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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095897/efficacy-of-permanet%C3%A2-3-0-and-permanet%C3%A2-2-0-nets-against-laboratory-reared-and-wild-anopheles-gambiae-sensu-lato-populations-in-northern-tanzania
#1
Eliningaya J Kweka, Lucile J Lyaruu, Aneth M Mahande
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes have developed resistance against pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides approved for use on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of the pyrethroid synergist PermaNet® 3.0 LLIN versus the pyrethroid-only PermaNet® 2.0 LLIN, in an East African hut design in Lower Moshi, northern Tanzania. In this setting, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides has been identified in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. METHODS: Standard World Health Organization bioefficacy evaluations were conducted in both laboratory and experimental huts...
January 18, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095489/transgenic-expression-of-the-anti-parasitic-factor-tep1-in-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#2
Gloria Volohonsky, Ann-Katrin Hopp, Mélanie Saenger, Julien Soichot, Heidi Scholze, Jens Boch, Stéphanie A Blandin, Eric Marois
Mosquitoes genetically engineered to be resistant to Plasmodium parasites represent a promising novel approach in the fight against malaria. The insect immune system itself is a source of anti-parasitic genes potentially exploitable for transgenic designs. The Anopheles gambiae thioester containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a potent anti-parasitic protein. TEP1 is secreted and circulates in the mosquito hemolymph, where its activated cleaved form binds and eliminates malaria parasites. Here we investigated whether TEP1 can be used to create malaria resistant mosquitoes...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094293/the-transmission-potential-of-malaria-infected-mosquitoes-an-gambiae-keele-an-arabiensis-ifakara-is-altered-by-the-vertebrate-blood-type-they-consume-during-parasite-development
#3
S Noushin Emami, Lisa C Ranford-Cartwright, Heather M Ferguson
The efficiency of malaria parasite development within mosquito vectors (sporogony) is a critical determinant of transmission. Sporogony is thought to be controlled by environmental conditions and mosquito/parasite genetic factors, with minimal contribution from mosquito behaviour during the period of parasite development. We tested this assumption by investigating whether successful sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum parasites through to human-infectious transmission stages is influenced by the host species upon which infected mosquitoes feed...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092249/-zika-virus-and-their-means-of-delivery-rather-than-aedes
#4
Luis Del Carpio-Orantes, María María Gonzáles-Clemente
In the present work an exposition of the most frequent vectors of the arboviruses is made highlighting the ones of the genus Aedes, of these in each geographic distribution there are specific subgeneros, in Africa emphasizes A. africanus, A. opok and A. vitatus like those in charge of The propagation of arboviruses. In Asia and Oceania, A. hensilii and A. polynesiensis stand out, and A. albopictus, in addition to A. koreicus and A. japonicus, the latter also responsible for dissemination in North America. It is mentioned in the wave that struck to South America the greater importance of other genera like Culex, emphasizing C...
January 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091570/increasing-the-potential-for-malaria-elimination-by-targeting-zoophilic-vectors
#5
Jessica L Waite, Sunita Swain, Penelope A Lynch, S K Sharma, Mohammed Asrarul Haque, Jacqui Montgomery, Matthew B Thomas
Countries in the Asia Pacific region aim to eliminate malaria by 2030. A cornerstone of malaria elimination is the effective management of Anopheles mosquito vectors. Current control tools such as insecticide treated nets or indoor residual sprays target mosquitoes in human dwellings. We find in a high transmission region in India, malaria vector populations show a high propensity to feed on livestock (cattle) and rest in outdoor structures such as cattle shelters. We also find evidence for a shift in vector species complex towards increased zoophilic behavior in recent years...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091569/epigenetic-regulation-of-plasmodium-falciparum-clonally-variant-gene-expression-during-development-in-anopheles-gambiae
#6
Elena Gómez-Díaz, Rakiswendé S Yerbanga, Thierry Lefèvre, Anna Cohuet, M Jordan Rowley, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Victor G Corces
P. falciparum phenotypic plasticity is linked to the variant expression of clonal multigene families such as the var genes. We have examined changes in transcription and histone modifications that occur during sporogonic development of P. falciparum in the mosquito host. All var genes are silenced or transcribed at low levels in blood stages (gametocyte/ring) of the parasite in the human host. After infection of mosquitoes, a single var gene is selected for expression in the oocyst, and transcription of this gene increases dramatically in the sporozoite...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087198/cloning-characterization-and-transmission-blocking-potential-of-midgut-carboxypeptidase-a-in-anopheles-stephensi
#7
V VenkatRao, Surendra K Kumar, P Sridevi, Vijaykumar Yogesh Muley, R K Chaitanya
Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) interrupt malaria parasite transmission and hence form an important component for malaria eradication. Mosquito midgut exopeptidases such as aminopeptidase N & carboxypeptidase B have demonstrated TBV potential. In the present study, we cloned and characterized carboxypeptidase A (CPA) from the midgut of an important malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. ClustalW amino acid alignment and in silico 3-dimensional structure analysis of CPA predicted the presence of active sites involved in zinc and substrate binding that are conserved among all the known mosquito species...
