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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324673/a-framework-to-guide-the-assessment-of-human-machine-systems
#1
Kimberly Stowers, James Oglesby, Shirley Sonesh, Kevin Leyva, Chelsea Iwig, Eduardo Salas
OBJECTIVE: We have developed a framework for guiding measurement in human-machine systems. BACKGROUND: The assessment of safety and performance in human-machine systems often relies on direct measurement, such as tracking reaction time and accidents. However, safety and performance emerge from the combination of several variables. The assessment of precursors to safety and performance are thus an important part of predicting and improving outcomes in human-machine systems...
March 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294530/the-association-between-physical-activity-and-cognition-in-men-with-and-without-hiv-infection
#2
A K Monroe, L Zhang, L P Jacobson, M W Plankey, T T Brown, E N Miller, E Martin, J T Becker, A J Levine, A Ragin, N C Sacktor
OBJECTIVES: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are highly prevalent, and physical activity (PA) is a modifiable behaviour that may affect neurocognitive function. Our objective was to determine the association between PA and neurocognitive function and the effect of HIV on this association. METHODS: PA was assessed in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A neuropsychological test battery assessed global impairment and domain-specific impairment (executive function, speed of processing, working memory, learning, memory, and motor function) every 2 years...
March 13, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293162/ensemble-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-based-on-complex-graph-measures-from-diffusion-tensor-images
#3
Ashkan Ebadi, Josué L Dalboni da Rocha, Dushyanth B Nagaraju, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Ivanei Bramati, Gabriel Coutinho, Ranganatha Sitaram, Parisa Rashidi
The human brain is a complex network of interacting regions. The gray matter regions of brain are interconnected by white matter tracts, together forming one integrative complex network. In this article, we report our investigation about the potential of applying brain connectivity patterns as an aid in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We performed pattern analysis of graph theoretical measures derived from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data representing structural brain networks of 45 subjects, consisting of 15 patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), 15 patients of MCI, and 15 healthy subjects (CT)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291302/psychosocial-group-interventions-to-improve-psychological-well-being-in-adults-living-with-hiv
#4
REVIEW
Ingrid van der Heijden, Naeemah Abrahams, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Being diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and labelled with a chronic, life-threatening, and often stigmatizing disease, can impact on a person's well-being. Psychosocial group interventions aim to improve life-functioning and coping as individuals adjust to the diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of psychosocial group interventions for improving the psychological well-being of adults living with HIV/AIDS. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases up to 14 March 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in the Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2016), PubMed (MEDLINE) (1996 to 14 March 2016), Embase (1996 to 14 March 2016), and Clinical Trials...
March 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291105/escalation-of-commitment-in-the-surgical-icu
#5
Carla C Braxton, Celia N Robinson, Samir S Awad
OBJECTIVES: Escalation of commitment is a business term that describes the continued investment of resources into a project even after there is objective evidence of the project's impending failure. Escalation of commitment may be a contributor to high healthcare costs associated with critically ill patients as it has been shown that, despite almost certain futility, most ICU costs are incurred in the last week of life. Our objective was to determine if escalation of commitment occurs in healthcare settings, specifically in the surgical ICU...
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290243/motif-discovery-in-speech-application-to-monitoring-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Peter Garrard, Vanda Nemes, Dragana Nikolic, Anna Barney
BACKGROUND: Perseveration - repetition of words, phrases or questions in speech - is commonly described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Measuring perseveration is difficult, but may index cognitive performance, aiding diagnosis and disease monitoring. Continuous recording of speech would produce a large quantity of data requiring painstaking manual analysis, and risk violating patients' and others' privacy. A secure record and an automated approach to analysis are required. OBJECTIVES: To record bone-conducted acoustic energy fluctuations from a subject's vocal apparatus using an accelerometer, to describe the recording and analysis stages in detail, and demonstrate that the approach is feasible in AD...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290192/further-construct-validity-of-the-timed-up-and-go-test-as-a-measure-of-ambulation-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Alon Kalron, Mark Dolev, Uri Givon
BACKGROUND: The importance of mobility impairments in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) denotes a need for valid, reliable, sensitive and feasible clinical measuring tools. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is a unique mobility measure as it captures other functions apart from walking, ie, rising out of a chair or turning around an object. AIM: To expand the construct validity of the TUG test in PwMS and determine the ability of the TUG score to discriminate between four levels of disability between fallers, recurrent fallers and non-fallers...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285208/predictors-of-tobacco-abstinence-in-outpatient-smokers-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder-treated-with-varenicline-and-cognitive-behavioral-smoking-cessation-therapy
#8
Randi M Schuster, Corinne Cather, Gladys N Pachas, Haiyue Zhang, Kristina M Cieslak, Susanne S Hoeppner, David Schoenfeld, A Eden Evins
BACKGROUND: The estimated mortality gap between those with and without serious mental illness (SMI) is increasing, now estimated at 28years, which is largely due to smoking-related diseases. AIMS: We sought to identify predictors of 14-day continuous abstinence in stable outpatient smokers with SMI. METHOD: Adult smokers with schizophrenia spectrum (n=130) or bipolar disorder (n=23) were enrolled in a 12-week course of varenicline and cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation...
