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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731595/identification-of-carboxylesterase-genes-associated-with-pyrethroid-resistance-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae
#1
Xue-Mei Wu, Bo-Ying Xu, Feng-Ling Si, Jianyong Li, Zhen-Tian Yan, Zheng-Wen Yan, Xiu He, Bin Chen
BACKGROUND: Carboxylesterases (CCEs) are one of three large detoxification enzyme families. Some CCEs are active on synthetic insecticides with ester structures. Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in eastern Asia. This study identified and characterized the CCE genes in the An. sinensis genome and determined CCE genes associated with pyrethroid resistance using RNA-seq and RT-qPCR, in An. sinensis from Anhui, Chongqing, and Yunnan in China. RESULTS: Fifty-seven putative CCEs were identified and placed into 3 classes, 12 subfamilies and 14 clades through phylogenetics and homology analyses...
July 21, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730366/to-coil-or-not-to-coil-application-practices-perception-and-efficacy-of-mosquito-coils-in-a-malaria-endemic-community-in-ghana
#2
Silas W Avicor, Mustafa F F Wajidi, Ebenezer O Owusu
Although evidence of mosquito coils' impact on disease epidemiology is limited, they are popularized as mosquito-borne disease prevention devices. Their usage affects the environment, human and mosquito health. This study investigated the perception, usage pattern and efficacy of coils in a predominantly poor malaria-endemic Ghanaian peri-urban area. Information on protection methods, perception and usage pattern was garnered using questionnaires. The efficacy of commonly used coils in the area was then assessed on the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, in a glass chamber...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729672/plasmodium-berghei-p47-is-essential-for-ookinete-protection-from-the-anopheles-gambiae-complement-like-response
#3
Chiamaka Valerie Ukegbu, Maria Giorgalli, Hassan Yassine, Jose Luis Ramirez, Chrysanthi Taxiarchi, Carolina Barillas-Mury, George K Christophides, Dina Vlachou
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease affecting millions of people every year. The rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei has served as a model for human malaria transmission studies and played a pivotal role in dissecting the mosquito immune response against infection. The 6-cysteine protein P47, known to be important for P. berghei female gamete fertility, is shown to serve a different function in Plasmodium falciparum, protecting ookinetes from the mosquito immune response. Here, we investigate the function of P...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724450/variation-in-species-composition-and-infection-rates-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-at-different-altitudinal-transects-and-the-risk-of-malaria-in-the-highland-of-dirashe-woreda-south-ethiopia
#4
Taye Yohannes Daygena, Fekadu Massebo, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: The transmission of malaria is heterogeneous, and varies due to altitude. The information on whether the transmission of malaria is indigenous or imported to highland areas is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the species composition and infection rates of Anopheles at different altitudinal transects, and the risk of malaria if any in the highland of Dirashe Woreda, South Ethiopia. METHODS: This study was conducted in Gato (low altitude; average elevation of 1273 m), Onota (mid-altitude; average elevation of 1707 m) and Layignaw-Arguba (high altitude; average elevation of 2337 m) from August 2015 to April 2016...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722623/the-use-of-xenosurveillance-to-detect-human-bacteria-parasites-and-viruses-in-mosquito-bloodmeals
#5
Joseph R Fauver, Alex Gendernalik, James Weger-Lucarelli, Nathan D Grubaugh, Doug E Brackney, Brian D Foy, Gregory D Ebel
Infectious disease surveillance is hindered by several factors, including limited infrastructure and geographic isolation of many resource-poor regions. In addition, the complexities of sample acquisition, processing, and analysis, even in developed regions, can be rate limiting. Therefore, new strategies to survey human populations for emerging pathogens are necessary. Xenosurveillance is a method that utilizes mosquitoes as sampling devices to search for genetic signatures of pathogens in vertebrates. Previously we demonstrated that xenosurveillance can detect viral RNA in both laboratory and field settings...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720113/evaluation-of-electric-nets-as-means-to-sample-mosquito-vectors-host-seeking-on-humans-and-primates
