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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149383/diffusion-mri-in-pediatric-brain-injury
#1
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue around the world and can be especially devastating in children as TBI can derail cognitive and social development. White matter (WM) is particularly vulnerable to disruption post-TBI, as myelination is ongoing during this period. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a versatile modality for identifying and quantifying WM disruption and can detect diffuse axonal injury (DAI or TAI (traumatic axonal injury)). This review covers dMRI studies of pediatric TBI, including mild to severe injuries, and covering all periods post-injury...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147148/the-effects-of-depression-anxiety-and-sleep-disturbances-on-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Yesim Güzey Aras, Abdülkadir Tunç, Belma Doğan Güngen, Adil Can Güngen, Yusuf Aydemir, Bekir Enes Demiyürek
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances on cognitive functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. In this prospective case-control study, demographic data, smoking history, depression, anxiety, sleep quality and cognitive status of 48 COPD patients and 36 healthy volunteers aged 40-90 years were recorded. The Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to assess depression, anxiety and sleep quality, respectively in COPD patients...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145813/impact-of-a-decision-aid-about-stratified-ovarian-cancer-risk-management-on-women-s-knowledge-and-intentions-a-randomised-online-experimental-survey-study
#3
Susanne F Meisel, Maddie Freeman, Jo Waller, Lindsay Fraser, Sue Gessler, Ian Jacobs, Jatinderpal Kalsi, Ranjit Manchanda, Belinda Rahman, Lucy Side, Jane Wardle, Anne Lanceley, Saskia C Sanderson
BACKGROUND: Risk stratification using genetic and other types of personal information could improve current best available approaches to ovarian cancer risk reduction, improving identification of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer and reducing unnecessary interventions for women at lower risk. Amounts of information given to women may influence key informed decision-related outcomes, e.g. knowledge. The primary aim of this study was to compare informed decision-related outcomes between women given one of two versions (gist vs...
November 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139336/home-health-aides-perceptions-of-quality-care-goals-challenges-and-implications-for-a-rapidly-changing-industry
#4
Emily Franzosa, Emma K Tsui, Sherry Baron
Home care payment models, quality measures, and care plans are based on physical tasks workers perform, ignoring relational care that supports clients' cognitive, emotional, and social well-being. As states seek to rein in costs and improve the efficiency and quality of care, they will need to consider how to measure and support relational care. In four focus groups ( n = 27) of unionized, agency-based New York City home health aides, workers reported aide-client relationships were a cornerstone of high-quality care, and building them required communication, respect, and going the extra mile...
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134465/current-role-for-biomarkers-in-clinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#5
REVIEW
Nasim Sheikh-Bahaei, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Aimee L Pierce
Purpose of review Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia can often be diagnosed accurately with careful clinical history, cognitive testing, neurological examination, and structural brain MRI. However, there are certain circumstances wherein detection of specific biomarkers of neurodegeneration or underlying AD pathology will impact the clinical diagnosis or treatment plan. We will review the currently available biomarkers for AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and discuss their clinical importance...
November 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133020/-the-fight-against-smoking-the-need-to-consider-behavioral-dependence
#6
REVIEW
C Guillaumin, T Urban
The prevalence of smoking in France remains very high compared to other developed Western countries. The management of smoking in smokers is often limited to nicotinic substitution, whether medicated or linked to the use of electronic cigarettes or varenicline and advices more or less reliable or helpful. This strategy of aiding smoking cessation, if isolated, leads to a high number of failures. It is therefore necessary to consider behavioral dependence, in the broad sense in three aspects, "behavioral" (the motor Gestures), cognitive (thoughts) and emotional (emotions)...
