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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035800/exploring-mechanisms-of-change-in-schema-therapy-for-chronic-depression
#1
Fritz Renner, Robert DeRubeis, Arnoud Arntz, Frenk Peeters, Jill Lobbestael, Marcus J H Huibers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The underlying mechanisms of symptom change in schema therapy (ST) for chronic major depressive disorder (cMDD) have not been studied. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of two potentially important mechanisms of symptom change, maladaptive schemas (proxied by negative idiosyncratic core-beliefs) and the therapeutic alliance. METHODS: We drew data from a single-case series of ST for cMDD. Patients with cMDD (N = 20) received on average 78 repeated weekly assessments over a course of up to 65 individual sessions of ST...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034334/arousal-related-adjustments-of-perceptual-biases-optimize-perception-in-dynamic-environments
#2
Kamesh Krishnamurthy, Matthew R Nassar, Shilpa Sarode, Joshua I Gold
Prior expectations can be used to improve perceptual judgments about ambiguous stimuli. However, little is known about if and how these improvements are maintained in dynamic environments in which the quality of appropriate priors changes from one stimulus to the next. Using a sound-localization task, we show that changes in stimulus predictability lead to arousal-mediated adjustments in the magnitude of prior-driven biases that optimize perceptual judgments about each stimulus. These adjustments depend on task-dependent changes in the relevance and reliability of prior expectations, which subjects update using both normative and idiosyncratic principles...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033486/topiramate-induced-acute-liver-injury-a-rare-adverse-effect
#3
Archish Khivsara, Jeffrey Pradeep Raj, Divya Hegde, Mangala Rao
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is damage to liver occurring at recommended dose of a drug in contrast to toxic or predictable DILI. Although it is common in first-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), it is rare in newer AEDs such as topiramate. Topiramate commonly causes neurological adverse effects such as psychomotor slowing and somnolence. Hepatotoxicity by topiramate is rare and has been previously reported in combination with other drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine. Here, we report a case of topiramate-induced asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes in an adult man diagnosed with alcohol dependence syndrome and alcohol withdrawal complicated with seizures...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029277/mir-122-release-in-exosomes-precedes-overt-tolvaptan-induced-necrosis-in-a-primary-human-hepatocyte-micropatterned-coculture-model
#4
Merrie Mosedale, J Scott Eaddy, O Joseph Trask, Natalie S Holman, Kristina K Wolf, Edward LeCluyse, Brenton R Ware, Salman R Khetani, Jingtao Lu, William J Brock, Sharin E Roth, Paul B Watkins
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is thought to often result from an adaptive immune attack on the liver. However, it has been proposed that the cascade of events culminating in an adaptive immune response begins with drug-induced hepatocyte stress, release of exosomal danger signals, and innate immune activation, all of which may occur in the absence of significant hepatocelluar death. A micropatterned coculture model (HepatoPac®) was used to explore the possibility that changes in exosome content precede overt necrosis in response to the IDILI drug tolvaptan...
September 28, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024696/wandering-thoughts-about-consciousness-the-brain-and-the-commentary-system-of-larry-weiskrantz
#5
Giovanni Berlucchi
Larry Weiskrantz has always pursued a keen interest in consciousness in humans and other animals by performing clever experiments and proposing clever ideas. In this rather idiosyncratic essay I selectively review some old and new evidence on real and apparent losses of consciousness in humans, new means that allow the human brain to expose its conscious awareness directly, and experiments on animals that may bridge their consciousness with that of humans.
October 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018547/a-devil-s-dictionary-for-mental-health
#6
EDITORIAL
Philip Timms
Clinical psychiatry, for all its emphasis on scientific rigour, is mediated mainly by words rather than by numbers. As with other professional areas, it has developed its own set of jargon words and phrases. Many of these are not the technical terms traditionally seen as jargon, but standard English words and phrases used in an idiosyncratic way. They therefore go unnoticed as jargon, while enfeebling our communications. I have used the template of Ambrose Bierce's The Devil's Dictionary to highlight some examples, with the aim of helping us all to talk, write and, perhaps, think more clearly...
October 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017011/altered-volatile-organic-compound-profile-in-transgenic-rats-bearing-a53t-mutation-of-human-%C3%AE-synuclein-comparison-with-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-denervation
#7
John P M Finberg, Yuval Aluf, Yelena Loboda, Morad K Nakhleh, Raneen Jeries, Manal Abud-Hawa, Salman Zubedat, Avi Avital, Soliman Khatib, Jacob Vaya, Hossam Haick
Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is of great importance due its progressive phenotype. Neuroprotective drugs could potentially slow down disease progression if used at early stages. Previously, we have reported an altered content of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of rats following a 50% reduction in striatal dopamine (DA) content induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. We now report on the difference in the breath-print and content of VOCs between rats with mild and severe lesions of DA neurons, serotonergic neuronal lesions, and transgenic (Tg) rats carrying the PD-producing A53T mutation of the SNCA (α-synuclein) gene...
October 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987982/a-qualitative-study-of-speaking-out-about-patient-safety-concerns-in-intensive-care-units
#8
Carolyn Tarrant, Myles Leslie, Julian Bion, Mary Dixon-Woods
Much policy focus has been afforded to the role of "whistleblowers" in raising concerns about quality and safety of patient care in healthcare settings. However, most opportunities for personnel to identify and act on these concerns are likely to occur much further upstream, in the day-to-day mundane interactions of everyday work. Using qualitative data from over 900 h of ethnographic observation and 98 interviews across 19 English intensive care units (ICUs), we studied how personnel gave voice to concerns about patient safety or poor practice...
