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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207604/memory-rehabilitation-strategies-in-nonsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-review
#1
Alessandra Del Felice, Marzia Alderighi, Matteo Martinato, Davide Grisafi, Anna Bosco, Pamela J Thompson, Josemir W Sander, Stefano Masiero
People with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who have not undergone epilepsy surgery often complain of memory deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation is employed as a remedial intervention in clinical settings, but research is limited and findings concerning efficacy and the criteria for choosing different approaches have been inconsistent. We aimed to appraise existing evidence on memory rehabilitation in nonsurgical individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and to ascertain the effectiveness of specific strategies. A scoping review was preferred given the heterogeneous nature of the interventions...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203219/toward-a-dynamic-probabilistic-model-for-vestibular-cognition
#2
Andrew W Ellis, Fred W Mast
We suggest that research in vestibular cognition will benefit from the theoretical framework of probabilistic models. This will aid in developing an understanding of how interactions between high-level cognition and low-level sensory processing might occur. Many such interactions have been shown experimentally; however, to date, no attempt has been made to systematically explore vestibular cognition by using computational modeling. It is widely assumed that mental imagery and perception share at least in part neural circuitry, and it has been proposed that mental simulation is closely connected to the brain's ability to make predictions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199893/decreased-cingulate-cortex-activation-during-cognitive-control-processing-in-bipolar-disorder
#3
Staci A Gruber, M Kathryn Dahlgren, Kelly A Sagar, Atilla Gonenc, Lesley Norris, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Ongur, Kathryn E Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are well-documented in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) and may impact the efficacy of psychotherapy. Cognitive control, a form of executive functioning, is often used therapeutically to shift patients' thoughts and behaviors from automatic, maladaptive responses to adaptive coping strategies. This study examined cognitive control processing in patients with BPD using the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). METHOD: Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with BPD and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects completed the MSIT with concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199892/a-prognostic-index-pi-as-a-moderator-of-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-depression-a-proof-of-concept-combining-multiple-variables-to-inform-risk-stratified-stepped-care-models
#4
Lorenzo Lorenzo-Luaces, Robert J DeRubeis, Annemieke van Straten, Bea Tiemens
BACKGROUND: Prognostic indices (PIs) combining variables to predict future depression risk may help guide the selection of treatments that differ in intensity. We develop a PI and show its promise in guiding treatment decisions between treatment as usual (TAU), treatment starting with a low-intensity treatment (brief therapy (BT)), or treatment starting with a high-intensity treatment intervention (cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)). METHODS: We utilized data from depressed patients (N=622) who participated in a randomized comparison of TAU, BT, and CBT in which no statistically significant differences in the primary outcomes emerged between the three treatments...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193245/early-disease-progression-of-hurler-syndrome
#5
Bridget T Kiely, Jennifer L Kohler, Hannah Y Coletti, Michele D Poe, Maria L Escolar
BACKGROUND: Newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) shows promise to improve outcomes by facilitating early diagnosis and treatment. However, diagnostic tests for MPS I are of limited value in predicting whether a child will develop severe central nervous system disease associated with Hurler syndrome, or minimal or no central nervous system involvement associated with the attenuated phenotypes (Hurler-Scheie and Scheie syndromes). Given that the optimal treatment differs between Hurler syndrome and the attenuated MPS I phenotypes, the absence of a reliable prognostic biomarker complicates clinical decision making for infants diagnosed through newborn screening...
February 14, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192674/designing-visual-aids-that-promote-risk-literacy
#6
Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Edward T Cokely
Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191992/with-a-little-help-for-our-thoughts-making-it-easier-to-think-for-pleasure
#7
Erin C Westgate, Timothy D Wilson, Daniel T Gilbert
Can people enjoy thinking if they set their mind to it? Previous work suggests that many people do not enjoy the deliberate attempt to have pleasurable thoughts. We suggest that deliberately thinking for pleasure requires mental resources that people are either unwilling or unable to devote to the task. If so, then people should enjoy pleasant thoughts that occur unintentionally more than pleasant thoughts that occur intentionally. This hypothesis was confirmed in an experience sampling study (Study 1) in which participants were contacted 4 times a day for 7 days and asked to rate what they had been thinking about...
