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Diego Montenegro, Mauricio Vera, Liliana Zuleta, Violeta Llanos, Angela Junqueira
Objectives Present a strategy to determine the baseline in endemic areas in the process of vector interruption for Chagas disease (CHD). Methods A social and environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey evaluated the physical conditions of dwellings, the inhabitants' knowledge of CHD, the entomological triatomine indicators and the statistical relationship among these variables. Results Colonization and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi exist in Rhodnius prolixus, the principal vector of CHD in Colombia...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Pamela Durán, Edda Siñani, Stéphanie Depickère
For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a "cockroach diet" was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species...
October 3, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
David Majerowicz, Gustavo M Calderón-Fernández, Michele Alves-Bezerra, Iron F De Paula, Lívia S Cardoso, M Patricia Juárez, Georgia C Atella, Katia C Gondim
The kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus is both an important vector of Chagas' disease and an interesting model for investigation into the field of physiology, including lipid metabolism. The publication of this insect genome will bring a huge amount of new molecular biology data to be used in future experiments. Although this work represents a promising scenario, a preliminary analysis of the sequence data is necessary to identify and annotate the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Here, we used bioinformatics tools and gene expression analysis to explore genes from different genes families and pathways, including genes for fat breakdown, as lipases and phospholipases, and enzymes from β-oxidation, fatty acid metabolism, and acyl-CoA and glycerolipid synthesis...
September 30, 2016: Gene
Sebastián Pita, Francisco Panzera, Antonio Sánchez, Teresa Palomeque, Pedro Lorite
In order to provide a broad picture on the origin and evolution of holocentric X chromosomes in heteropteran species, we prepared a sex chromosome painting probe by microdissection of the X1 and X2 chromosomes from a kissing bug Mepraia spinolai (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Fluorescence in situ hybridization on four species of the Triatomini having different amounts of autosomal heterochromatin and sex chromosome systems show that the Xs probe hybridizes on the euchromatin, located both on autosomes and X chromosomes...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Kelly Cristine Borsatto, Anna Claudia Campaner Lima, Amanda Ravazi, Jader de Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-Oliveira, Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi
All species of triatomines are considered potential vectors of Chagas disease and the reproductive biology of these bugs has been studied by different approaches. In 1999, nucleolar persistence during meiosis was observed in the subfamily for the first time. Recently, it has been observed that all species within the genus Rhodnius exhibit the same phenomenon, suggesting that it may be a synapomorphy of the triatomines. Thus, this article aims to analyze the nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis of 59 triatomine species...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gloria Hinestroza, Mario Iván Ortiz, Jorge Molina
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral fever is a response to infections with microorganisms observed in some poikilothermic animals. Rhodnius prolixus is involved in the transmission of two parasites: Trypanosoma cruzi (pathogenic for humans and transmitted in feces) and Trypanosoma rangeli (non-pathogenic for humans, pathogenic for Rhodnius and transmitted by the bite of an infected individual). Only T. rangeli is found in the hemolymph of Rhodnius as it travels to the salivary glands. METHODS: To study vector-parasite interactions, we evaluated possible behavioral fever responses of R...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Flávia B Mury, Magda D Lugon, Rodrigo Nunes DA Fonseca, Jose R Silva, Mateus Berni, Helena M Araujo, Marcio Ribeiro Fontenele, Leonardo Araujo DE Abreu, Marílvia Dansa, Glória Braz, Hatisaburo Masuda, Carlos Logullo
Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli to vertebrate hosts. Rhodnius prolixus is also a classical model in insect physiology, and the recent availability of R. prolixus genome has opened new avenues on triatomine research. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is classically described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism, also acting as a downstream component of the Wnt pathway during embryogenesis. GSK-3 has been shown to be highly conserved among several organisms, mainly in the catalytic domain region...
October 2016: Parasitology
Zina Hamoudi, Angela B Lange, Ian Orchard
Neuropeptides control many physiological and endocrinological processes in animals, acting as neuroactive chemicals within the central and peripheral nervous systems. Corazonin (CRZ) is one such neuropeptide that has a variety of physiological roles associated with control of heartbeat, ecdysis behavior initiation, and cuticle coloration. These physiological effects are mediated by the CRZ receptor (CRZR). In order to understand the role of the CRZ-signaling pathway in Rhodnius prolixus, the cDNA sequence encoding the Rhopr-CRZR was isolated and cloned revealing two splice variants (Rhopr-CRZR-α and β)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
A P M Lima-Oliveira, K C C Alevi, A C B Anhê, M T V Azeredo-Oliveira
Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Pablo E Schilman
Insect́s metabolic rate and patterns of gas-exchange varies according to different factors such as: species, activity, mass, and temperature among others. One particular striking pattern of gas-exchange in insects are discontinuous gas-exchange cycles, for which many different hypotheses regarding their evolution have been stated. This article does not pretend to be an extensive review on the subject, rather to focus on the work performed on the haematophagous bug Rhodnius prolixus, a model organism used from the mid XX century until present days, with the great influence of Wigglesworth and his students/collaboratoŕs work...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Xanthe Vafopoulou, Colin G H Steel
The actions of the insect steroid molting hormones, ecdysteroids, on the genome of target cells has been well studied, but little is known of their extranuclear actions. We previously showed in Rhodnius prolixus that much of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) resides in the cytoplasm of various cell types and undergoes shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm with circadian periodicity, possibly using microtubules as tracks for translocation to the nucleus. Here we report that cytoplasmic EcR appears to be also involved in extranuclear actions of ecdysteroids by association with the mitochondria...
