exposure leads to behavioral changes as well as decreased expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity. In the liver, it has been documented that chronic alcohol exposure impairs methionine synthase (Ms) activity leading to a decrease in SAM/SAH ratio which results in DNA hypomethylation; however it is not known whether similar alterations of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) levels are also produced in brain...
March 30, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368295/homocysteine-induces-hepatic-steatosis-involving-er-stress-response-in-high-methionine-diet-fed-mice
#5
Yanbiao Ai, Zhenzhen Sun, Chuan Peng, Lingli Liu, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Jibin Li
Elevated circulating homocysteine (Hcy) has been proposed to be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is also reported that Hcy causes protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we used a high methionine diet (HMD)-fed mouse model and cultured primary hepatocytes to investigate the effects of Hcy on hepatic lipids metabolism. C57BL/6J mice received either standard chow diet (CT, n = 10) or diet supplemented with 2% methionine (MET, n = 10) for 16 weeks. In in vitro experiments, cultured mouse primary hepatocytes were treated with Hcy, or Hcy combined with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), or tunicamycin (TM), respectively...
April 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334897/genetic-absence-of-alox5-protects-from-homocysteine-induced-memory-impairment-tau-phosphorylation-and-synaptic-pathology
#6
Jian-Guo Li, Carlos Barrero, Salim Merali, Domenico Praticò
Elevated level of homocysteine (Hcy) is considered a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, but the mechanisms remain to be established. Since high Hcy is associated with an up-regulation of the ALOX5 gene product, the 5Lipoxygenase (5LO), herein we investigated whether this activation is responsible for the Hcy effect on neurodegeneration or is a secondary event.To reach this goal, wild type mice and mice genetically deficient for 5LO were assessed after being exposed to a diet known to significantly increase brain levels of Hcy...
March 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289884/the-relative-contribution-of-genes-operating-in-the-s-methylmethionine-cycle-to-methionine-metabolism-in-arabidopsis-seeds
#7
Hagai Cohen, Asaf Salmon, Zipora Tietel, Yael Hacham, Rachel Amir
Enzymes operating in the S -methylmethionine cycle make a differential contribution to methionine synthesis in seeds. In addition, mutual effects exist between the S -methylmethionine cycle and the aspartate family pathway in seeds. Methionine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a key metabolite in plant cells. The previous lines of evidence proposed that the S-methylmethionine (SMM) cycle contributes to methionine synthesis in seeds where methionine that is produced in non-seed tissues is converted to SMM and then transported via the phloem into the seeds...
March 13, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288890/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-associated-microrna-516a-5p-regulates-expressions-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-in-human-abdominal-aortic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#8
Crystal Yin Tung Chan, Bernice Lai Yee Cheuk, Stephen Wing Keung Cheng
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been highlighted to be involved in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with the emergence of recent miRNA microarray profiling studies. miR-516a-5p has been shown to be significantly overexpressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from human AAA tissues from our previous microarray study, suggesting its crucial association with AAA. In addition, further bioinformatics analysis predicted methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which regulates homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and is proposed to be a risk gene for AAA formation and to be the downregulation target of miR-516a-5p...
March 10, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245568/pyridoxine-vitamin-b%C3%A2-and-the-glutathione-peroxidase-system-a-link-between-one-carbon-metabolism-and-antioxidation
#9
REVIEW
Danyel Bueno Dalto, Jean-Jacques Matte
Vitamin B₆ (B₆) has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) system. In fact, B₆-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B₆ plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and its seleno counterpart between transsulfuration and one-carbon metabolism, especially under oxidative stress conditions...
February 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239993/maternal-betaine-supplementation-in-rats-induces-intergenerational-changes-in-hepatic-igf-1-expression-and-dna-methylation
#10
Nannan Zhao, Shu Yang, Yun Hu, Haibo Dong, Ruqian Zhao
SCOPE: Betaine is widely used in animal nutrition to promote growth. Here, we aimed to investigate whether maternal betaine supplementation during pregnancy can exert multigenerational effects on growth across two generations and the possible epigenetic modifications associated to such effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diet supplemented with 1% betaine throughout the pregnancy and lactation. Betaine-supplemented dams produced bigger litter but smaller F1 pups at birth and weaning...
February 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236844/altered-metabolic-homeostasis-between-vitamin-d-and-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-preeclampsia
#11
Anindita A Nandi, Nisha S Wadhwani, Sadhana R Joshi
Sub-optimal maternal nutrition may result in pregnancy complications like preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is known to be of placental origin and a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our earlier studies suggest that altered metabolism of folic acid, vitamin B12 and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFAs) in the one carbon cycle increases homocysteine levels in preeclampsia. Recent reports indicate that vitamin D deficiency may also have a role in preeclampsia, although the mechanisms are unclear...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189056/metabolic-responses-to-intestine-regeneration-in-sea-cucumbers-apostichopus-japonicus
#12
Lina Sun, Jingchun Sun, Qinzeng Xu, Xiaoni Li, Libin Zhang, Hongsheng Yang
Sea cucumbers are excellent models for studying organ regeneration due to their striking capacity to regenerate most of their viscera after evisceration. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to determine the metabolite changes that occur during the process of intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis showed that there was significant differences in metabolism between regenerative intestines at 3, 7, and 14days post evisceration (dpe) and normal intestines...