January 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086941/diversity-in-breeding-sites-and-distribution-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-in-selected-urban-areas-of-southern-ghana
#8
Precious A Dzorgbe Mattah, Godfred Futagbi, Leonard K Amekudzi, Memuna M Mattah, Dziedzorm K de Souza, Worlasi D Kartey-Attipoe, Langbong Bimi, Michael D Wilson
BACKGROUND: Anopheles vectors of malaria are supposedly less common in urban areas as a result of pollution, but there is increasing evidence of their adaptation to organically polluted water bodies. This study characterized the breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes in the two major urban areas in southern Ghana; Accra (AMA) and Sekondi-Takoradi (STMA) Metropolitan Areas, during dry and wet seasons. METHODS: Anopheles mosquito larvae were sampled using standard dipping methods to determine larval densities...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086840/evidence-of-multiple-insecticide-resistance-mechanisms-in-anopheles-gambiae-populations-in-bangui-central-african-republic
#9
Marina Lidwine Olé Sangba, Aboubakar Sidick, Renaud Govoetchan, Christian Dide-Agossou, Razaki A Ossè, Martin Akogbeto, Mamadou Ousmane Ndiath
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of insecticide resistance status in the main malaria vectors is an essential component of effective malaria vector control. This study presents the first evaluation of the status of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations from Bangui, the Central African Republic. METHODS: Anopheles mosquitoes were reared from larvae collected in seven districts of Bangui between September to November 2014. The World Health Organisation's bioassay susceptibility tests to lambda-cyhalothrin (0...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086776/comparison-of-two-adult-mosquito-sampling-methods-with-human-landing-catches-in-south-central-ethiopia
#10
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew, Habte Tekie, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Wakgari Deressa, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn, Hans J Overgaard
BACKGROUND: The human landing catch (HLC) is the standard reference method for measuring human exposure to mosquito bites. However, HLC is labour-intensive, exposes collectors to infectious mosquito bites and is subjected to collector bias. These necessitate local calibration and application of alternative methods. This study was undertaken to determine the relative sampling efficiency (RSE) of light traps with or without yeast-produced carbon dioxide bait vs. HLC in south-central Ethiopia...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078947/monitoring-of-plasmodium-infection-in-humans-and-potential-vectors-of-malaria-in-a-newly-emerged-focus-in-southern-iran
#11
Mohsen Kalantari, Zahra Soltani, Mostafa Ebrahimi, Masoud Yousefi, Masoumeh Amin, Ayda Shafiei, Kourosh Azizi
Despite control programs, which aim to eliminate malaria from Iran by 2025, transmission of malaria has not been removed from the country. This study aimed to monitor malaria from asymptomatic parasitaemia and clinical cases from about one year of active case surveillance and potential vectors of malaria in the newly emerged focus of Mamasani and Rostam, southern Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were collected and their DNAs were extracted for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers for detection of Plasmodium species...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078104/discovery-of-flavivirus-derived-endogenous-viral-elements-in-anopheles-mosquito-genomes-supports-the-existence-of-anopheles-associated-insect-specific-flaviviruses
#12
Sebastian Lequime, Louis Lambrechts
The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077167/role-of-anopheles-cellia-rufipes-gough-1910-and-other-local-anophelines-in-human-malaria-transmission-in-the-northern-savannah-of-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-survey
#13
Raymond N Tabue, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Jean Atangana, Antonio-Nkondjio C, Jean C Toto, Salomon Patchoke, Rose G F Leke, Etienne Fondjo, Abraham P Mnzava, Tessa B Knox, Alexis Tougordi, Martin J Donnelly, Jude D Bigoga
BACKGROUND: As part of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in the north of Cameroon, the unexpectedly high density and anthropophilic behaviour of Anopheles rufipes lead us to investigate this species bionomics and role in human malaria parasite transmission. METHODS: For four consecutive years (2011-2014), annual cross-sectional sampling of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the peak malaria season (September-October) in three health districts in northern Cameroon...
