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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774632/an-exploration-of-the-non-iterative-time-trade-off-method-to-value-health-states
#1
Yan Feng, Arne Risa Hole, Milad Karimi, Aki Tsuchiya, Ben van Hout
Time Trade-Off (TTO) usually relies on "iteration," which is susceptible to bias. Discrete Choice Experiment with duration (or DCETTO ) is free of such bias, but respondents find this cognitively more challenging. This paper explores non-iterative TTO with or without lead time: NI(LT)TTO. In NI(LT)TTO, respondents see a series of independent pairwise choices without iteration (similar to DCETTO ), but one of the two scenarios always involves full health for a shorter duration (similar to TTO). We compare three different "types" of NI(LT)TTO relative to DCETTO ...
May 17, 2018: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772308/prostheses-as-extensions-of-the-body-progress-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Maria Niedernhuber, Damiano G Barone, Bigna Lenggenhager
Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the incorporation of artificial limbs. This research promises to provide individuals with sensorimotor disorders such as amputations with prostheses which feel like their own body part. While neuroscience made a leap towards uncovering the basic neurocognitive mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness, the development of incorporated prosthetic limbs still faces substantial challenges in basic neuroscience and in clinical reality. Here we critically examine recent findings on prosthesis incorporation to aid patient rehabilitation in the context of advances in cognitive and applied neuroscience as well as technology...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763658/event-related-potential-analysis-techniques-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Priyalakshmi Sheela, Subha D Puthankattil
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) comprise all pervasive neurodevelopmental diseases marked by deficits in social and communication skills, delayed cognitive development, restricted and repetitive behaviors. The core symptoms begin in early childhood, may continue life-long resulting in poor performance in adult stage. Event-related potential (ERP) is basically a time-locked electroencephalogram signal elicited by various stimuli, related to sensory and cognitive processes. The various ERP based techniques used for the study of ASD are considered in this review...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763648/autism-spectrum-disorder-classification-diagnosis-and-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Samata R Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I Tarazi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762177/neuropsychological-phenotypes-among-men-with-and-without-hiv-disease-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#5
Samantha A Molsberry, Yu Cheng, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa Jacobson, Andrew J Levine, Eileen Martin, Eric N Miller, Cynthia A Munro, Ann Ragin, Ned Sacktor, James T Becker
OBJECTIVE: Mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain prevalent in the combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) era. This study's objective was to identify neuropsychological subgroups within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) based on the participant-based latent structure of cognitive function and to identify factors associated with subgroups. DESIGN: The MACS is a four-site longitudinal study of the natural and treated history of HIV disease among gay and bisexual men...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761296/neuroimaging-in-lewy-body-dementia
#6
REVIEW
Tayyabah Yousaf, George Dervenoulas, Polytimi-Eleni Valkimadi, Marios Politis
Lewy body dementia (DLB) is a common form of cognitive impairment, accounting for 30% of dementia cases in ages over 65 years. Early diagnosis of DLB has been challenging; particularly in the context of differentiation with Parkinson's disease dementia and other forms of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease and rapidly progressive dementias. Current practice involves the use of [123 I]FP-CIT-SPECT, [18 F]FDG PET and [123 I]MIBG molecular imaging to support diagnostic procedures. Structural imaging techniques have an essential role for excluding structural causes, which could lead to a DLB-like phenotype, as well as aiding differential diagnosis through illustrating disease-specific patterns of atrophy...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760370/using-eye-tracking-technology-to-compare-the-effectiveness-of-malignant-hyperthermia-cognitive-aid-design
#7
Roderick King, Jaber Hanhan, T Kyle Harrison, Alex Kou, Steven K Howard, Lindsay K Borg, Cynthia Shum, Ankeet D Udani, Edward R Mariano
Background: Malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia, and several different cognitive aids designed to facilitate a timely and accurate response to this crisis currently exist. Eye tracking technology can measure voluntary and involuntary eye movements, gaze fixation within an area of interest, and speed of visual response and has been used to a limited extent in anesthesiology. Methods: With eye tracking technology, we compared the accessibility of five malignant hyperthermia cognitive aids by collecting gaze data from twelve volunteer participants...
