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Victor Monteon, Enrique Quen-Rámirez, Veronica Macedo-Reyes, Ruth Lopez, Karla Acosta-Viana, Pamela Pennigton, Angel Ramos-Ligonio
Under natural conditions, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is transmitted to mammals when faeces contaminated with metacyclic trypomastigotes gain access through skin lesions, mucosa or bite wounds. Natural infection of bugs with T. cruzi can vary greatly from less than 1% up to 70%, depending on triatomine species: in the case of Triatoma dimidiata, the percentage of infection is around 30%. In this work uses biological fluids (saliva and faeces) from Triatoma dimidiata to inoculate experimental animals once or multiple times, before inoculation with faeces contaminated with metacyclic trypomastigotes discrete type unit Ia (TcI)...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
Alice Ricardo-Silva, Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves, José Francisco Luitgards-Moura, Catarina Macedo Lopes, Silvano Pedrosa da Silva, Amanda Queiroz Bastos, Nathalia Coelho Vargas, Maria-Rosa Goreti Freitas
During a medical entomology course in Boa Vista, Roraima, colonies of Triatoma maculata closely associated with pigeon nests were observed in concrete air-conditioner box located on the external plastered and cemented walls of a modern brick-built apartment block. In only one eight-hole ceramic brick, located inside one air-conditioner box, 127 specimens of T. maculata were collected. T. maculata is a recognised vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the surrounding area and its domiciliation increases the risk of Chagas disease transmission...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Rafael Bello Corassa, Carmen Aceijas, Paula Aryane Brito Alves, Hemda Garelick
AIMS: This article aimed to provide a critical review of the evolution of Chagas' disease (ChD) in Brazil, its magnitude, historical development and management, and challenges for the future. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PubMed, SciELO and Google Scholar and throughout collected articles' references. Narrative analysis was structured around five main themes identified: vector transmission, control programme, transfusion, oral and congenital transmission...
October 10, 2016: Perspectives in Public Health
J A DE Fuentes-Vicente, M Cabrera-Bravo, J N Enríquez-Vara, M I Bucio-Torres, A E Gutiérrez-Cabrera, D G Vidal-López, J A Martínez-Ibarra, P M Salazar-Schettino, A Córdoba-Aguilar
Little is known about how the virulence of a human pathogen varies in the environment it shares with its vector. This study focused on whether the virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), the causal agent of Chagas' disease, is related to altitude. Accordingly, Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens were collected at three different altitudes (300, 700 and 1400 m a.s.l.) in Chiapas, Mexico. The parasite was then isolated to infect uninfected T. dimidiata from the same altitudes, as well as female CD-1 mice...
October 18, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
N P Pereira, K C C Alevi, J A Rosa, M T V Azeredo-Oliveira
In this study, the karyometry of different Triatoma infestans populations from different states of Brazil was analyzed and compared with those of a population from Cochabamba. No significant differences were found between the population from Cochabamba and those from Brazil. These results are consistent with the origin of the T. infestans populations of Brazil by a founder effect from Cochabamba. Moreover, these findings also confirm that a founder effect occurred during the dispersal of T. infestans populations in different Brazilian states...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Pamela Durán, Edda Siñani, Stéphanie Depickère
For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a "cockroach diet" was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species...
October 3, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
M D Germano, M I Picollo
Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) Klug is the main vector of Chagas disease in Latin America. Resistance to deltamethrin was reported in Argentina and recently associated with reproductive and longevity trade-offs. The objectives of the present study were to describe the demographic consequences of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans and to establish possible target stages for chemical control in susceptible and resistant colonies. A stage-classified matrix model was constructed based on the average stage length for susceptible, resistant and reciprocal matings' progeny...