#6
Frances Hawkes, Benny Obrain Manin, Sui Han Ng, Stephen J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua, Heather M Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is found in macaques and is the only major zoonotic malaria to affect humans. Transmission of P. knowlesi between people and macaques depends on the host species preferences and feeding behavior of mosquito vectors. However, these behaviours are difficult to measure due to the lack of standardized methods for sampling potential vectors attracted to different host species. This study evaluated electrocuting net traps as a safe, standardised method for sampling P...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719950/isolation-and-characterization-of-vaccine-candidate-genes-including-csp-and-msp1-in-plasmodium-yoelii
#7
Seon-Hee Kim, Young-An Bae, Ju-Young Seoh, Hyun-Jong Yang
Malaria is an infectious disease affecting humans, which is transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes harboring sporozoites of parasitic protozoans belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Despite past achievements to control the protozoan disease, malaria still remains a significant health threat up to now. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-unit Plasmodium yoelii genes encoding merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), circumsporozoite protein (CSP), and Duffy-binding protein (DBP), each of which can be applied for investigations to obtain potent protective vaccines in the rodent malaria model, due to their specific expression patterns during the parasite life cycle...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719327/extensive-resistance-of-anopheles-sinensis-to-insecticides-in-malaria-endemic-areas-of-hainan-province-china
#8
Ding-Wei Sun, Guang-Ze Wang, Lin-Hai Zeng, Shan-Gan Li, Chang-Hua He, Xi-Min Hu, Shan-Qing Wang
Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors and among the dominant species in Hainan Province, China. The resistance of An. sinensis to insecticides is an important threat to malaria control. However, few reports on insecticide resistance of An. sinensis were reported in this area. Eight districts in Hainan Province were selected as the study areas. Insecticide susceptibility bioassays were tested on wild-caught female mosquitoes of An. sinensis to 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), 0.05% deltamethrin, and 5% malathion by using the World Health Organization standard resistance tube assay procedure...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717390/tracing-the-origin-of-the-early-wet-season-anopheles-coluzzii-in-the-sahel
#9
Tovi Lehmann, David Weetman, Diana L Huestis, Alpha S Yaro, Yaya Kassogue, Moussa Diallo, Martin J Donnelly, Adama Dao
In arid environments, the source of the malaria mosquito populations that re-establish soon after first rains remains a puzzle and alternative explanations have been proposed. Using genetic data, we evaluated whether the early rainy season (RS) population of Anopheles coluzzii is descended from the preceding late RS generation at the same locality, consistent with dry season (DS) dormancy (aestivation), or from migrants from distant locations. Distinct predictions derived from these two hypotheses were assessed, based on variation in 738 SNPs in eleven A...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716087/explaining-variation-in-adult-anopheles-indoor-resting-abundance-the-relative-effects-of-larval-habitat-proximity-and-insecticide-treated-bed-net-use
#10
Robert S McCann, Joseph P Messina, David W MacFarlane, M Nabie Bayoh, John E Gimnig, Emanuele Giorgi, Edward D Walker
BACKGROUND: Spatial determinants of malaria risk within communities are associated with heterogeneity of exposure to vector mosquitoes. The abundance of adult malaria vectors inside people's houses, where most transmission takes place, should be associated with several factors: proximity of houses to larval habitats, structural characteristics of houses, indoor use of vector control tools containing insecticides, and human behavioural and environmental factors in and near houses. While most previous studies have assessed the association of larval habitat proximity in landscapes with relatively low densities of larval habitats, in this study these relationships were analysed in a region of rural, lowland western Kenya with high larval habitat density...