May 15, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759127/fibromyalgia-in-primary-care
#8
REVIEW
Jay B Higgs
Fibromyalgia is a common disorder and has substantial impact on quality of life. The cause remains unknown, but current evidence points to multifactorial involvement of pain processing. Clinical diagnosis is aided by evidence-based diagnostic criteria with subscores for widespread pain and symptom severity. Nonpharmacologic treatments, including cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, and regular aerobic exercise, form the cornerstone of management. Pharmacologic intervention is an important adjunct, but benefit is variable...
June 2018: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755404/cognitive-rehabilitation-in-bilateral-vestibular-patients-a-computational-perspective
#9
Andrew W Ellis, Corina G Schöne, Dominique Vibert, Marco D Caversaccio, Fred W Mast
There is evidence that vestibular sensory processing affects, and is affected by, higher cognitive processes. This is highly relevant from a clinical perspective, where there is evidence for cognitive impairments in patients with peripheral vestibular deficits. The vestibular system performs complex probabilistic computations, and we claim that understanding these is important for investigating interactions between vestibular processing and cognition. Furthermore, this will aid our understanding of patients' self-motion perception and will provide useful information for clinical interventions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754124/predictors-of-postoperative-rehabilitation-therapy-following-congenital-heart-surgery
#10
Ana Ubeda Tikkanen, Meena Nathan, Lynn A Sleeper, Marisa Flavin, Ana Lewis, Donna Nimec, John E Mayer, Pedro Del Nido
BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital heart disease are at risk of motor, cognitive, speech, and feeding difficulties after cardiac surgery. Rehabilitation therapy could improve functional outcomes in this population if applied in the acute postcardiac surgical in-hospital stay. However, information on the types of acute postcardiac surgery therapy needs in children is scarce. Our goal was to describe rehabilitation therapy following congenital heart surgery and pre/intraoperative factors associated with need for therapy...
May 12, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750429/computer-aided-diagnosis-with-radiogenomics-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-genotype-and-morphological-changes-of-the-brain-magnetic-resonance-images
#11
Chiharu Kai, Yoshikazu Uchiyama, Junji Shiraishi, Hiroshi Fujita, Kunio Doi
In the post-genome era, a novel research field, 'radiomics' has been developed to offer a new viewpoint for the use of genotypes in radiology and medicine research which have traditionally focused on the analysis of imaging phenotypes. The present study analyzed brain morphological changes related to the individual's genotype. Our data consisted of magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as their apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes...
May 10, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750006/a-novel-integrated-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-medication-adherence-among-persons-living-with-hiv-aids
#12
Charles P Brandt, Daniel J Paulus, Monica Garza, Chad Lemaire, Peter J Norton, Michael J Zvolensky
Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) are able to live full lifespans after infection, however, rates of anxiety disorders among this population are elevated compared to national samples. Importantly, these anxiety symptoms and disorders have a negative effect on medication adherence, quality of life and other psychological disorders, such as depression. In order to reduce the impact of anxiety among PLHIV, a six-session transdiagnostic CBT-based treatment manual for anxiety among PLHIV named the HIV/Anxiety Management-Reduction Treatment (HAMRT) was developed and implemented...
February 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746300/impact-of-glycemic-status-on-longitudinal-cognitive-performance-in-men-with-and-without-hiv-infection
#13
Jingyan Yang, Lisa P Jacobson, James T Becker, Andrew Levine, Eileen M Martin, Cynthia A Munro, Frank J Palella, Jordan E Lake, Ned C Sacktor, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between glycemic status and cognitive performance in men living with (MLWH) and without HIV infection. DESIGN: A prospective HIV/AIDS cohort study in four U.S. cities between 1999 and 2016. METHODS: Glycemic status was categorized as normal glucose (NG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) and uncontrolled DM at each semi-annual visit. Cognitive performance was evaluated using nine neuropsychological tests which measure attention, constructional ability, verbal learning, executive functioning, memory, and psychomotor speed...
