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R Rebecca Love, Aaron M Steele, Mamadou B Coulibaly, Sékou F Traore, Scott J Emrich, Michael C Fontaine, Nora J Besansky
The molecular mechanisms and genetic architecture that facilitate adaptive radiation of lineages remain elusive. Polymorphic chromosomal inversions, due to their recombination-reducing effect, are proposed instruments of ecotypic differentiation. Here we study an ecologically diversifying lineage of An. gambiae, known as the Bamako chromosomal form based on its unique complement of three chromosomal inversions, to explore the impact of these inversions on ecotypic differentiation. We used pooled and individual genome sequencing of Bamako, typical (non-Bamako) An...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Chayanit Hempolchom, Thippawan Yasanga, Adulsak Wijit, Kritsana Taai, Watcharatip Dedkhad, Wichai Srisuka, Sorawat Thongsahuan, Yasushi Otsuka, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Atiporn Saeung
Antennal sensilla were first investigated in the eight medically and veterinary important Anopheles mosquito species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (= Anopheles lesteri), Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pursati, and Anopheles sinensis) of the Hyrcanus Group in Thailand, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four types of sensilla, including sensilla chaetica (large and small), sensilla trichodea (sharp- and blunt-tipped), sensilla basiconica or grooved pegs (types I, II, and III), and sensilla coeloconica (large and small), were observed on the female antennae of the eight species...
October 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
Antoine Adde, Emmanuel Roux, Morgan Mangeas, Nadine Dessay, Mathieu Nacher, Isabelle Dusfour, Romain Girod, Sébastien Briolant
Local variation in the density of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of exposure to bites are essential to explain the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the transmission of malaria. Vector distribution is driven by environmental factors. Based on variables derived from satellite imagery and meteorological observations, this study aimed to dynamically model and map the densities of Anopheles darlingi in the municipality of Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock (French Guiana). Longitudinal sampling sessions of An...
2016: PloS One
Laura Vannini, Judith H Willis
Previous work with EM immunolocalization examined the intracuticular placement of several antibodies directed against cuticular proteins (CPs) in various structures of Anopheles gambiae. Those structures had long stretches of fairly uniform cuticle. We have now used 19 antibodies directed against members of five CP families on two adult structures with considerable complexity, Johnston's organ and the corneal lens of the compound eye. We also localized chitin with colloidal-gold labeled wheat germ agglutinin...
October 12, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Ravi Theja V Chintapalli, Julián F Hillyer
The wings of insects are composed of membranes supported by interconnected veins. Within these veins are epithelial cells, nerves and tracheae, and their maintenance requires the flow of hemolymph. For this purpose, insects employ accessory pulsatile organs (auxiliary hearts) that circulate hemolymph throughout the wings. Here, we used correlative approaches to determine the functional mechanics of hemolymph circulation in the wings of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Examination of sectioned tissues and intravital videos showed that the wing heart is located underneath the scutellum and is separate from the dorsal vessel...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Benny O Manin, Heather M Ferguson, Indra Vythilingam, Kim Fornace, Timothy William, Steve J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the primate malaria Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged in human populations throughout South East Asia, with the largest hotspot being in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Control efforts are hindered by limited knowledge of where and when people get exposed to mosquito vectors. It is assumed that exposure occurs primarily when people are working in forest areas, but the role of other potential exposure routes (including domestic or peri-domestic transmission) has not been thoroughly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hongliang Chu, Chunxiao Li, Xiaoxia Guo, Hengduan Zhang, Peng Luo, Zhonghua Wu, Gang Wang, Tongyan Zhao
The known mosquito mitogenomes, containing a total of 34 species, which belong to five genera, were collected from GenBank, and the practicality and effectiveness of the variation in the complete mitochondrial DNA genome and portions of mitochondrial COI gene were assessed to reconstruct the phylogeny of mosquitoes. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed on the basis of parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian (BI) methods. It is concluded that: (1) Both mitogenomes and COI gene support the monophly of following taxa: Subgenus Nyssorhynchus, Subgenus Cellia, Anopheles albitarsis complex, Anopheles gambiae complex, and Anopheles punctulatus group; (2) Genus Aedes is not monophyletic relative to Ochlerotatus vigilax; (3) The mitogenome results indicate a close relationship between Anopheles epiroticus and Anopheles gambiae complex, Anopheles dirus complex and Anopheles punctulatus group, respectively; (4) The Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) within phylogenetic tree reconstructed by mitogenomes is higher than COI tree...
October 12, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Alejandro Alvarado-Delgado, Guillermo Perales Ortiz, Ángel T Tello-López, Sergio Encarnación, Renaud Conde, Ángel G Martínez-Batallar, Ken Moran-Francia, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: The behaviour of Anopheles spp. mosquitoes, vectors for Plasmodium parasites, plays a crucial role in the propagation of malaria to humans. Consequently, it is important to understand how the behaviour of these mosquitoes is influenced by the interaction between the brain and immunological status. The nervous system is intimately linked to the immune and endocrine systems. There is evidence that the malaria parasite alters the function of these systems upon infecting the mosquito...
October 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Benjamin D Menze, Jacob M Riveron, Sulaiman S Ibrahim, Helen Irving, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Parfait H Awono-Ambene, Charles S Wondji
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent progress in establishing the patterns of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, Central African populations of this species remain largely uncharacterised. To bridge this important gap and facilitate the implementation of suitable control strategies against this vector, we characterised the resistance patterns of An. funestus population from northern Cameroon. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Collection of indoor-resting female mosquitoes in Gounougou (northern Cameroon) in 2012 and 2015 revealed a predominance of An...