July 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715466/the-antenna-transcriptome-changes-in-mosquito-anopheles-sinensis-pre-and-post-blood-meal
#11
Qian Chen, Di Pei, Jianyong Li, Chengyu Jing, Wenjian Wu, Yahui Man
Antenna is the main chemosensory organ in mosquitoes. Characterization of the transcriptional changes after blood meal, especially those related to chemoreception, may help to explain mosquito blood sucking behavior and to identify novel targets for mosquito control. Anopheles sinensis is an Asiatic mosquito species which transmits malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, studies on chemosensory biology in female An. sinensis are quite lacking. Here we report a transcriptome analysis of An. sinensis female antennae pre- and post- blood meal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715415/characterizing-the-malaria-rural-to-urban-transmission-interface-the-importance-of-reactive-case-detection
#12
Karen Molina Gómez, M Alejandra Caicedo, Alexandra Gaitán, Manuela Herrera-Varela, María Isabel Arce, Andrés F Vallejo, Julio Padilla, Pablo Chaparro, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante, Myriam Arevalo-Herrera, Sócrates Herrera Valencia
BACKGROUND: Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America, however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and parasite genotyping methods. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive study that combines active (ACD), passive (PCD), and reactive (RCD) case detection was performed in urban and peri-urban neighborhoods of Quibdó, Colombia...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714286/mosquitoes-can-harbour-yeasts-of-clinical-significance-and-contribute-to-their-environmental-dissemination
#13
Jovana Bozic, Aida Capone, Dario Pediconi, Priscilla Mensah, Alessia Cappelli, Matteo Valzano, Maria Vittoria Mancini, Patrizia Scuppa, Elena Martin, Sara Epis, Paolo Rossi, Guido Favia, Irene Ricci
There is still a lack of studies on fungal microbiota in mosquitoes, compared to the number available on bacterial microbiota. This study reports the identification of yeasts of clinical significance in laboratory mosquito species: Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. Among the yeasts isolated, we focused on the opportunistic pathogen Candida parapsilosis, since there is a need to better understand breakthrough candidaemia with resistance to the usual antifungals, which requires careful consideration in the broad-spectrum therapy, as documented in many clinical reports...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713857/a-new-clade-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-from-australian-anopheles-mosquitoes-displays-species-specific-host-restriction
#14
Agathe M G Colmant, Jody Hobson-Peters, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Weng Kong Chow, Cheryl A Johansen, Jelke Fros, Peter Simmonds, Daniel Watterson, Chris Cazier, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari, Benjamin L Schulz, Nigel Beebe, Laura J Vet, Thisun B H Piyasena, Hong-Duyen Nguyen, Ross T Barnard, Roy A Hall
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses found worldwide and are responsible for significant human and veterinary diseases, including dengue, Zika, and West Nile fever. Some flaviviruses are insect specific and replicate only in mosquitoes. We report a genetically divergent group of insect-specific flaviviruses from Anopheles mosquitoes that do not replicate in arthropod cell lines or heterologous Anopheles species, exhibiting unprecedented specialization for their host species. Determination of the complete sequences of the RNA genomes of three of these viruses, Karumba virus (KRBV), Haslams Creek virus, and Mac Peak virus (McPV), that are found in high prevalence in some Anopheles mosquito populations and detection of virus-specific proteins, replicative double-stranded RNA, and small interfering RNA responses in the host mosquito species provided strong evidence of a functional replicating virus in the mosquito midgut...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712711/specificity-and-putative-mode-of-action-of-a-mosquito-larvicidal-toxin-from-the-bacterium-xenorhabdus-innexi
#15
Il-Hwan Kim, Jerald Ensign, Do-Young Kim, Hoe-Yune Jung, Na-Ri Kim, Bo-Hwa Choi, Sun-Min Park, Que Lan, Walter G Goodman
Reduction of mosquito-borne diseases relies, in part, on the use of synthetic pesticides to control pest mosquitoes. This reliance has led to genetic resistance, environmental contamination and the nondiscriminatory elimination of both pest and non-pest species. To expand our options for control, we screened entomopathogenic bacteria for potential larvicidal activity. A lipopeptide from the bacterium, Xenorhabdus innexi, was discovered that displayed potent larvicidal activity. The LC50s of the lipopeptide towards Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae larvae were 1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708456/mosquito-borne-diseases-and-omics-tissue-restricted-expression-and-alternative-splicing-revealed-by-transcriptome-profiling-of-anopheles-stephensi
#16
Sreelakshmi K Sreenivasamurthy, Anil K Madugundu, Arun H Patil, Gourav Dey, Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Manish Kumar, Krishna Patel, Charles Wang, Ashwani Kumar, Akhilesh Pandey, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
Malaria is one of the most debilitating mosquito-borne diseases with high global health burdens. While much of the research on malaria and mosquito-borne diseases is focused on Africa, Southeast Asia accounts for a sizable portion of the global burden of malaria. Moreover, about 50% of the Asian malaria incidence and deaths have been from India. A promising development in this context is that the completion of genome sequence of Anopheles stephensi, a major malaria vector in Asia, offers new opportunities for global health innovation, including the progress in deciphering the vectorial ability of this mosquito species at a molecular level...
