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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921994/the-structure-of-sv40-large-t-hexameric-helicase-in-complex-with-at-rich-origin-dna
#1
Dahai Gai, Damian Wang, Shu-Xing Li, Xiaojiang S Chen
DNA replication is a fundamental biological process. The initial step in eukaryotic DNA replication is the assembly of the pre-initiation complex, including the formation of two head-to-head hexameric helicases around the replication origin. How these hexameric helicases interact with their origin dsDNA remains unknown. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of the SV40 Large-T Antigen (LT) hexameric helicase bound to its origin dsDNA. The structure shows that the six subunits form a near-planar ring that interacts with the origin, so that each subunit makes unique contacts with the DNA...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914931/valosin-containing-protein-vcp-p97-plays-a-role-in-the-replication-of-west-nile-virus
#2
Wallaya Phongphaew, Shintaro Kobayashi, Michihito Sasaki, Michael Carr, William W Hall, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is classified as a member of the type II AAA(+) ATPase protein family. VCP functions in several cellular processes, including protein degradation, membrane fusion, vesicular trafficking and disassembly of stress granules. Moreover, VCP is considered to play a role in the replication of several viruses, albeit through different mechanisms. In the present study, we have investigated the role of VCP in West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Endogenous VCP expression was inhibited using either VCP inhibitors or by siRNA knockdown...
November 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914106/effect-of-cranberry-extract-on-the-frequency-of-bacteriuria-in-dogs-with-acute-thoracolumbar-disk-herniation-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
N J Olby, S L Vaden, K Williams, E H Griffith, T Harris, C L Mariani, K R Muñana, P J Early, S R Platt, L Boozer, C Giovanella, R Longshore
BACKGROUND: Dogs with spinal cord injury are at increased risk of developing bacteriuria due to increased residual urine volume. Cranberry extract inhibits binding of E. coli to uroepithelial cells, potentially reducing risk of bacteriuria. HYPOTHESIS: Cranberry extract reduces risk of bacteriuria in dogs after acute TL-IVDH. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs with acute onset TL-IVDH causing nonambulatory status. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded, prospective clinical trial...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913212/vcp-cooperates-with-ubxd1-to-degrade-mitochondrial-outer-membrane-protein-mcl1-in-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#4
Xing Guo, Xin Qi
Proteasome-dependent turnover of mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM)-associated proteins is one of the mechanisms for maintaining proper mitochondrial quality and function. However, the underlying pathways and their implications in human disease are poorly understood. Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the N terminal of the huntingtin gene (mutant Huntingtin, mtHtt). In this study, we show an extensive degradation of the OMM protein MCL1 (Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1) in both HD mouse striatal cells and HD patient fibroblasts...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912196/nox-isoforms-in-the-development-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#5
Kin Lung Siu, Qiang Li, Yixuan Zhang, Jun Guo, Ji Youn Youn, Jie Du, Hua Cai
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and we have recently established a causal role of uncoupled eNOS in this severe human disease. We have also shown that activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) lies upstream of uncoupled eNOS. Therefore, identification of the specific NOX isoforms that are required for eNOS uncoupling and AAA formation would ultimately lead to novel therapies for AAA. In the present study, we used the Ang II infused hph-1 mice to examine the roles of NOX isoforms in the development of AAA...
November 19, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911893/the-mitochondrial-m-aaa-protease-prevents-demyelination-and-hair-greying
#6
Shuaiyu Wang, Julie Jacquemyn, Sara Murru, Paola Martinelli, Esther Barth, Thomas Langer, Carien M Niessen, Elena I Rugarli
The m-AAA protease preserves proteostasis of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It ensures a functional respiratory chain, by controlling the turnover of respiratory complex subunits and allowing mitochondrial translation, but other functions in mitochondria are conceivable. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of the m-AAA protease have been linked to various neurodegenerative diseases in humans, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia and spinocerebellar ataxia. While essential functions of the m-AAA protease for neuronal survival have been established, its role in adult glial cells remains enigmatic...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911788/near-atomic-structural-model-for-bacterial-dna-replication-initiation-complex-and-its-functional-insights
#7
Masahiro Shimizu, Yasunori Noguchi, Yukari Sakiyama, Hironori Kawakami, Tsutomu Katayama, Shoji Takada
Upon DNA replication initiation in Escherichia coli, the initiator protein DnaA forms higher-order complexes with the chromosomal origin oriC and a DNA-bending protein IHF. Although tertiary structures of DnaA and IHF have previously been elucidated, dynamic structures of oriC-DnaA-IHF complexes remain unknown. Here, combining computer simulations with biochemical assays, we obtained models at almost-atomic resolution for the central part of the oriC-DnaA-IHF complex. This complex can be divided into three subcomplexes; the left and right subcomplexes include pentameric DnaA bound in a head-to-tail manner and the middle subcomplex contains only a single DnaA...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910812/inflammatory-markers-associated-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#8
Sarah Lindberg, Moncef Zarrouk, Jan Holst, Anders Gottsäter
PURPOSE: Inflammation with leukocytic infiltration, degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM), and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are pathological hallmarks of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aim of this study was to further evaluate relationships between AAA and inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), by comparing levels in 65-year-old men with and without AAA at ultrasound screening...