February 24, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284822/-algorithms-and-urinary-incontinence-in-the-elderly-assessment-treatment-recommendations-and-levels-of-evidence-review
#9
P Meyer
OBJECTIVES: Search processing algorithms in a primary care setting, analyzing the specifics of care management for seniors suffering from urinary incontinence (UI), described the recommendations and levels of evidence of treatment. METHODS: A literature review carried out via PubMed(®) and websites of scientific societies with search keywords classified according to an algorithm. RESULTS: One hundred algorithms have been discovered in the field of evaluation and treatment of UI...
March 8, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283764/mental-practice-with-interactive-3d-visual-aids-enhances-surgical-performance
#10
Marina Yiasemidou, Daniel Glassman, Faisal Mushtaq, Christos Athanasiou, Mark-Mon Williams, David Jayne, Danilo Miskovic
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that Mental Practice (MP) could be used to finesse surgical skills. However, MP is cognitively demanding and may be dependent on the ability of individuals to produce mental images. In this study, we hypothesised that the provision of interactive 3D visual aids during MP could facilitate surgical skill performance. METHODS: 20 surgical trainees were case-matched to one of three different preparation methods prior to performing a simulated Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC)...
March 10, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283381/a-comprehensive-review-of-the-quality-and-feasibility-of-dementia-assessment-measures-the-dementia-outcomes-measurement-suite
#11
REVIEW
Adam Bentvelzen, Liesbeth Aerts, Katrin Seeher, Jacqueline Wesson, Henry Brodaty
The diagnosis of dementia and the management of its associated symptoms are aided by high-quality assessment tools. However, there is disagreement on the optimal tools among abundant alternatives and lack of consistent quality standards across the different domains of dementia-related change (ie, cognition, severity, function, behavioral and psychological symptoms, delirium, quality of life). Standardization is difficult because the relevance of a measurement tool for health professionals may depend on the clinical setting and on the dementia type and severity...
March 7, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275357/different-teams-same-conclusions-a-systematic-review-of-existing-clinical-guidelines-for-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-tinnitus-in-adults
#12
Thomas E Fuller, Haula F Haider, Dimitris Kikidis, Alec Lapira, Birgit Mazurek, Arnaud Norena, Sarah Rabau, Rachelle Lardinois, Christopher R Cederroth, Niklas K Edvall, Petra G Brueggemann, Susanne N Rosing, Anestis Kapandais, Dorte Lungaard, Derek J Hoare, Rilana F F Cima
Background: Though clinical guidelines for assessment and treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus do exist, a comprehensive review of those guidelines has not been performed. The objective of this review was to identify current clinical guidelines, and compare their recommendations for the assessment and treatment of subjective tinnitus in adults. Method: We systematically searched a range of sources for clinical guidelines (as defined by the Institute of Medicine, United States) for the assessment and/or treatment of subjective tinnitus in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271168/-perception-of-hearing-problems-in-the-older-population
#13
S Moser, W Luxenberger, W Freidl
BACKGROUND: Age-related hearing loss is one of the most common chronic sensory impairments in the older population. This chronic condition is associated with bio-psychosocial consequences such as cognitive decline, depression, withdrawal, isolation, and reduced wellbeing. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the perception of hearing problems among older women and men (≥55 years) with age-related hearing loss. Furthermore, the association between functional hearing loss and perceived hearing problems was examined...