July 14, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706521/evolution-and-function-of-thioester-containing-proteins-and-the-complement-system-in-the-innate-immune-response
#17
REVIEW
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The innate immune response is evolutionary conserved among organisms. The complement system forms an important and efficient immune defense mechanism. It consists of plasma proteins that participate in microbial detection, which ultimately results in the production of various molecules with antimicrobial activity. Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are a superfamily of secreted effector proteins. In vertebrates, certain TEPs act in the innate immune response by promoting recruitment of immune cells, phagocytosis, and direct lysis of microbial invaders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705245/abscisic-acid-induces-a-transient-shift-in-signaling-that-enhances-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-parasite-killing-in-the-midgut-of-anopheles-stephensi-without-reducing-lifespan-or-fecundity
#18
Elizabeth K K Glennon, Brandi K Torrevillas, Shannon F Morrissey, Jadrian M Ejercito, Shirley Luckhart
BACKGROUND: Abscisic acid (ABA) is naturally present in mammalian blood and circulating levels can be increased by oral supplementation. We showed previously that oral ABA supplementation in a mouse model of Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL infection reduced parasitemia and gametocytemia, spleen and liver pathology, and parasite transmission to the mosquito Anopheles stephensi fed on these mice. Treatment of cultured Plasmodium falciparum with ABA at levels detected in our model had no effects on asexual growth or gametocyte formation in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700639/the-effects-of-ingestion-of-hormonal-host-factors-on-the-longevity-and-insecticide-resistance-phenotype-of-the-major-malaria-vector-anopheles-arabiensis-diptera-culicidae
#19
Shüné V Oliver, Basil D Brooke
Exogenous vertebrate-derived factors circulating in the blood have the capacity to modulate the biology of haematophagous insects. These include insulin, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ). The effects of the consumption of these three proteins were examined on laboratory strains of Anopheles arabiensis. SENN, an insecticide susceptible strain and SENN DDT, a resistant strain selected from SENN, were fed with host factor-supplemented sucrose. Adult longevity was measured and insecticide resistance phenotype over time was assessed by WHO bioassay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700059/first-record-of-anopheles-konderi-galv%C3%A3-o-damasceno-diptera-culicidae-carrying-eggs-of-dermatobia-hominis-linnaeus-jr-diptera-oestridae-from-oriximin%C3%A3-municipality-par%C3%A3-brazil
#20
Ronildo Baiatone Alencar, José Ferreira Saraiva, Arley Faria José de Oliveira, Vera Margarete Scarpassa
INTRODUCTION: The muscoid fly Dermatobia hominis causes cutaneous myiases in mammals. Females of this species use a vector to carry their eggs to the host. This note describes Anopheles konderi acting as phoretic vector for D. hominis. METHODS: A female A. konderi carrying D. hominis was collected using light traps in Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil. The A. konderi specimen was identified at morphological and molecular levels. RESULTS: Eight eggs of D...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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