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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810872/-repel-all-biters-an-enhanced-collection-of-endophilic-anopheles-gambiae-and-anopheles-arabiensis-in-cdc-light-traps-from-the-kagera-region-of-tanzania-in-the-presence-of-a-combination-mosquito-net-impregnated-with-piperonyl-butoxide-and-permethrin
#1
Corey LeClair, Judith Cronery, Enock Kessy, Elsa V E Tomás, Yohannes Kulwa, Franklin W Mosha, Mark Rowland, Natacha Protopopoff, J Derek Charlwood
BACKGROUND: Mosquito nets containing synergists designed to overcome metabolic resistance mechanisms in vectors have been developed. These may enhance excitability in the mosquitoes and affect how they respond to CDC light-traps. Investigating the behaviour of vectors of disease in relation to novel mosquito nets is, therefore, essential for the design of sampling and surveillance systems. METHODS: In an initial experiment in Muleba, Tanzania, nine bedrooms from three housing clusters were sampled...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810866/the-development-of-an-ivermectin-based-attractive-toxic-sugar-bait-atsb-to-target-anopheles-arabiensis
#2
Frank Chelestino Tenywa, Athumani Kambagha, Adam Saddler, Marta Ferreira Maia
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa are moving towards malaria-elimination, mostly thanks to successful vector control campaigns. However, elimination has proven challenging, resulting in the persistence of malaria transmission. It is now accepted that in order to eliminate malaria, new complementary vector control approaches must be developed. This study describes the development of a sugar-baited resting place containing a toxic dose of ivermectin for the control of Anopheles arabiensis...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810861/the-implementation-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-bed-nets-has-differential-effects-on-the-genetic-structure-of-the-african-malaria-vectors-in-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex-in-dielmo-senegal
#3
Seynabou Sougoufara, Cheikh Sokhna, Nafissatou Diagne, Souleymane Doucouré, Pape MBacké Sembène, Myriam Harry
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex are the main vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Among these, An. gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles arabiensis are the most efficient vectors and are largely distributed in sympatric locations. However, these species present ecological and behavioural differences that impact their vectorial capacity and complicate vector-control efforts, mainly based on long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808258/hexahydroquinolines-are-antimalarial-candidates-with-potent-blood-stage-and-transmission-blocking-activity
#4
Manu Vanaerschot, Leonardo Lucantoni, Tao Li, Jill M Combrinck, Andrea Ruecker, T R Santha Kumar, Kelly Rubiano, Pedro E Ferreira, Giulia Siciliano, Sonia Gulati, Philipp P Henrich, Caroline L Ng, James M Murithi, Victoria C Corey, Sandra Duffy, Ori J Lieberman, M Isabel Veiga, Robert E Sinden, Pietro Alano, Michael J Delves, Kim Lee Sim, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Timothy J Egan, Stephen L Hoffman, Vicky M Avery, David A Fidock
Antimalarial compounds with dual therapeutic and transmission-blocking activity are desired as high-value partners for combination therapies. Here, we report the identification and characterization of hexahydroquinolines (HHQs) that show low nanomolar potency against both pathogenic and transmissible intra-erythrocytic forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This activity translates into potent transmission-blocking potential, as shown by in vitro male gamete formation assays and reduced oocyst infection and prevalence in Anopheles mosquitoes...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807760/a-simple-methodology-to-collect-culturable-bacteria-from-feces-of-anopheles-darlingi-diptera-culicidae
#5
Andrelisse Arruda, Gabriel Sousa Ferreira, Nucia Cristiane da Silva Lima, Antonio Dos Santos Júnior, Márlon Grégori Flores Custódio, Najla Benevides-Matos, Luiz Shozo Ozaki, Rodrigo G Stabeli, Alexandre A Silva
A simple methodology based in a modified mosquito cage with a Petri dish containing culture medium was successfully used as an alternative method to the traditional digestive tract dissection protocol to collect bacteria from the feces of the mosquito Anopheles darlingi.
August 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804714/reduction-of-mosquito-survival-in-mice-vaccinated-with-anopheles-stephensi-glucose-transporter
#6
J Couto, S Antunes, J Ferrolho, J de la Fuente, A Domingos
Despite the fact that recent efforts to control/eradicate malaria have contributed to a significant decrease in the number of cases and deaths, the disease remains a global health challenge. Vaccines based on mosquito salivary gland antigens are a potential approach for reducing vector populations and malaria parasites. The Anopheles AGAP007752 gene encodes for a glucose transporter that is upregulated during Plasmodium infection, and its knockdown decreases the number of sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797269/a-reduction-in-malaria-transmission-intensity-in-northern-ghana-after-7%C3%A2-years-of-indoor-residual-spraying
#7
Sylvester Coleman, Samuel K Dadzie, Aklilu Seyoum, Yemane Yihdego, Peter Mumba, Dereje Dengela, Philip Ricks, Kristen George, Christen Fornadel, Daniel Szumlas, Paul Psychas, Jacob Williams, Maxwell A Appawu, Daniel A Boakye
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is being implemented as one of the malaria prevention methods in the Northern Region of Ghana. Changes in longevity, sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) of major malaria vectors were monitored to assess the impact of IRS in selected districts. METHODS: Monthly human landing catches (HLCs) were used to collect mosquitoes from sentinel sites in three adjacent districts between July 2009 and December 2014: Savelugu Nanton (SND) where IRS had been implemented from 2008 to 2014; Tolon Kumbungu (TKD) where IRS had been implemented between 2008 and 2012 and Tamale Metropolis (TML) with no history of IRS...