February 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190402/preserving-brain-function-in-a-comatose-patient-with-septic-hyperpyrexia-41-6%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-a-case-report
#8
Samantha Sterkel, Akinboyede Akinyemi, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, George Michel
BACKGROUND: Pyrexia is a physiological response through which the immune system responds to infectious processes. Hyperpyrexia is known to be neurodegenerative leading to brain damage. Some of the neurotoxic effects of hyperpyrexia on the brain include seizures, decreased cognitive speed, mental status changes, coma, and even death. In the clinical management of hyperpyrexia, the goal is to treat the underlying cause of elevated temperature and prevent end organ damage. CASE PRESENTATION: This case illustrates a 39-year-old white American man referred from another medical facility where he had undergone an upper gastrointestinal tract diagnostic procedure which became complicated by blood aspiration and respiratory distress...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188124/commencing-and-persisting-with-a-web-based-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-for-insomnia-a-qualitative-study-of-treatment-completers
#9
Charles Chan, Stacey West, Nick Glozier
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CCBT-I) has a growing evidence base as a stand-alone intervention, but it is less clear what factors may limit its acceptability and feasibility when combined with clinical care. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to use of an adjunctive CCBT-I program among depressed patients in a psychiatric clinic by using both quantitative and qualitative approaches...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183300/an-investigation-of-stigmatizing-attitudes-towards-people-living-with-hiv-aids-by-doctors-and-nurses-in-vientiane-lao-pdr
#10
Savina Vorasane, Masamine Jimba, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Junko Yasuoka, Keiko Nanishi, Jo Durham, Vanphanom Sychareun
BACKGROUND: Despite global efforts, HIV-related stigma continues to negatively impact the health and well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS. Even in healthcare settings, people with HIV/AIDS experience discrimination. Anecdotal evidence suggests that healthcare professionals in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, a lower-middle income country situated in Southeast Asia, stigmatize HIV/AID patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV stigmatizing attitudes within Laotian healthcare service providers and examine some of the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related stigma among doctors and nurses...
February 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181040/long-term-outcomes-of-youth-treated-for-an-anxiety-disorder-a-critical-review
#11
REVIEW
Brittany A Gibby, Elizabeth P Casline, Golda S Ginsburg
Pediatric anxiety disorders are common, disabling, and chronic conditions. Efforts over the past two decades have focused on developing and testing effective treatments. Short-term efficacy of both Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been established. Data are emerging on the long-term (i.e., 2 years or longer) effectiveness of these treatments, but this literature has yet to be adequately synthesized. This study presents a systematic and critical qualitative review of published long-term follow-up (LTFU) studies of youth treated for an anxiety disorder...
February 8, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178858/technology-based-tools-and-services-for-people-with-dementia-and-carers-mapping-technology-onto-the-dementia-care-pathway
#12
Klara Lorenz, Paul P Freddolino, Adelina Comas-Herrera, Martin Knapp, Jacqueline Damant
The extent to which technology may be able to support people with dementia and their carers along the care pathway and in different care settings is of interest to policy makers and governments. In this paper we provide an overview of the role of technology in dementia care, treatment and support by mapping existing technologies - by function, target user and disease progression. Technologies identified are classified into seven functions: memory support, treatment, safety and security, training, care delivery, social interaction and other...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174531/sensory-emotional-and-cognitive-contributions-to-anxiety-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Mikle South, Jacqui Rodgers
Severe symptoms of anxiety add substantial additional burden to many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Improved understanding of specific factors that contribute to anxiety in ASD can aid research regarding the causes of autism and also provide targets for more effective intervention. This mini-review article focuses on emerging evidence for three concepts that appear to be related to each other and which also strongly predict anxiety in ASD samples. Atypical sensory function is included in the diagnostic criteria for ASD and is likely an important contributor to anxiety...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173894/deconstructing-the-performance-of-everyday-activities-a-case-in-dementia
#14
Clarissa M Giebel, Daniela Montaldi
BACKGROUND: The assessment of everyday functioning in dementia is currently very global and in most cases fails to provide an in-depth overview of specific areas of deficits. Every activity comprises different sub-tasks which may be impaired to different degrees. Performance of some sub-tasks might be maintained and could thus be the foundation for remaining independent for longer. Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the benefits of breaking down everyday activities into sub-tasks...