November 10, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#7
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130437/remote-hearing-aid-support-the-next-frontier
#8
Gina P Angley, Jean Anne Schnittker, Anne Marie Tharpe
BACKGROUND: In an effort to reduce health-care disparities, there has been a recent surge of interest in the remote provision of care. Audiologists have begun to provide screening, diagnostic, and rehabilitative services via telehealth technologies. PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and perceived benefits of providing remote hearing aid follow-up appointments in a controlled clinical environment and in participants' homes. RESEARCH DESIGN: A descriptive quasi-experimental study was completed...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126669/what-can-dti-tell-about-early-cognitive-impairment-differentiation-between-mci-subtypes-and-healthy-controls-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#9
Gyula Gyebnár, Ádám Szabó, Enikő Sirály, Zsuzsanna Fodor, Anna Sákovics, Pál Salacz, Zoltán Hidasi, Éva Csibri, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Csukly
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) gained a lot of interest recently, especially that the conversion rate to Alzheimer Disease (AD) in the amnestic subtype (aMCI) is higher than in the non-amnestic subtype (naMCI). We aimed to determine whether and how diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) using the diffusion tensor model (DTI) can differentiate MCI subtypes from healthy subjects. High resolution 3D T1W and DWI images of patients (aMCI, n = 18; naMCI, n = 20; according to Petersen criteria) and controls (n = 27) were acquired at 3T and processed using ExploreDTI and SPM...
October 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121879/hypnotic-susceptibility-and-affective-states-in-bipolar-i-and-ii-disorders
#10
Bingren Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Qisha Zhu, Guorong Ma, Chanchan Shen, Hongying Fan, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Highly hypnotizable individuals have impaired executive function, elevated motor impulsivity and increased emotional sensitivity, which are sometimes found in bipolar disorder patients. It is then reasonable to assume that certain aspects of hypnotic susceptibility differ with the types of bipolar disorder. METHODS: The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSS:C) test, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32) and the Plutchick-van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP) were applied to 62 patients with bipolar I disorder, 33 bipolar II disorder, and 120 healthy volunteers...
November 9, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#11
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While CRT is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality-of-life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120563/diagnosing-and-managing-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Sophie Behrman, Vyara Valkanova, Charlotte L Allan
There has been a rapid rise in the number of people diagnosed with dementia in England from 232,000 in 2008 to 850,000 in 2014. Currently, it is estimated that the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in adults aged 65 and over is 10-20%. It is likely that this figure will increase in line with trends in dementia diagnosis. In some cases, mild cognitive impairment may be a prodrome for dementia, and my be caused by any of the dementia pathology subtypes. The relationship between depression in the elderly and mild cognitive impairment is difficult to tease out as they are frequently comorbid conditions and both have been found to be independent risk factors for subsequent dementia: about 10% convert to dementia each year, compared with 1-2% of the general elderly population...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119956/-a-study-of-the-effective-psychotherapist-image-and-expectations-about-psychotherapy-among-the-employees-of-hazardous-occupations-policemen
#13
V A Agarkov, S A Bronfman, D Y Maltseva
BACKGRAUND: The objective of the present study was to estimate the expectations about psychotherapy in terms of social and medical rehabilitation among the employees of hazardous occupations suffering from the consequences of a psychological trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 100 subjects employed by various departments of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) were recruited to participate in the study. Their age varied from 19 to 35 (mean 25.8±3...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114969/apathy-in-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder-is-common-and-under-recognised
#14
Thomas R Barber, Kinan Muhammed, Daniel Drew, Michael Lawton, Marie Crabbe, Michal Rolinski, Timothy Quinnell, Zenobia Zaiwalla, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Masud Husain, Michele Tm Hu
BACKGROUND: Apathy is an important neuropsychiatric feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), which often emerges before the onset of motor symptoms. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) have a high probability of developing Parkinson's disease in future. Neuropsychiatric problems are common in RBD, but apathy has not previously been detailed in this key prodromal population. METHODS: 88 patients with polysomnographically proven RBD, 65 patients with PD and 33 controls were assessed for apathy using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS)...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110137/-dementia-friendly-care-services-in-general-hospitals-representative-results-of-the-general-hospital-study-ghost
#15
Ingrid Hendlmeier, Horst Bickel, Johannes Baltasar Hessler, Joshua Weber, Magdalena Nora Junge, Sarah Leonhardt, Martina Schäufele
BACKGROUND: Mostly model projects report on special care services and procedures for general hospital patients with cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of special care services and procedures in general hospitals on the basis of a representative cross-sectional study. METHODS: From a list of all general hospitals in southern Germany we randomly selected a specified number of hospitals und somatic wards. The hospitals were visited and all older patients on the selected wards on that day were included in the study...