May 8, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732416/associations-of-mood-on-objective-and-subjective-cognitive-complaints-in-persons-living-with-hiv-aids
#14
Moka Yoo-Jeong, Ashley Anderson, Akm Fazlur Rahman, Maya Baumann, Jade McBroom, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde
Healthcare workers commonly rely on patient self-report to identify problems with cognitive functioning among Persons Living with HIV (PLWH). Self-reported cognitive complaints may not accurately reflect objective cognitive performance and may be obscured by co-occurring depression. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among depression, subjective cognitive complaints, and objective cognitive performance in PLWH using measures easily administered by healthcare workers. Particularly, this study assessed the association between subjective cognitive complaints (MOS-HIV) and objective cognitive performance (mHDS) using a simple screening tool, as well as whether depressive symptoms (CES-D 10) moderated this relationship...
2018: Journal of HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731931/correlation-between-lymphocyte-cd4-count-treatment-duration-opportunistic-infection-and-cognitive-function-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-hiv-aids-patients
#15
Fasihah Irfani Fitri, Aldy Safruddin Rambe, Aida Fitri
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an epidemic worldwide, despite the marked benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) in reducing severe HIV-associated dementia. A milder form of neurocognitive disorders are still prevalent and remain a challenge. AIM: This study aimed to determine the correlation between plasma cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) lymphocyte, duration of ARV treatment, opportunistic infections, and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729278/restoration-of-sensory-input-may-improve-cognitive-and-neural-function
#16
Hanin Karawani, Kimberly Jenkins, Samira Anderson
Age-related hearing loss is one of the most prevalent health conditions among the elderly. Hearing loss may lead to social isolation, depression, and cognitive decline in older adults. The mechanistic basis for the association between hearing loss and decreased cognitive function remains unknown as does the potential for improving cognition through hearing rehabilitation. To that end, we asked whether the restoration of sensory input through the use of hearing aids would improve cognitive and auditory neural function...
May 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728154/recapdoc-a-questionnaire-for-the-documentation-of-rehabilitation-care-utilization-in-individuals-with-disorders-of-consciousness-in-long-term-care-in-germany-development-and-pretesting
#17
Hanna Klingshirn, Rene Mittrach, Kathrin Braitmayer, Ralf Strobl, Andreas Bender, Eva Grill, Martin Müller
BACKGROUND: A multitude of different rehabilitation interventions and other specific health care services are offered for individuals with disorders of consciousness in long-term care settings. To investigate the association of those services and patient-relevant outcomes, a specific instrument to document the utilization of those services is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop such a questionnaire administered to caregivers in epidemiological studies or patient registries in Germany...
May 4, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718082/integration-of-neuropsychological-services-in-a-va-hiv-primary-care-clinic
#18
Moira C Dux, Terry Lee-Wilk
The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest health care provider for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with >28,000 Veterans with HIV/AIDS enrolled in care. Advances in medical treatment have improved the life-limiting effects of the disease, though many chronic symptoms persist. Comprehensive care is critical to manage the diverse constellation of symptoms. However, many patients face challenges to receiving optimal care due to limited resources, mistrust of health care providers, and/or co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and substance use disorders...
May 1, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716438/outcomes-with-a-self-fitting-hearing-aid
#19
Gitte Keidser, Elizabeth Convery
Self-fitting hearing aids (SFHAs)-devices that enable self-directed threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid (HA) setting, and fine-tuning, without the need for professional support-are now commercially available. This study examined outcomes obtained with one commercial SFHA, the Companion (SoundWorld Solutions), when support was available from a clinical assistant during self-fitting. Participants consisted of 27 experienced and 25 new HA users who completed the self-fitting process, resulting in 38 user-driven and 14 clinician-driven fittings...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712920/development-of-an-optogenetic-toolkit-for-neural-circuit-dissection-in-squirrel-monkeys
#20
Daniel J O'Shea, Paul Kalanithi, Emily A Ferenczi, Brian Hsueh, Chandramouli Chandrasekaran, Werapong Goo, Ilka Diester, Charu Ramakrishnan, Matthew T Kaufman, Stephen I Ryu, Kristen W Yeom, Karl Deisseroth, Krishna V Shenoy
Optogenetic tools have opened a rich experimental landscape for understanding neural function and disease. Here, we present the first validation of eight optogenetic constructs driven by recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors and a WGA-Cre based dual injection strategy for projection targeting in a widely-used New World primate model, the common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. We observed opsin expression around the local injection site and in axonal projections to downstream regions, as well as transduction to thalamic neurons, resembling expression patterns observed in macaques...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
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