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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433488/guided-internet-based-psycho-educational-intervention-using-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-self-management-for-individuals-with-chronic-pain-a-feasibility-study
#1
Jennifer Perry, Elizabeth G VanDenKerkhof, Rosemary Wilson, Dean A Tripp
When considering barriers to chronic pain treatment, there is a need to deliver nonpharmacological therapies in a way that is accessible to all individuals who may benefit. To conduct feasibility testing using a guided, Internet-based intervention for individuals with chronic pain, a novel, Internet-based, chronic pain intervention (ICPI) was developed, using concepts proven effective in face-to-face interventions. This study was designed to assess usability of the ICPI and feasibility of conducting larger-scale research, and to collect preliminary data on effectiveness of the intervention...
April 19, 2017: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427709/upper-limb-impairment-is-associated-with-use-of-assistive-devices-and-unemployment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Ruth Ann Marrie, Gary R Cutter, Tuula Tyry, Stacey S Cofield, Robert Fox, Amber Salter
BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently suffer from impaired sensory function, reduced strength and tremor in the upper limbs, which may interfere with upper limb function. However, upper limb impairment in MS is under-recognized and understudied. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of upper limb impairment in a large sample of persons with MS; the association between upper limb function and employment status in MS; and the frequency of use of assistive devices aimed at addressing upper limb impairments...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414583/improved-depressive-symptoms-in-adults-with-schizophrenia-during-a-smoking-cessation-attempt-with-varenicline-and-behavioral-therapy
#3
Corinne Cather, Susanne Hoeppner, Gladys Pachas, Sarah Pratt, Eric Achtyes, Kristina M Cieslak, A Eden Evins
OBJECTIVE: Smoking prevalence rates are elevated in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) compared with the general population, with attendant disproportionate smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Pharmacotherapies that improve abstinence rates in this population are underutilized, partly due to concerns about neuropsychiatric safety, particularly for those with comorbid depression or prior suicide attempt. Prospective assessment of the psychiatric safety profile of varenicline in those with SSD is needed...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403383/neural-signatures-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-reward-sensitivity-following-nicotinic-receptor-stimulation-in-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-trial
#4
Elise Lesage, Sarah E Aronson, Matthew T Sutherland, Thomas J Ross, Betty Jo Salmeron, Elliot A Stein
Importance: Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. Objective: To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399330/arginine-supplementation-for-prevention-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#5
REVIEW
Prakeshkumar S Shah, Vibhuti S Shah, Lauren E Kelly
BACKGROUND: Decreased concentration of nitric oxide has been proposed as one of the possible cellular mechanisms of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Arginine can act as a substrate for production of nitric oxide in the tissues, and arginine supplementation may help to prevent NEC. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of arginine supplementation (administered by any route) on the incidence of NEC in preterm neonates. To conduct subgroup analyses based on the dose of arginine and the gestational age of participants (≤ 32 weeks, > 32 weeks)...
April 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397182/evaluation-and-clinical-correlation-of-practical-cut-offs-for-visual-rating-scales-of-atrophy-normal-aging-versus-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Anne-Sophie Vanhoenacker, Bernard Sneyers, Frederik De Keyzer, Sam Heye, Philippe Demaerel
Age-related brain atrophy is a common finding, but neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are associated with accelerated atrophy of the medial temporal lobe. In current practice for brain atrophy evaluation, several rating scales are being used such as the medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy-frontal subscale (GCA-F) and posterior atrophy (PA) scales. Practical cut-offs to differentiate between normal and advanced brain atrophy are needed, because of their possible usefulness as a biomarker...
April 10, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396108/augmented-nurse-care-management-in-ckd-stages-4-to-5-a%C3%A2-randomized-trial
#7
Steven Fishbane, Sofia Agoritsas, Alessandro Bellucci, Candice Halinski, Hitesh H Shah, Vipul Sakhiya, Leah Balsam
BACKGROUND: Outcomes for patients with late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States are suboptimal. There is poor education and preparation for end-stage kidney disease, as well as a high rate of hospitalization in this group of patients. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, parallel-group, 2-arm, controlled trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted at 3 sites: a clinic of an academic medical center, a public hospital academic clinic, and a community-based private practice...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390517/neuropsychological-evaluation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Jason R Soble, Edan A Critchfield, Justin J F O'Rourke
Clinical neuropsychology is a subspecialty of professional psychology that is concerned with the scientific study and clinical application of brain-behavior relationships. Broadly defined, a neuropsychological evaluation is a flexible clinical tool that involves integration of objective, psychometric test data along with various other sources of clinical information to comprehensively elucidate the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional sequelae after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to characterizing TBI sequelae, evidenced-based neuropsychological assessment can contribute to TBI patient care by aiding with prognostic assessment, measuring interval change/recovery over time (eg, resolution of posttraumatic amnesia), informing and implementing rehabilitation strategies, and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions...