January 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073732/insecticide-resistance-in-anopheles-mosquitoes%C3%A2-additional-obstacles-in-the-battle-against-malaria
#14
A Rubert, L Guillon-Grammatico, J Chandenier, I Dimier-Poisson, G Desoubeaux
Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are malaria vectors in tropical areas and were of course designated as primary targets by programs for malaria control. Repellent sprays, indoor use of insecticides, and massive delivery of mosquito nets are standard examples of the means widely used to combat malaria. This synthetic review supplies an overview of all of the modes of resistance developed by Anopheles mosquitoes against these human actions. The misuse of each available tool has gradually led to a decrease in its global effectiveness...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071788/chromosome-inversions-and-ecological-plasticity-in-the-main-african-malaria-mosquitoes
#15
Diego Ayala, Pelayo Acevedo, Marco Pombi, Ibrahima Dia, Daniela Boccolini, Carlo Costantini, Frédéric Simard, Didier Fontenille
Chromosome inversions have fascinated the scientific community, mainly because of their role in the rapid adaption of different taxa to changing environments. However, the ecological traits linked to chromosome inversions have been poorly studied. Here, we investigated the roles played by 23 chromosome inversions in the adaptation of the four major African malaria mosquitoes to local environments in Africa. We studied their distribution patterns by using spatially explicit modeling and characterized the ecogeographical determinants of each inversion range...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069065/exploring-the-potential-of-using-cattle-for-malaria-vector-surveillance-and-control-a-pilot-study-in-western-kenya
#16
Margaret M Njoroge, Inaki Tirados, Steven W Lindsay, Glyn A Vale, Stephen J Torr, Ulrike Fillinger
BACKGROUND: Malaria vector mosquitoes with exophilic and zoophilic tendencies, or with a high acceptance of alternative blood meal sources when preferred human blood-hosts are unavailable, may help maintain low but constant malaria transmission in areas where indoor vector control has been scaled up. This residual transmission might be addressed by targeting vectors outside the house. Here we investigated the potential of insecticide-treated cattle, as routinely used for control of tsetse and ticks in East Africa, for mosquito control...
January 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069024/efficient-method-for-establishing-f1-progeny-from-wild-populations-of-anopheles-mosquitoes
#17
Thiery N Nepomichene, Lala Andrianaivolambo, Sébastien Boyer, Catherine Bourgouin
BACKGROUND: The changing malaria situation in Madagascar requires additional knowledge on the physiology and behaviour of local mosquito vectors. However, the absence of established colonies for several anopheline species present in Madagascar constitutes a limiting factor. To avoid labour intensive work and uncertainty for success of establishing Anopheles colonies from Malagasy species, field collections of blood-fed females and in-tube forced oviposition were combined to reliably produce large numbers of F1 progeny...
January 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067439/the-anopheles-gambiae-transcriptome-a-turning-point-for-malaria-control
#18
REVIEW
A Domingos, R Pinheiro-Silva, J Couto, V do Rosário, J de la Fuente
Mosquitoes are important vectors of several pathogens and thereby contribute to the spread of diseases, with social, economic and public health impacts. Amongst the approximately 450 species of Anopheles, about 60 are recognized as vectors of human malaria, the most important parasitic disease. In Africa, Anopheles gambiae is the main malaria vector mosquito. Current malaria control strategies are largely focused on drugs and vector control measures such as insecticides and bed-nets. Improvement of current, and the development of new, mosquito-targeted malaria control methods rely on a better understanding of mosquito vector biology...
January 9, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067294/variant-ionotropic-receptors-in-the-malaria-vector-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae-tuned-to-amines-and-carboxylic-acids
#19
R Jason Pitts, Stephen L Derryberry, Zhiwei Zhang, Laurence J Zwiebel
The principal Afrotropical human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, remains a significant threat to global health. A critical component in the transmission of malaria is the ability of An. gambiae females to detect and respond to human-derived chemical kairomones in their search for blood meal hosts. The basis for host odor responses resides in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that express chemoreceptors encoded by large gene families, including the odorant receptors (ORs) and the variant ionotropic receptors (IRs)...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062360/determination-of-glutathione-redox-potential-and-ph-value-in-subcellular-compartments-of-malaria-parasites
#20
Franziska Mohring, Mahsa Rahbari, Bernd Zechmann, Stefan Rahlfs, Jude M Przyborski, Andreas J Meyer, Katja Becker
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is exposed to multiple sources of oxidative challenge during its complex life cycle in the Anopheles vector and its human host. In order to further elucidate redox-based parasite host cell interactions and mechanisms of drug action, we targeted the genetically encoded glutathione redox sensor roGFP2 coupled to human glutaredoxin 1 (roGFP2-hGrx1) as well as the ratiometric pH sensor pHluorin to the apicoplast and the mitochondrion of P. falciparum. Using live cell imaging, this allowed for the first time the determination of the pH values of the apicoplast (7...
January 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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