February 8, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169490/cognitive-impairment-among-prostate-cancer-patients-an-overview-of-reviews
#15
REVIEW
C J Treanor, J Li, M Donnelly
To identify and clarify definitions and methods of measuring cancer-related cognitive impairment among prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and to assess the incidence and prevalence of cognitive impairment. A systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to December 2015 was undertaken to identify English-language reviews. A total of 28 reviews were identified describing 20 primary studies. There were no studies of incidence. Reported prevalence rates varied between 10% and 69%...
February 7, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158885/breaking-bad-delirium-methamphetamine-and-boric-acid-toxicity-with-hallucinations-and-pseudosepsis
#16
Kayla Johnson, Joanna L Stollings, E Wesley Ely
OBJECTIVES: A 30-year-old patient presented with hallucinations and profound shock. He was initially misdiagnosed as having severe sepsis; once ingestions were considered, he was diagnosed as potentially having arsenic toxicity. SUMMARY: The clinical story reveals many instructional lessons that could aid in the evaluation and management of future patients. This man presented with large amounts of blue crystals around his nose and lips from inhaling and eating boric acid (an ant poison) so he could, as he put it, kill the ants "pouring into my mouth and nose and up into my brain...
February 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157222/assessment-of-the-apple-ipad-as-a-low-vision-reading-aid
#17
E Morrice, A P Johnson, J-A Marinier, W Wittich
PurposeLow-vision clients frequently report having problems with reading. Using magnification, reading performance (as measured by reading speed) can be improved by up to 200%. Current magnification aids can be expensive or bulky; therefore, we explored if the Apple iPad offers comparable performance in improving reading speeds, in comparison with a closed-circuit television (CCTV) video magnifier, or other magnification devices.MethodsWe recruited 100 participants between the ages of 24-97 years, with low vision who were literate and cognitively capable, of whom 57 had age-related macular degeneration...
February 3, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157111/waist-up-protection-for-blind-individuals-using-the-eyecane-as-a-primary-and-secondary-mobility-aid
#18
Galit Buchs, Noa Simon, Shachar Maidenbaum, Amir Amedi
BACKGROUND: One of the most stirring statistics in relation to the mobility of blind individuals is the high rate of upper body injuries, even when using the white-cane. OBJECTIVE: We here addressed a rehabilitation- oriented challenge of providing a reliable tool for blind people to avoid waist-up obstacles, namely one of the impediments to their successful mobility using currently available methods (e.g., white-cane). METHODS: We used the EyeCane, a device we developed which translates distances from several angles to haptic and auditory cues in an intuitive and unobtrusive manner, serving both as a primary and secondary mobility aid...
February 2, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152200/population-based-cost-offset-analyses-for-disorder-specific-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa-in-germany
#19
Katharina Bode, Nina Maria Götz von Olenhusen, Eva-Maria Wunsch, Sören Kliem, Christoph Kröger
Previous research has shown that anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are expensive illnesses to treat. To reduce their economic burden, adequate interventions need to be established. Our objective was to conduct cost-offset analyses for evidence-based treatment of eating disorders using outcome data from a psychotherapy trial involving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT) for AN and a trial involving CBT for BN. Assuming a currently running, ideal healthcare system using a 12-month, prevalence-based approach and varying the willingness to participate in treatment, we investigated whether the potential financial benefits of AN- and BN-related treatment outweigh the therapy costs at the population level...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150431/should-learners-reason-one-step-at-a-time-a-randomised-trial-of-two-diagnostic-scheme-designs
#20
Sarah Blissett, Deric Morrison, David McCarty, Matthew Sibbald
CONTEXT: Making a diagnosis can be difficult for learners as they must integrate multiple clinical variables. Diagnostic schemes can help learners with this complex task. A diagnostic scheme is an algorithm that organises possible diagnoses by assigning signs or symptoms (e.g. systolic murmur) to groups of similar diagnoses (e.g. aortic stenosis and aortic sclerosis) and provides distinguishing features to help discriminate between similar diagnoses (e.g. carotid pulse). The current literature does not identify whether scheme layouts should guide learners to reason one step at a time in a terminally branching scheme or weigh multiple variables simultaneously in a hybrid scheme...
February 2, 2017: Medical Education
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