August 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797253/first-record-of-anopheles-stephensi-in-sri-lanka-a-potential-challenge-for-prevention-of-malaria-reintroduction
#8
A G Gayan Dharmasiri, A Yashan Perera, Jeevanie Harishchandra, Hemantha Herath, Kandasamy Aravindan, H T R Jayasooriya, Gaya R Ranawaka, Mihirini Hewavitharane
BACKGROUND: The major malaria vector in Sri Lanka is reported to be Anopheles culicifacies with Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles varuna considered as potential vectors. The occurrence of Anopheles stephensi, which is the key vector of urban malaria in India and the Middle East, had never been reported from Sri Lanka. METHODS: A series of entomological investigations were carried out by the Anti Malaria Campaign, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka during December 2016 to April 2017 in two localities of the Mannar District in the Northern Province of the country...
August 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794438/complete-mitochondrial-genomes-of-anopheles-stephensi-and-an-dirus-and-comparative-evolutionary-mitochondriomics-of-50-mosquitoes
#9
You-Jin Hao, Yi-Lin Zou, Yi-Ran Ding, Wen-Yue Xu, Zhen-Tian Yan, Xu-Dong Li, Wen-Bo Fu, Ting-Jing Li, Bin Chen
To better understand the phylogeny and evolution of mosquitoes, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Anopheles stephensi and An. dirus were sequenced and annotated, and a total of 50 mosquito mitogenomes were comparatively analyzed. The complete mitogenome of An. stephensi and An. dirus is 1,5371 bp and 1,5406 bp long, respectively. The main features of the 50 mosquito mitogenomes are conservative: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793859/investigating-knockdown-resistance-kdr-mechanism-against-pyrethroids-ddt-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-funestus-across-africa
#10
Helen Irving, Charles S Wondji
BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance is key to improve the surveillance and monitoring of malaria vector populations under control. In the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, little is currently known about the role of the knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism. Here, we investigated the presence and contribution of knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids/DDT resistance observed in Anopheles funestus across Africa. RESULTS: Pyrosequencing genotyping and sequencing of the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene did not detect the common L1014F mutation in field collected An...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780069/serine-protease-related-proteins-in-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#11
Xiaolong Cao, Mansi Gulati, Haobo Jiang
Insect serine proteases (SPs) and serine protease homologs (SPHs) participate in digestion, defense, development, and other physiological processes. In mosquitoes, some clip-domain SPs and SPHs (i.e. CLIPs) have been investigated for possible roles in antiparasitic responses. In a recent test aimed at improving quality of gene models in the Anopheles gambiae genome using RNA-seq data, we observed various discrepancies between gene models in AgamP4.5 and corresponding sequences selected from those modeled by Cufflinks, Trinity and Bridger...
August 2, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774799/discrimination-of-neotropical-anopheles-species-based-on-molecular-and-wing-geometric-morphometric-traits
#12
Giovan F Gómez, Margarita M Correa
Morphological similarities among closely related Anopheles species that differ in biological traits and malaria transmission represent a challenge in medical entomology; therefore, new tools are constantly tested to bring solutions. Particularly, in this work, a geometric morphometric analysis of wing geometry variation, based on morphologically and molecularly identified specimens, was applied for the discrimination of fourteen Anopheles species belonging to the Nyssorhynchus, Anopheles and Kerteszia subgenera...
August 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770814/malaria
#13
REVIEW
Margaret A Phillips, Jeremy N Burrows, Christine Manyando, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Timothy N C Wells
Malaria is caused in humans by five species of single-celled eukaryotic Plasmodium parasites (mainly Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax) that are transmitted by the bite of Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Malaria remains one of the most serious infectious diseases; it threatens nearly half of the world's population and led to hundreds of thousands of deaths in 2015, predominantly among children in Africa. Malaria is managed through a combination of vector control approaches (such as insecticide spraying and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets) and drugs for both treatment and prevention...