September 28, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Eduardo P Dolhun, Andrew W Antes
Chagas disease is a vector-borne and potentially fatal parasitic disease that is transmitted by the triatomine bug, a nocturnal feeding, flying arthropod, often referred to by its colloquial name, the "kissing bug." Vector-borne transmission is considered the most important means of spreading Chagas disease in endemic and nonendemic areas. Corrugated cardboard boxes may accelerate the spread of these insect vectors to nonendemic areas through their ability to harbor and transport small terrestrial arthropods such as silverfish, termites, and cockroaches...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
João Victor Leite Dias, Eduardo Geraldo Fernandes, Herton Helder Rocha Pires, João Carlos Pinto Dias
INTRODUCTION: Triatomines are targeted for the control of Chagas disease in endemic areas of Brazil. METHODS: Data regarding triatomines captured during 2001-2008 in 34 municipalities in the Northeast of Minas Gerais were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 11,187 triatomines from eight species were captured, mostly in henhouses and bedrooms. Trypanosomes were found in 203 samples. Main species were Triatoma sordida, Panstrongylus megistus, and Triatoma vitticeps...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Maria Augusta Dario, Marina Silva Rodrigues, Juliana Helena da Silva Barros, Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier, Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque, Ana Maria Jansen
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi infection via oral route results in outbreaks or cases of acute Chagas disease (ACD) in different Brazilian regions and poses a novel epidemiological scenario. In the Espírito Santo state (southeastern Brazil), a fatal case of a patient with ACD led us to investigate the enzootic scenario to avoid the development of new cases. At the studied locality, Triatoma vitticeps exhibited high T. cruzi infection rates and frequently invaded residences. METHODS: Sylvatic and domestic mammals in the Rio da Prata locality, where the ACD case occurred, and in four surrounding areas (Baia Nova, Buenos Aires, Santa Rita and Todos os Santos) were examined and underwent parasitological and serological tests...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Rubén Sánchez-Eugenia, Aritz Durana, Ibai López-Marijuan, Gerardo A Marti, Diego Marcelo Guerin
In viruses, uncoating and RNA release are two key steps of successfully infecting a target cell. During these steps, the capsid must undergo the necessary conformational changes to allow RNA egress. Despite their importance, these processes are poorly understood in the Dicistroviridae family. Here, we used X-ray crystallography to solve the atomic structure of a Triatoma virus empty particle (PDB code 5L7O), which is the resulting capsid after RNA release. It is observed that the overall shape of the capsid and of the three individual proteins is maintained in comparison with the mature virion...
August 12, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Lisa Shender, Michael Niemela, Patricia Conrad, Tracey Goldstein, Jonna Mazet
Chagas disease, which manifests as cardiomyopathy and severe gastrointestinal dysfunction, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a vector-borne parasite. In California, the vector Triatoma protracta frequently colonizes woodrat (Neotoma spp.) lodges, but may also invade nearby residences, feeding upon humans and creating the dual risk of bite-induced anaphylaxis and T. cruzi transmission. Our research aimed to assess T. cruzi presence in woodrats in a previously unstudied northern California area, statistically evaluate woodrat microhabitat use with respect to vegetation parameters, and provide guidance for habitat modifications to mitigate public health risks associated with Tr...
September 2016: EcoHealth
José Antonio Santana Rangel, Luz Arenas Monreal, Janine M Ramsey
OBJECTIVE: To explore the pillars of community resilience in a region where Chagas disease is endemic, with the aim of promoting participatory processes to deal with this condition from the resilience of the population. METHODS: Qualitative study using ethnographic record and six interviews of focus groups with young people, women and men. The research was carried out in a rural area of the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2006 and 2007. We carried out educational sessions with the population in general, so that residents could identify the relationship between the vector Triatoma pallidipennis, the parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi), symptoms, and preventive actions for Chagas disease...