2016: PloS One
Luciano Toma, Monica Catalani, Antonella Catalano, Maria Goffredo, Roberto Romi, Marco Di Luca
This study reports the mosquito collections conducted in July-August 2013 in Castiglione del Lago (Umbria Region, Italy) during the entomological surveillance within the West Nile national control program. The mosquito collections showed the noteworthy occurrence of Anopheles hyrcanus s.l. (n = 156; 35.8% of the whole sample), a relatively rare mosquito species in Italy, with molecular analyses con rming that these mosquitoes belong to An. hyrcanus s.s. The same catching site was characterized by a relevant richness in mosquito species, in particular the following were found: Anopheles maculipennis s...
August 3, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Laura Vannini, Judith H Willis
The largest Arthropod cuticular protein family, CPR, has the Rebers and Riddiford (R&R) Consensus that in an extended form confers chitin-binding properties. Two forms of the Consensus, RR-1 and RR-2, have been recognized and initial data suggested that the RR-1 and RR-2 proteins were present in different regions within the cuticle itself. Thus, RR-2 proteins would contribute to exocuticle that becomes sclerotized, while RR-1s would be found in endocuticle that remains soft. An alternative, and more common, suggestion is that RR-1 proteins are used for soft, flexible cuticles such as intersegmental membranes, while RR-2s are associated with hard cuticle such as sclerites and head capsules...
October 4, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Oljira Kenea, Meshesha Balkew, Habte Tekie, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Wakgari Deressa, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn, Hans J Overgaard
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the key malaria vector control interventions in Ethiopia. The success of these interventions rely on their efficacy to repel or kill indoor feeding and resting mosquitoes. This study was undertaken to monitor human-biting patterns of Anopheles species in south-central Ethiopia. METHODS: Human-biting patterns of anophelines were monitored for 40 nights in three houses using human landing catches (HLC) both indoors and outdoors between July and November 2014, in Edo Kontola village, south-central Ethiopia...
September 30, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Shicheng Chen, Jiangchao Zhao, Deepak Joshi, Zhiyong Xi, Beth Norman, Edward D Walker
The bacteria in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi adult females from laboratory colonies were studied by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA genes, with respect to three experimental factors: stable or cured Wolbachia infection; sugar or blood diet; and age. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated the community [>90% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]; most taxa were in the classes Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, and were assigned to Elizabethkingia (46.9%), Asaia (6...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anupkumar R Anvikar, Naman Shah, Akshay C Dhariwal, Gagan Singh Sonal, Madan Mohan Pradhan, Susanta K Ghosh, Neena Valecha
Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Claudia Surjadjaja, Asik Surya, J Kevin Baird
Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yvonne Ukamaka Ajamma, Enock Mararo, David Omondi, Thomas Onchuru, Anne W T Muigai, Daniel Masiga, Jandouwe Villinger
Mosquitoes are a diverse group of invertebrates, with members that are among the most important vectors of diseases. The correct identification of mosquitoes is paramount to the control of the diseases that they transmit. However, morphological techniques depend on the quality of the specimen and often unavailable taxonomic expertise, which may still not be able to distinguish mosquitoes among species complexes (sibling and cryptic species). High resolution melting (HRM) analyses, a closed-tube, post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method used to identify variations in nucleic acid sequences, has been used to differentiate species within the Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens complexes...
2016: F1000Research
Olena Riabinina, Darya Task, Elizabeth Marr, Chun-Chieh Lin, Robert Alford, David A O'Brochta, Christopher J Potter
Mosquitoes are vectors for multiple infectious human diseases and use a variety of sensory cues (olfactory, temperature, humidity and visual) to locate a human host. A comprehensive understanding of the circuitry underlying sensory signalling in the mosquito brain is lacking. Here we used the Q-system of binary gene expression to develop transgenic lines of Anopheles gambiae in which olfactory receptor neurons expressing the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) gene are labelled with GFP. These neurons project from the antennae and maxillary palps to the antennal lobe (AL) and from the labella on the proboscis to the suboesophageal zone (SEZ), suggesting integration of olfactory and gustatory signals occurs in this brain region...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Jirod Nararak, Sunaiyana Sathantriphop, Monthathip Kongmee, Michael J Bangs, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap
The essential oils of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles minimus Theobald using an excito-repellency test system. Both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. Comparing unadjusted escape responses for An. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irritant and repellent activity responses at 1-5% concentrations (90...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Mohammad Behram Khan, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Cherng Shii Leong, Yee-Ling Lau
BACKGROUND: Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria which is one of the world's most threatening diseases. Anopheles dirus (sensu stricto) is among the main vectors of malaria in South East Asia. The mosquito innate immune response is the first line of defence against malaria parasites during its development. The immune deficiency (IMD) pathway, a conserved immune signaling pathway, influences anti-Plasmodium falciparum activity in Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi and An. albimanus. The aim of the study was to determine the role of Rel2, an IMD pathway-controlled NF-kappaβ transcription factor, in An...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Leonardo Suveges Moreira Chaves, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues de Sá, Denise Pimentel Bergamaschi, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
On the ecological scale of an organism, a homogeneous geographical landscape can represent a mosaic of heterogeneous landscapes. The bionomy of Kerteszia mosquitoes can contribute to foundation landscape ecology by virtue of in the role of the configuration and composition of the habitat played in the distribution of mosquito species. Thus, this study aimed: to compare the abundance of Kerteszia in dense tropical rainforest, restinga and rural area, to assess the bioecological characteristics of the main bromeliads hosting Kerteszia, and to associate the bioecological arrangement of the bromeliads with Kerteszia distribution...
September 27, 2016: Acta Tropica
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