November 6, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104769/does-audit-and-feedback-improve-the-adoption-of-recommended-practices-evidence-from-a-longitudinal-observational-study-of-an-emerging-clinical-network-in-kenya
#16
Susan Gachau, Philip Ayieko, David Gathara, Paul Mwaniki, Morris Ogero, Samuel Akech, Michuki Maina, Ambrose Agweyu, Jacqiue Oliwa, Thomas Julius, Lucas Malla, James Wafula, George Mbevi, Grace Irimu, Mike English
Background: Audit and feedback (A&F) is widely used in healthcare but there are few examples of how to deploy it at scale in low-income countries. Establishing the Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya provided an opportunity to examine the effect of A&F delivered as part of a wider set of activities to promote paediatric guideline adherence. Methods: We analysed data collected from medical records on discharge for children aged 2-59 months from 14 Kenyan hospitals in the CIN...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092808/beyond-adoption-a-new-framework-for-theorizing-and-evaluating-nonadoption-abandonment-and-challenges-to-the-scale-up-spread-and-sustainability-of-health-and-care-technologies
#17
Trisha Greenhalgh, Joseph Wherton, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jennifer Lynch, Gemma Hughes, Christine A'Court, Susan Hinder, Nick Fahy, Rob Procter, Sara Shaw
BACKGROUND: Many promising technological innovations in health and social care are characterized by nonadoption or abandonment by individuals or by failed attempts to scale up locally, spread distantly, or sustain the innovation long term at the organization or system level. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to produce an evidence-based, theory-informed, and pragmatic framework to help predict and evaluate the success of a technology-supported health or social care program...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092591/continued-search-for-better-prediction-of-aided-speech-understanding-in-multi-talker-environments
#18
Jing Xia, Sridhar Kalluri, Christophe Micheyl, Ervin Hafter
To better understand issues of hearing-aid benefit during natural listening, this study examined the added demand placed by the goal of understanding speech over the more typically studied goal of simply recognizing speech sounds. The study compared hearing-aid benefit in two conditions, and examined factors that might account for the observed benefits. In the phonetic condition, listeners needed only identify the correct sound to make a correct response. In the semantic condition, listeners had to understand what they had heard to respond correctly, because the answer did not include any keywords from the spoken speech...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083200/the-paradox-of-intelligence-heritability-and-malleability-coexist-in-hidden-gene-environment-interplay
#19
Bruno Sauce, Louis D Matzel
Intelligence can have an extremely high heritability, but also be malleable; a paradox that has been the source of continuous controversy. Here we attempt to clarify the issue, and advance a frequently overlooked solution to the paradox: Intelligence is a trait with unusual properties that create a large reservoir of hidden gene-environment (GE) networks, allowing for the contribution of high genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in IQ. GE interplay is difficult to specify with current methods, and is underestimated in standard metrics of heritability (thus inflating estimates of "genetic" effects)...
October 30, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080122/sex-differences-in-select-non-communicable-hiv-associated-comorbidities-exploring-the-role-of-systemic-immune-activation-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Avanthi Raghavan, Dodie E Rimmelin, Kathleen V Fitch, Markella V Zanni
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The goals of this review are to (1) explore HIV-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), neurocognitive impairment, and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC) as heterogeneous model disease states fuelled in part by systemic immune activation/inflammation; (2) consider sex differences in the epidemiology of these diseases in both high-resource and lower-resource settings; and (3) examine biological and environmental factors which may contribute to heightened systemic immune activation/inflammation specifically among women living with HIV (WLHIV)...
December 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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