May 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390440/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-minor-and-major-depression-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-in-taiwan
#9
Chi-Shin Wu, Shu-Han Yu, Chun-Yi Lee, Han-Yun Tseng, Yen-Feng Chiu, Chao Agnes Hsiung
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to estimate prevalence rates and risk factors for late-life depression in a large nationwide representative sample from Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 5,664, randomly sampled individuals aged ≥55 years were enrolled. Clinically, relevant depressive symptoms were classified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D score ≥16), and major depression was confirmed using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders...
April 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387814/grey-and-white-matter-abnormalities-in-treated-hiv-disease-and-their-relationship-to-cognitive-function
#10
Jonathan Underwood, James H Cole, Matthan Caan, Davide De Francesco, Robert Leech, Rosan A van Zoest, Tanja Su, Gert J Geurtsen, Ben A Schmand, Peter Portegies, Maria Prins, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Caroline A Sabin, Charles Majoie, Peter Reiss, Alan Winston, David J Sharp
Background: Long-term comorbidities such as cognitive impairment remain prevalent in otherwise effectively treated people-living-with-HIV. We investigate the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain structure in successfully treated patients using multi-modal neuroimaging from the Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort. Methods: Cognitive function, brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure were assessed in 134 HIV-positive patients and 79 controls...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387664/efficacy-of-hearing-aids-on-the-cognitive-status-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-hearing-loss-a-multicenter-controlled-randomized-trial
#11
Marie-France Nguyen, Marc Bonnefoy, Arnaud Adrait, Marine Gueugnon, Charles Petitot, Lionel Collet, Adeline Roux, Xavier Perrot
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the cognitive benefit of hearing aids (HA) in older patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and hearing loss (HL) after a 6- and 12-month period of utilization. METHODS: A multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients aged more than 65 years. A group was equipped with active HA for 6 months (active group) and a second group had placebo HA for 6 months (placebo group) followed by a secondary activation phase for a further 6 months (semi crossover procedure)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386586/teaching-students-to-think-spatially-through-embodied-actions-design-principles-for-learning-environments-in-science-technology-engineering-and-mathematics
#12
D DeSutter, M Stieff
Spatial thinking is a vital component of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculum. However, to date, broad development of learning environments that target domain-specific spatial thinking is incomplete. The present article visits the problem of improving spatial thinking by first reviewing the evidence that the human mind is embodied: that cognition, memory, and knowledge representation maintain traces of sensorimotor impressions from acting and perceiving in a physical environment...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375209/stress-and-adolescent-hippocampal-neurogenesis-diet-and-exercise-as-cognitive-modulators
#13
REVIEW
C M Hueston, J F Cryan, Y M Nolan
Adolescence is a critical period for brain maturation. Deciphering how disturbances to the central nervous system at this time affect structure, function and behavioural outputs is important to better understand any long-lasting effects. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs during development and continues throughout life. In adulthood, integration of these new cells into the hippocampus is important for emotional behaviour, cognitive function and neural plasticity. During the adolescent period, maturation of the hippocampus and heightened levels of hippocampal neurogenesis are observed, making alterations to neurogenesis at this time particularly consequential...
April 4, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368180/predictors-of-response-to-cognitive-remediation-in-service-recipients-with-severe-mental-illness
#14
Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer, Veronica Anna Ozog, Anzalee Khan, Isidora Ljuri, Samantha Fregenti, Susan R McGurk
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive challenges are prominent features of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, impairing occupational, social, and economic functioning. These challenges are predictive of social and work outcomes. Cognitive remediation has been shown to be effective in improving both cognitive and social functions. However, cognitive remediation does not produce improvement in all participants. We investigated demographic, neurocognitive, and psychopathological predictors associated with improvement following cognitive remediation interventions in service recipients with severe mental illnesses...