August 4, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
Patricia L Dorn, Nicholas M de la Rúa, Heather Axen, Nicholas Smith, Bethany R Richards, Jirias Charabati, Julianne Suarez, Adrienne Woods, Rafaela Pessoa, Carlota Monroy, C William Kilpatrick, Lori Stevens
The widespread and diverse Triatoma dimidiata is the kissing bug species most important for Chagas disease transmission in Central America and a secondary vector in Mexico and northern South America. Its diversity may contribute to different Chagas disease prevalence in different localities and has led to conflicting systematic hypotheses describing various populations as subspecies or cryptic species. To resolve these conflicting hypotheses, we sequenced a nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS-2) and mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) from an extensive sampling of T...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Carla G Grosso, María J Blariza, Gastón Mougabure-Cueto, María I Picollo, Beatriz A García
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play a predominant role in the metabolism of insecticides. Many insect P450 genes have frequently been associated with detoxification processes allowing the insect to become tolerant or resistant to insecticides. The increases of expression of P450 genes at transcriptional level are often consider responsible for increasing the metabolism of insecticides and seems to be a common phenomenon in the evolution of resistance development in insects. As pyrethroid resistance has been detected in Triatoma infestans, it was of interest to analyze genes associated with resistance to insecticides such as those encoding for cytochromes P450...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
K C C Alevi, C H L Imperador, F F F Moreira, J Jurberg, M T V Azeredo-Oliveira
Using classic morphometric techniques to examine the head and thorax of Triatoma specimens, researchers identified a possible taxonomic problem involving T. arthurneivai (Lent & Martins) and T. wygodzinskyi (Lent). A recent geometric morphometric study indicated that the insects captured outside the Serra do Cipó region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were T. wygodzinskyi. The misidentification of T. arthurneivai as T. wygodzinskyi could result in several problems associated with entoepidemiological lifting, the biological characterization of the species, and phylogenetic reconstruction...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Victor Monteón, Omar Triana-Chávez, Ana Mejía-Jaramillo, Pamela Pennignton, Ángel Ramos-Ligonio, Karla Acosta, Ruth Lopez
The etiologic agent Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) has been grouped into six discrete type units (DTU I-VI); within DTU-I exists four subgroups defined Ia-Id. In Colombia, the genotype Ia is associated with human infection and domiciliated Rhodnius vector. In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, the main vector involved in T. cruzi transmission is Triatoma dimidiata predominantly via sylvatic and peridomiciliated cycles. In this study, multiple sequence analysis of mini-exon intergenic regions of T. cruzi isolates obtained from T...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Eliezer A DA Silveira, Israel S Ribeiro, Miguel S Amorim, Dalva V Rocha, Helder S Coutinho, Leandro M DE Freitas, Laize Tomazi, Robson A A DA Silva
Chagas disease, caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in South America, and its main method of control is the elimination of triatomines. It is presented here the geographic distribution and the rate of natural infection by T. cruzi of triatomines collected and evaluated from 2008 to 2013 in southwest of Bahia. Triatomines were captured in the intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of five cities located in the southwest of Bahia state, identified, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosomatids in their feces...
July 11, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Vagner José Mendonça, Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Heloisa Pinotti, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Sebastián Pita, Ana Letícia Guerra, Francisco Panzera, Renato Freitas De Araújo, Maria Tercília Vilela De Azeredo-Oliveir, João Aristeu Da Rosa
Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, and T. pessoai Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 were described based on material collected in the Brazilian state of Bahia. These species were later included in the T. brasiliensis complex based on their geographic distribution. Triatoma bahiensis and T. pessoai were subsequently synonymized with T. lenti. However, the phylogenetic position of T. lenti within the T. brasiliensis complex has remained doubtful. This study aims to assess the taxonomic status of T...
2016: Zootaxa
Ana Letícia Guerra, Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Cecília Artico Banho, Jader de Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira
The brasiliensis complex is composed of five triatomine species, and different approaches suggest that Triatoma lenti and Triatoma petrochiae may be the new members. Therefore, this study sought to analyze the phylogenetic relationships within this complex by means of the D2 region of the 28S RNA gene, and to analyze the degree of polymorphism and phylogenetic significance of this gene for South American triatomines. Phylogenetic analysis by using sequence fragments of the D2 domain did not allow to perform phylogenetic inferences on species within the brasiliensis complex, because the gene alignment composed of a matrix with 37 specimens exhibited only two variable sites along the 567 base pairs used...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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