August 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768561/field-application-of-maldi-tof-ms-on-mosquito-larvae-identification
#14
Amira Nebbak, Sekou Koumare, Alexandra C Willcox, Jean-Michel Berenger, Didier Raoult, Lionel Almeras, Philippe Parola
In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an efficient tool for arthropod identification. Its application for field monitoring of adult mosquitoes was demonstrated, but identification of larvae has been limited to laboratory-reared specimens. Study aim was to test the success of MALDI-TOF MS in correctly identifying mosquito larvae collected in the field. Collections were performed at 13 breeding sites in urban areas of Marseille, a city in the South of France...
August 3, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766991/mosquito-vectors-of-avian-malaria-in-mississippi-a-first-look
#15
Diana Cumings Outlaw, David Larson, Jerome Goddard
The vectors of avian malaria (Haemosporida) are an understudied component of wildlife disease ecology. Most studies of avian malaria have focused on the intermediate bird hosts. This bias leaves a significant gap in our knowledge and understanding of the insect hosts. This study investigates the diversity of malaria parasites carried by mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the state of Mississippi. Using molecular techniques, haemosporidian infection rates were determined and parasites were identified. A total of 27,157 female mosquitoes representing 15 species were captured...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765838/sex-specific-molecular-responses-of-quick-to-court-protein-in-indian-malarial-vector-anopheles-culicifacies-conflict-of-mating-versus-blood-feeding-behaviour
#16
Tanwee Das De, Punita Sharma, Charu Rawal, Seena Kumari, Sanjay Tavetiya, Jyoti Yadav, Yasha Hasija, Rajnikant Dixit
Understanding the molecular basis of mosquito behavioural complexity plays a central role in designing novel molecular tools to fight against their vector-borne diseases. Although the olfactory system plays an important role in guiding and managing many behavioural responses including feeding and mating, but the sex-specific regulation of olfactory responses remain poorly investigated. From our ongoing transcriptomic data annotation of olfactory tissue of blood fed adult female An. culicifacies mosquitoes; we have identified a 383 bp long unique transcript encoding a Drosophila homolog of the quick-to-court protein...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764812/anopheles-gambiae-larvae-mount-stronger-immune-responses-against-bacterial-infection-than-adults-evidence-of-adaptive-decoupling-in-mosquitoes
#17
Garrett P League, Tania Y Estévez-Lao, Yan Yan, Valeria A Garcia-Lopez, Julián F Hillyer
BACKGROUND: The immune system of adult mosquitoes has received significant attention because of the ability of females to vector disease-causing pathogens while ingesting blood meals. However, few studies have focused on the immune system of larvae, which, we hypothesize, is highly robust due to the high density and diversity of microorganisms that larvae encounter in their aquatic environments and the strong selection pressures at work in the larval stage to ensure survival to reproductive maturity...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764765/late-phase-immune-responses-limiting-oocyst-survival-are-independent-of-tep1-function-yet-display-strain-specific-differences-in-anopheles-gambiae
#18
Hyeogsun Kwon, Benjamin R Arends, Ryan C Smith
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that mosquito anti-Plasmodium immunity is multimodal with distinct mechanisms for killing malaria parasites at either the ookinete or oocyst stages. Early-phase responses targeting the ookinete require complement-like components circulating in the mosquito hemolymph that result in TEP1-mediated lysis or melanization. Additional responses mediated by the LL3 and STAT pathways limit oocyst survival through unknown mechanisms that require mosquito hemocyte function...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764726/how-many-holes-is-too-many-a-prototype-tool-for-estimating-mosquito-entry-risk-into-damaged-bed-nets
#19
James Sutcliffe, Xin Ji, Shaoman Yin
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have played an integral role in malaria reduction but how insecticide depletion and accumulating physical damage affect ITN performance is poorly understood. More accurate methods are needed to assess damage to bed nets so that they can be designed, deployed and replaced optimally. METHODS: Video recordings of female Anopheles gambiae in near approach (1-½ cm) to occupied untreated rectangular bed nets in a laboratory study were used to quantify the amount of mosquito activity (appearances over time) around different parts of the net, the per-appearance probability of a mosquito coming close to holes of different sizes (hole encounter) and the per-encounter probability of mosquitoes passing through holes of different sizes (hole passage)...
August 1, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764710/host-attraction-and-biting-behaviour-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-in-south-halmahera-indonesia
#20
Brandyce St Laurent, Timothy A Burton, Siti Zubaidah, Helen C Miller, Puji B Asih, Amirullah Baharuddin, Sully Kosasih, Shinta, Saya Firman, William A Hawley, Thomas R Burkot, Din Syafruddin, Supratman Sukowati, Frank H Collins, Neil F Lobo
BACKGROUND: Indonesia is home to a variety of malaria vectors whose specific bionomic traits remain largely uncharacterized. Species-specific behaviours, such as host feeding preferences, impact the dynamics of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of vector control interventions. METHODS: To examine species-specific host attraction and feeding behaviours, a Latin square design was used to compare Anopheles mosquitoes attracted to human, cow, and goat-baited tents...
August 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
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