February 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179424/altered-methylation-of-specific-dna-loci-in-the-liver-of-bhmt-null-mice-results-in-repression-of-iqgap2-and-f2rl2-and-is-associated-with-development-of-preneoplastic-foci
#13
Daniel S Lupu, Luz D Orozco, Ying Wang, John M Cullen, Matteo Pellegrini, Steven H Zeisel
Folate B12-dependent remethylation of homocysteine is important, but less is understood about the importance of the alternative betaine-dependent methylation pathway-catalyzed by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT)-for establishing and maintaining adequate DNA methylation across the genome. We studied C57Bl/6J Bhmt (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase)-null mice at age 4, 12, 24, and 52 wk (N = 8) and observed elevation of S-adenosylhomocysteine concentrations and development of preneoplastic foci in the liver (increased placental glutathione S-transferase and cytokeratin 8-18 activity; starting at 12 wk)...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165157/atf6%C3%AE-based-fine-tuning-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-enhances-therapeutic-antibody-productivity-of-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#14
Lisa A Pieper, Michaela Strotbek, Till Wenger, Monilola A Olayioye, Angelika Hausser
The dynamics of protein folding and secretion are key issues in improving the productivity and robustness of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) producer cells. High recombinant protein secretion in CHO producer clones triggers the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an intracellular response to the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We previously reported that the human microRNA (miRNA) miR-1287 enhances productivity in IgG-expressing CHO cells (CHO-IgG)...
June 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161165/supplemental-methionine-choline-or-taurine-alter-in-vitro-gene-network-expression-of-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes-from-neonatal-holstein-calves
#15
M K Abdelmegeid, M Vailati-Riboni, A Alharti, F Batistel, J J Loor
Isolated PMNL from neonatal calves were used to evaluate the effect of Met, choline, and taurine supplementation on mRNA expression of genes related to the Met cycle and innate immunity. Five neonatal Holstein calves (3 wk old) were used for PMNL isolation and in vitro culture. The selected genes were related to the 1-carbon and Met cycles, cell signaling and cytokine mediators, inflammation, antimicrobial and killing mechanism associated genes, immune mediators, adhesion, and pathogen recognition. The results indicated that supplementation of Met, choline, and taurine increased homocysteine synthesis through upregulation of SAHH...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152052/choline-and-methionine-differentially-alter-methyl-carbon-metabolism-in-bovine-neonatal-hepatocytes
#16
Tawny L Chandler, Heather M White
Intersections in hepatic methyl group metabolism pathways highlights potential competition or compensation of methyl donors. The objective of this experiment was to examine the expression of genes related to methyl group transfer and lipid metabolism in response to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and DL-methionine (DLM) in primary neonatal hepatocytes that were or were not exposed to fatty acids (FA). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 4 neonatal Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, and 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L), with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial arrangement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126648/maternal-consumption-of-low-isoflavone-soy-protein-isolate-alters-hepatic-gene-expression-and-liver-development-in-rat-offspring
#17
Sae Bom Won, Anna Han, Young Hye Kwon
In utero environment is known to affect fetal development. Especially, the distinct fetal programming of carcinogenesis was reported in offspring exposed to maternal diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI) or genistein. Therefore, we investigated whether maternal consumption of low-isoflavone SPI or genistein alters hepatic gene expression and liver development in rat offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a casein diet, a low-isoflavone SPI diet or a casein diet supplemented with genistein (250 mg/kg diet) for 2 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118529/slc25a26-overexpression-impairs-cell-function-via-mtdna-hypermethylation-and-rewiring-of-methyl-metabolism
#18
Alessio Menga, Erika M Palmieri, Antonia Cianciulli, Vittoria Infantino, Massimiliano Mazzone, Antonio Scilimati, Ferdinando Palmieri, Alessandra Castegna, Vito Iacobazzi
Cancer cells down-regulate different genes to give them a selective advantage in invasiveness and/or metastasis. The SLC25A26 gene encodes the mitochondrial carrier that catalyzes the import of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) into the mitochondrial matrix, required for mitochondrial methylation processes, and is down-regulated in cervical cancer cells. In this study we show that SLC25A26 is down-regulated due to gene promoter hypermethylation, as a mechanism to promote cell survival and proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of SLC25A26 in CaSki cells increases mitochondrial SAM availability and promotes hypermethylation of mitochondrial DNA, leading to decreased expression of key respiratory complex subunits, reduction of mitochondrial ATP and release of cytochrome c...
January 24, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965408/prenatal-betaine-exposure-modulates-hypothalamic-expression-of-cholesterol-metabolic-genes-in-cockerels-through-modifications-of-dna-methylation
#19
Abdulrahman A Idriss, Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Longfei Jia, Yimin Jia, Nagmeldin A Omer, Halima Abobaker, Ruqian Zhao
Cholesterol is essential for neuronal development and brain function. Previously we reported that in ovo administration of betaine modulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in the chicken, yet it remains unknown whether maternal betaine affects the cholesterol content and the expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in chicken hypothalamus. In this study, eggs were injected with saline or betaine at 2.5 mg/egg, and the hatchlings were raised under the same condition until 64 d of age. Maternal betaine significantly (P = 0...
December 13, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890035/epigenetics-in-type-1-diabetes-tnfa-gene-promoter-methylation-status-in-chilean-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Viviana Arroyo-Jousse, Diego F Garcia-Diaz, Ethel Codner, Francisco Pérez-Bravo
TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. The TNFa gene is subject of epigenetic regulation in which folate and homocysteine are important molecules because they participate in the methionine cycle where the most important methyl group donor (S-adenosylmethionine) is formed. We investigated whether TNFa gene promoter methylation status in T1D patients was related to blood folate, homocysteine and TNF-α in a transversal case-control study. We studied T1D patients (n 25, mean=13·7 years) and healthy control subjects (n 25, mean=31·1 years), without T1D and/or other autoimmune diseases or direct family history of these diseases...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
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