March 7, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271054/association-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-structural-changes-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Ata Pourabbasi, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Soqra Ebrahimi Qavam, Seyed Masoud Arzaghi, Bagher Larijani
BACKGROUND: The relationship between diabetes and academic performance have been of great interest to researchers during the year to date. Many studies have been conducted to discover this relationship during three recent decades. But, evaluation of the structural changes of brain in the context of diabetes is of paramount importance especially in children and adolescents. METHODS: This study is a systematic review conducted to investigate the structural changes in the central nervous system in children and adolescents living with diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270784/auditory-and-non-auditory-contributions-for-unaided-speech-recognition-in-noise-as-a-function-of-hearing-aid-use
#15
Anja Gieseler, Maike A S Tahden, Christiane M Thiel, Kirsten C Wagener, Markus Meis, Hans Colonius
Differences in understanding speech in noise among hearing-impaired individuals cannot be explained entirely by hearing thresholds alone, suggesting the contribution of other factors beyond standard auditory ones as derived from the audiogram. This paper reports two analyses addressing individual differences in the explanation of unaided speech-in-noise performance among n = 438 elderly hearing-impaired listeners (mean = 71.1 ± 5.8 years). The main analysis was designed to identify clinically relevant auditory and non-auditory measures for speech-in-noise prediction using auditory (audiogram, categorical loudness scaling) and cognitive tests (verbal-intelligence test, screening test of dementia), as well as questionnaires assessing various self-reported measures (health status, socio-economic status, and subjective hearing problems)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270437/what-are-the-critical-elements-of-sideline-screening-that-can-be-used-to-establish-the-diagnosis-of-concussion-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Jon Patricios, Gordon Ward Fuller, Richard Ellenbogen, Stanley Herring, Jeffrey S Kutcher, Mike Loosemore, Michael Makdissi, Michael McCrea, Margot Putukian, Kathryn J Schneider
BACKGROUND: Sideline detection is the first and most significant step in recognising a potential concussion and removing an athlete from harm. This systematic review aims to evaluate the critical elements aiding sideline recognition of potential concussions including screening tools, technologies and integrated assessment protocols. DATA SOURCES: Bibliographic databases, grey literature repositories and relevant websites were searched from 1 January 2000 to 30 September 2016...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263742/two-level-diagnostic-classification-using-cerebrospinal-fluid-ykl-40-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Filippo Baldacci, Nicola Toschi, Simone Lista, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Ingo Kilimann, Stefan Teipel, Enrica Cavedo, Antonio Melo Dos Santos, Stéphane Epelbaum, Foudil Lamari, Bruno Dubois, Roberto Floris, Francesco Garaci, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Harald Hampel
INTRODUCTION: We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) YKL-40 in discriminating (1) clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) from cognitively healthy controls (HCs) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (level I) and (2) patients stratified by different pathophysiological profiles from HCs and FTD following a novel unbiased/descriptive categorization based on CSF biomarkers, independent of cognitive impairment severity (level II). METHODS: YKL-40 was compared among HCs (n = 21), mild cognitive impairment (n = 41), AD (n = 35), and FTD (n = 9) (level I) and among HCs (n = 21), AD pathophysiology (tau and amyloid-β) negative (n = 15), tau positive (n = 15), amyloid-β positive (n = 13), AD pathophysiology positive (n = 33), and FTD (n = 9) (level II)...
March 2, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260614/classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-prediction-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-conversion-from-structural-magnetic-resource-imaging-using-feature-ranking-and-a-genetic-algorithm
#18
Iman Beheshti, Hasan Demirel, Hiroshi Matsuda
We developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system that uses feature-ranking and a genetic algorithm to analyze structural magnetic resonance imaging data; using this system, we can predict conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-to-Alzheimer's disease (AD) at between one and three years before clinical diagnosis. The CAD system was developed in four stages. First, we used a voxel-based morphometry technique to investigate global and local gray matter (GM) atrophy in an AD group compared with healthy controls (HCs)...
February 27, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258081/increased-brain-predicted-aging-in-treated-hiv-disease
#19
James H Cole, Jonathan Underwood, Matthan W A Caan, Davide De Francesco, Rosan A van Zoest, Robert Leech, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Peter Portegies, Gert J Geurtsen, Ben A Schmand, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Claudio Franceschi, Caroline A Sabin, Charles B L M Majoie, Alan Winston, Peter Reiss, David J Sharp
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. METHODS: A large sample of virologically suppressed HIV-positive adults (n = 162, age 45-82 years) and highly comparable HIV-negative controls (n = 105) were recruited as part of the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) collaboration...
March 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256693/-communication-and-language-problems-in-children-with-nemaline-myopathy
#20
J F Cervera-Merida, I Villa-Garcia, A Ygual-Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: Nemaline myopathy is a rare disease with an incidence of 1 in every 50,000 live births. It is the most prevalent of the congenital myopathies, a heterogeneous set of neuromuscular disorders present at birth or manifesting at a very early age, which affect the skeletal muscles and give rise to weakness, hypotonia and psychomotor retardation, although cognitive development remains normal. AIM: To review the studies conducted to date on the communication difficulties and dysphagia of children with nemaline myopathy and their possible management based on speech therapy...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
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