September 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908891/the-paraoxonase-gene-cluster-protects-against-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-formation
#9
Yun-Fei Yan, Jian-Fei Pei, Ran Zhang, Fang Wang, Peng Gao, Zhu-Qin Zhang, Ting-Ting Wang, Yang Zhang, Zhi-Gang She, Hou-Zao Chen, De-Pei Liu
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening vascular pathology, the pathogenesis of which is closely related to oxidative stress. However, an effective pharmaceutical treatment is lacking because the exact cause of AAA remains unknown. Here, we aimed at delineating the role of the paraoxonases (PONs) gene cluster (PC), which prevents atherosclerosis through the detoxification of oxidized substrates, in AAA formation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: PC transgenic (Tg) mice were crossed to an Apoe(-/-) background, and an angiotensin II-induced AAA mouse model was used to analyze the effect of the PC on AAA formation...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908815/regional-variation-in-postoperative-myocardial-infarction-in-patients-undergoing-vascular-surgery-in-the-united-states
#10
Andrea M Steely, Peter W Callas, Daniel Neal, Salvatore T Scali, Philip P Goodney, Andres Schanzer, Jack L Cronenwett, Daniel J Bertges
OBJECTIVE: To assess for regional variation in the incidence of postoperative myocardial infarction (POMI) following non-emergent vascular surgery across the United States in order to identify potential areas for quality improvement initiatives. METHODS: We evaluated POMI rates across 17 regional Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) groups comprised of 243 centers with 1,343 surgeons who performed 75,057 vascular operations from 2010-2014. Four procedures were included in the analysis: carotid endarterectomy (CEA, n=39,118), endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR, n=15,106), infra-inguinal bypass (INFRA, n=17,176), and open infra-renal AAA repair (OAAA, n=3,657)...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908811/decreased-serum-levels-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-hmgb-1-after-graft-replacement-or-stenting-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#11
Daiki Ousaka, Yasuhiro Fujii, Susumu Oozawa, Masahiro Nishibori, Yosuke Kuroko, Zenichi Masuda, Shunji Sano
OBJECTIVES: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) is a key substance mediating inflammation and development of atherosclerotic lesions (AL), including abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Serum levels of HMGB-1 are increased in patients with AAA than in normal controls because the ALs in AAAs secrete HMGB-1. We therefore postulate that the serum HMGB-1 level should decrease after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) or open aortic repair (OAR). However, there is no evidence of this in the literature...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908809/a-combination-of-thoracic-and-abdominal-grafts-to-treat-an-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-with-hostile-proximal-neck
#12
Mafalda Massara, Roberto Prunella, Pasquale Gerardi, Giovanni De Caridi, Raffaele Serra, Stefano Notarstefano, Giovanni Impedovo
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) actually represents the treatment of choice for most patients affected by aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA). However, the feasibility of EVAR depends on anatomical characteristics of abdominal aorta and ilio-femoral axis. We present the case of a 82-years old man affected by severe left hydronephrosis, kidney and ureteral tumor requiring nephrectomy, that presented also a very voluminous AAA with a large diameter (96 mm), presenting also with a large proximal neck (39 mm) and with a severe angulation of the proximal neck (> 60°)...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908804/custom-made-conical-endograft-in-the-treatment-of-saccular-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-with-tight-and-calcified-distal-neck-thinking-out-of-the-box
#13
Efstratios Georgakarakos, Christos Argyriou, Nikolaos Schoretsanitis, George S Georgiadis
PURPOSE: to describe the use of the combination of a conical custom-made TREO® (TREO CM) stent-graft in the treatment of a saccular abdominal aortic endograft (AAA) with long but tight and calcified distal neck. TECHNIQUE: A 65-year female patient was treated for a saccular 5.2 cm AAA with a 3cm-long but calcified and tight (16mm) distal neck, precluding the safe use of a bifurcated endograft. Since the patient refused an open surgery, a conical TREO CM endograft was manufactured with 20% proximal oversizing, whereas the 3cm caudal sealing segment demonstrated a conical configuration comprised of a 2cm and 1cm nitinol-supported zones of 20% and 10% oversizing, respectively, in order to avoid excessive strain and incomplete expand at the most distal calcified area, leading ultimately to an insidious infolding and consequent type Ib endoleak...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906782/predicting-heart-dose-in-breast-cancer-patients-who-received-3d-conformal-radiation-therapy
#14
Daniel Wollschläger, Heiko Karle, Marcus Stockinger, Detlef Bartkowiak, Sandra Bührdel, Hiltrud Merzenich, Thomas Wiegel, Heinz Schmidberger, Maria Blettner
Cardiac late effects are a major health concern for long-term survivors after radiotherapy for breast cancer. Large cohort studies to better understand the exact dose-response relationship require individual estimates of radiation dose to the heart. To predict individual cardiac dose from information that is typically available for all members of a retrospective epidemiological cohort study, 774 female breast cancer patients treated with megavoltage tangential field radiotherapy in 1998-2008 were examined. All dose distributions were calculated using Eclipse with the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) for photon fields and the electron Monte Carlo algorithm for electron boost fields...