October 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Rafaela M M Paim, Ricardo N Araujo, Miguel Leis, Mauricio R V Sant'anna, Nelder F Gontijo, Claudio R Lazzari, Marcos H Pereira
Blood-sucking vectors must overcome thermal stress caused by intake of proportionally large amounts of warm blood from their hosts. In response to this, Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) such as the widely studied HSP70 family (the inducible HSP70 and the cognate form HSC70, known for their role in preserving essential cellular functions) are rapidly up-regulated in their tissues. The triatomine Rhodnius prolixus is an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative pathogen of Chagas' disease, and is also a model organism for studying insect biology and physiology...
October 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Marcos Sterkel, Hugo D Perdomo, Melina G Guizzo, Ana Beatriz F Barletta, Rodrigo D Nunes, Felipe A Dias, Marcos H F Sorgine, Pedro L Oliveira
Blood-feeding arthropods are vectors of infectious diseases such as dengue, Zika, Chagas disease, and malaria [1], and vector control is essential to limiting disease spread. Because these arthropods ingest very large amounts of blood, a protein-rich meal, huge amounts of amino acids are produced during digestion. Previous work on Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, showed that, among all amino acids, only tyrosine degradation enzymes were overexpressed in the midgut compared to other tissues [2]...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Juliana DE O Rodrigues, Marcelo G Lorenzo, Olindo A Martins-Filho, Simon L Elliot, Alessandra A Guarneri
Trypanosoma rangeli is a protozoan parasite, which does not cause disease in humans, although it can produce different levels of pathogenicity to triatomines, their invertebrate hosts. We tested whether infection imposed a temperature-dependent cost on triatomine fitness using T. rangeli with different life histories. Parasites cultured only in liver infusion tryptose medium (cultured) and parasites exposed to cyclical passages through mice and triatomines (passaged) were used. We held infected insects at four temperatures between 21 and 30 °C and measured T...
September 2016: Parasitology
Leonardo L Fruttero, Natalia R Moyetta, Augusto F Uberti, Matheus V Coste Grahl, Fernanda C Lopes, Valquiria Broll, Denise Feder, Celia R Carlini
BACKGROUND: Although the entomotoxicity of plant ureases has been reported almost 20 years ago, their insecticidal mechanism of action is still not well understood. Jaburetox is a recombinant peptide derived from one of the isoforms of Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) urease that presents biotechnological interest since it is toxic to insects of different orders. Previous studies of our group using the Chagas disease vector and model insect Rhodnius prolixus showed that the treatment with Jack Bean Urease (JBU) led to hemocyte aggregation and hemolymph darkening, among other effects...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Victor Monteón, Omar Triana-Chávez, Ana Mejía-Jaramillo, Pamela Pennignton, Ángel Ramos-Ligonio, Karla Acosta, Ruth Lopez
The etiologic agent Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) has been grouped into six discrete type units (DTU I-VI); within DTU-I exists four subgroups defined Ia-Id. In Colombia, the genotype Ia is associated with human infection and domiciliated Rhodnius vector. In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, the main vector involved in T. cruzi transmission is Triatoma dimidiata predominantly via sylvatic and peridomiciliated cycles. In this study, multiple sequence analysis of mini-exon intergenic regions of T. cruzi isolates obtained from T...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Alessandra Aparecida Guarneri, Marcelo Gustavo Lorenzo
Triatomines are hematophagous insects that feed on the blood of vertebrates from different taxa, but can occasionally also take fluids from invertebrate hosts, including other insects. During the blood ingestion process, these insects can acquire diverse parasites that can later be transmitted to susceptible vertebrates if they complete their development inside bugs. Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, and Trypanosoma rangeli are protozoan parasites transmitted by triatomines, the latter only transmitted by Rhodnius spp...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti, Gabriela Vieira de Souza Castro, Mariane Albuquerque Lima Ribeiro Castro, Janis Lunier de Souza, Jader de Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa, Luis Marcelo Aranha Camargo
INTRODUCTION: This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of Rhodnius stali in the state of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Specimens of R. stali were collected by the Federal University of Acre in Rio Branco. RESULTS: The number of Triatominae species in the State of Acre increased from five to six. This was also the first report of R. stali in the Brazilian Amazon. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of R...
May 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Michael Cardinal-Aucoin, Colin G H Steel
The insect neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is a critical regulator of larval development. We recently demonstrated that PTTH is also present in adult Rhodnius prolixus and is released by adult brains in vitro with a clear daily rhythm during egg development. Here, we employ a well-established in vitro bioassay, to show that the daily rhythm of PTTH release by brains in vitro is under circadian control since it persists in aperiodic conditions with a free running period of around 24h that is temperature compensated...
November 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Fernanda Moreira Alves, Juliane Saab de Lima, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Guilherme de Miranda Mourão, Ana Maria Jansen
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is dispersed in nature through many transmission mechanisms among a high diversity of vectors and mammalian species, representing particular behaviors and habitats. Thus, each locality has a unique set of conditions underlying the maintenance of this parasite in the wild. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the life-cycle of T. cruzi in free-ranging coatis from the central region of the Brazilian Pantanal using a multi-factorial approach. METHODS: Three methodological blocks were used in the present study: (i) We evaluated T...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
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