March 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367745/the-intersection-of-abandonment-hiv-positive-status-and-residential-care-for-a-group-of-perinatally-infected-adolescents
#15
REVIEW
Jeanette Schmid, Jenita Chiba
Although anti-retroviral treatments have significantly reduced the incidence of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and AIDS, there remains, for the foreseeable future, a group of adolescents who have been perinatally infected. Noting the paucity of information regarding the impact of paediatric AIDS and its intersection with residential care, this paper investigates the lived realities of 20 South African adolescents who were vertically infected with HIV and AIDS, were abandoned, and have been raised in residential care...
March 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359928/the-attentional-demands-of-ambulating-with-an-assistive-device-in-older-adults-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
S W Muir-Hunter, M Montero-Odasso
Ambulation with a mobility aid is a unique real-life situation of multi-tasking. These simultaneous motor tasks place increased demands on executive function in healthy young and older adults, but the demands have not been evaluated in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mobility problems are common among adults with AD, leading to provision of a mobility aid to optimize independent activity. The study objectives were: (i) to determine the dual-task cost (DTC) associated with the use of a mobility aid in straight and complex path walking, and (ii) to evaluate the association between executive function and ambulation with a mobility aid in older adults with AD and age-sex matched cognitively normal controls...
March 10, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347256/sleep-deprivation-as-an-experimental-model-system-for-psychosis-effects-on-smooth-pursuit-prosaccades-and-antisaccades
#17
Inga Meyhöfer, Veena Kumari, Antje Hill, Nadine Petrovsky, Ulrich Ettinger
Current antipsychotic medications fail to satisfactorily reduce negative and cognitive symptoms and produce many unwanted side effects, necessitating the development of new compounds. Cross-species, experimental behavioural model systems can be valuable to inform the development of such drugs. The aim of the current study was to further test the hypothesis that controlled sleep deprivation is a safe and effective model system for psychosis when combined with oculomotor biomarkers of schizophrenia. Using a randomized counterbalanced within-subjects design, we investigated the effects of 1 night of total sleep deprivation in 32 healthy participants on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades (PS), antisaccades (AS), and self-ratings of psychosis-like states...
April 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342618/a-realist-synthesis-of-social-connectivity-interventions-during-transition-to-parenthood-the-value-of-relationships
#18
Claudine T Bennett, Judy L Buchan, Nicole Letourneau, Stuart G Shanker, Anne Fenwick, Brenda Smith-Chant, Cyndi Gilmer
BACKGROUND: Social connections are important during the transition to parenthood. A wide body of literature suggests that these connections enhance health and contribute to wellbeing. In the case of parents and families, social connections can influence child development. Nurses and public health agencies are in a unique position to advocate for resources and approaches to enhance social connectivity for parents during this important life transition. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to identify the universal social connectivity interventions that work, and the conditions that foster social connections for parents and enhance child development...
April 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338847/paradigm-shift-from-diagnosing-patients-based-on-common-symptoms-to-categorizing-patients-into-subtypes-with-different-pathogenic-mechanisms-to-guide-treatment-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Keiro Shirotani, Masashi Asai, Nobuhisa Iwata
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major cause of dementia in the elderly, and the number of AD patients is rapidly growing as life expectancy increases. However, disease-modifying drugs are not yet available. According to the amyloid hypothesis, disease onset is triggered by aggregation and accumulation of amyloid-β peptide, followed by formation of neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau, and synaptic loss/neuronal cell death leading to dementia. Based on this hypothesis, various clinical trials for treatment of AD have been conducted, but most were discontinued due to failure to achieve cognitive improvement or appearance of adverse effects...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337467/the-data-set-describing-cognitive-performance-after-varenicline-administration-in-a-3-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-in-rats
#20
Yu Ohmura, Hitomi Sasamori, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Takeshi Izumi, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
The data shows attentional function, impulsivity, motivation, motor function, and motor activity in rats treated with varenicline, a stop-smoking aid. The data also shows these parameters in rats treated with varenicline after acute/chronic nicotine administration. Our interpretation and discussion of these data were described in the article "Varenicline Provokes Impulsive Action by Stimulating α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Infralimbic Cortex in a Nicotine Exposure Status-Dependent Manner" (Ohmura et al...
April 2017: Data in Brief
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