January 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905693/revisiting-the-cost-effectiveness-of-screening-65-year-old-men-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-based-on-data-from-an-implemented-screening-programme
#15
Jakob Hager, Martin Henriksson, Per Carlsson, Toste Länne, Fredrik Lundgren
BACKGROUND: Health economic analyses based on randomized trials have shown that screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) cost-effectively decreases AAA-related, as well as all- cause mortality. However, follow-up from implemented screening programmes now reveal substantially changed conditions in terms of prevalence, attendance rate, costs and mortality after intervention. Our aim was to evaluate whether screening for AAA among 65-year-old men is cost-effective based on contemporary data on prevalence and attendance rates from an ongoing AAA screening programme...
December 1, 2016: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905691/is-volume-important-in-aneurysm-treatment-outcome
#16
Athanasios Katsargyris, Chris Klonaris, Eric L Verhoeven
Several studies have suggested that surgical procedures performed at high-volume centers may result in superior outcome. Technically more demanding procedures such as aortic aneurysm repair appear to demonstrate a stronger relationship with volume. The present chapter reviewed the literature using the MEDLINE database to identify studies investigating the effect of volume in aortic aneurysm repair outcomes. The great majority of studies identified shows an advantage for high-volume hospitals with regard to perioperative mortality of abdominal (AAA), thoracic (TAA) and thoracoabdominal (TAAA) aortic aneurysm repair...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904852/analysis-of-in-hospital-mortality-and-long-term-survival-excluding-in-hospital-mortality-after-open-surgical-repair-of-ruptured-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#17
Jun Gyo Gwon, Tae-Won Kwon, Yong-Pil Cho, Young Jin Han, Min Su Noh
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to confirm the factors that affect the mortality associated with the open surgical repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) and to analyze the long-term survival rates. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on a prospectively collected database that included 455 consecutive patients who underwent open surgical repair for AAA between January 2001 and December 2012. We divided our analysis into in-hospital and postdischarge periods and analyzed the risk factors that affected the long-term survival of rAAA patients...
December 2016: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903785/microstructure-and-mechanics-of-healthy-and-aneurysmatic-abdominal-aortas-experimental-analysis-and-modelling
#18
Justyna A Niestrawska, Christian Viertler, Peter Regitnig, Tina U Cohnert, Gerhard Sommer, Gerhard A Holzapfel
Soft biological tissues such as aortic walls can be viewed as fibrous composites assembled by a ground matrix and embedded families of collagen fibres. Changes in the structural components of aortic walls such as the ground matrix and the embedded families of collagen fibres have been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of aortic degeneration. Hence, there is a need to develop a deeper understanding of the microstructure and the related mechanics of aortic walls. In this study, tissue samples from 17 human abdominal aortas (AA) and from 11 abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are systematically analysed and compared with respect to their structural and mechanical differences...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903534/high-structural-stress-and-presence-of-intraluminal-thrombus-predict-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-18f-fdg-uptake-insights-from-biomechanics
#19
Yuan Huang, Zhongzhao Teng, Maysoon Elkhawad, Jason M Tarkin, Nikhil Joshi, Jonathan R Boyle, John R Buscombe, Timothy D Fryer, Yongxue Zhang, Ah Yeon Park, Ian B Wilkinson, David E Newby, Jonathan H Gillard, James H F Rudd
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall inflammation and mechanical structural stress may influence AAA expansion and lead to rupture. We hypothesized a positive correlation between structural stress and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-defined inflammation. We also explored the influence of computed tomography-derived aneurysm morphology and composition, including intraluminal thrombus, on both variables. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (19 males) with AAAs below surgical threshold (AAA size was 4...
November 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903486/predictive-models-of-complications-following-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#20
Adrien Kaladji, Anne Daoudal, Aurélien Duménil, Cemil Göksu, Alain Cardon, Elodie Clochard, Antoine Lucas, Florent Lalys
BACKGROUND: The risk of long-term complications after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is still higher than open surgery and is a critical issue. This study aims to make available reliable statistical predictive models of complications after EVAR. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen patients who underwent EVAR between 2002 and 2012 were included in this study. The preoperative CT-scans were analyzed with a dedicated workstation to provide spatially correct 3-dimensional data...
November 26, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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