September 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987257/the-liver-in-oncology
#9
REVIEW
Renu Dhanasekaran, Paul Y Kwo
Gastroenterologists and hepatologists will encounter oncology patients who develop abnormal liver tests, patients with hepatic malignancies, and patients with acute and chronic liver disease who require chemotherapy or immediate evaluation. Chemotherapy can cause liver injury owing to toxic effects or idiosyncratic reactions. Immune checkpoint inhibitors may be associated with autoimmune-mediated liver toxicities. Venoocclusive disease requires immediate evaluation. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a chronic progressive disorder...
November 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980481/-no-former-travellers-having-attained-such-a-height-on-the-earth-s-surface-instruments-inscriptions-and-bodies-in-the-himalaya-1800-1830
#10
Lachlan Fleetwood
East India Company surveyors began gaining access to the high Himalaya in the 1810s, at a time when the mountains were taking on increasing political significance as the northern borderlands of British India. Though never as idiosyncratic as surveyors insisted, these were spaces in which instruments, fieldbook inscriptions, and bodies were all highly prone to failure. The ways surveyors managed these failures (both rhetorically and in practice) demonstrate the social performances required to establish credible knowledge in a world in which the senses were scrambled...
October 1, 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979223/mental-contrasting-of-a-negative-future-with-a-positive-reality-regulates-state-anxiety
#11
Gunnar Brodersen, Gabriele Oettingen
Mental contrasting of a desired future with impeding reality is a self-regulatory strategy fostering goal pursuit. However, there is little research on mental contrasting of a negative future with a positive reality. We conducted two experiments, each with four experimental conditions, investigating the effects of mental contrasting a negative future with a positive reality on state anxiety: participants who mentally contrasted a negative future regarding a bacterial epidemic (Study 1, N = 199) or an idiosyncratic negative event (Study 2, N = 206) showed less state anxiety than participants who imagined the negative future only or who reverse contrasted; participants who mentally elaborated on the positive reality also showed less state anxiety...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971539/large-cosolutes-small-cosolutes-and-dihydrofolate-reductase-activity
#12
Luis C Acosta, Gerardo M Perez Goncalves, Gary J Pielak, Annelise H Gorensek-Benitez
Protein enzymes are the main catalysts in the crowded and complex cellular interior, but their activity is almost always studied in dilute buffered solutions. Studies that attempt to recreate the cellular interior in vitro often utilize synthetic polymers as crowding agents. Here, we report the effects of the synthetic polymer cosolutes Ficoll, dextran and polyvinylpyrrolidone, as well as their respective monomers, sucrose, glucose and 1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone, on the activity of the 18-kDa monomeric enzyme, Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase...
October 3, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962153/turner-syndrome-caused-by-rare-complex-structural-abnormalities-involving-chromosome-x
#13
Niu Li, Li Zhao, Juan Li, Yu Ding, Yongnian Shen, Xiaodong Huang, Xiumin Wang, Jian Wang
Turner syndrome (TS) is a phenotypic heterogeneous genetic disorder caused by the loss of an X-chromosome or X-structural abnormalities in the X-chromosome, and affects approximately 1 in every 2,500 females. The affected individuals may develop diverse clinical features, including short stature, ovarian dysgenesis, skeletal dysplasia, facial abnormalities and other disorders. A constitutional karyotype of 45, X accounts for nearly 50% of TS patients, while X-mosaicism and other X-chromosomal structural abnormalities, including deletions, duplications, ring, isodicentric chromosomes, inversions and translocations, have been reported in other cases...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959630/evaluation-of-a-human-in-vitro-hepatocyte-npc-co-culture-model-for-the-prediction-of-idiosyncratic-drug-induced-liver-injury-a-pilot-study
#14
Anne Granitzny, Jan Knebel, Meike Müller, Armin Braun, Pablo Steinberg, Clemens Dasenbrock, Tanja Hansen
Interactions between hepatocytes and immune cells as well as inflammatory episodes are frequently discussed to play a critical role in the alteration of the individual susceptibility to idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI). To evaluate this hypothesis and to face the urgent need for predictive in vitro models, we established two co-culture systems based on two human cell lines in presence or absence of pro-inflammatory factors (LPS, TNF), i.e. hepatoma HepG2 cells co-cultured with monocytic or macrophage-like THP-1 cells...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954408/history-and-outcome-of-febrile-neutropenia-outside-the-oncology-setting-a-retrospective-study-of-76-cases-related-to-non-chemotherapy-drugs
#15
Emmanuel Andrès, Rachel Mourot-Cottet, Frédéric Maloisel, Olivier Keller, Thomas Vogel, François Séverac, Martine Tebacher, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Jean-Christophe Weber, Georges Kaltenbach, Bernard Goichot, Jean Sibilia, Anne-Sophie Korganow, Raoul Herbrecht
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in its prevention and treatment, febrile neutropenia remains a most concerning complication of cancer chemotherapy. Outside the oncology setting, however, only few data are currently available on febrile neutropenia related to non-chemotherapy drugs. We report here data on 76 patients with febrile neutropenia related to non-chemotherapy drugs, followed up in a referral center within a university hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 76 patients with idiosyncratic drug-induced febrile neutropenia were retrospectively reviewed...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953920/there-s-more-than-one-way-to-climb-a-tree-limb-length-and-microhabitat-use-in-lizards-with-toe-pads
#16
Travis J Hagey, Scott Harte, Mathew Vickers, Luke J Harmon, Lin Schwarzkopf
Ecomorphology links microhabitat and morphology. By comparing ecomorphological associations across clades, we can investigate the extent to which evolution can produce similar solutions in response to similar challenges. While Anolis lizards represent a well-studied example of repeated convergent evolution, very few studies have investigated the ecomorphology of geckos. Similar to anoles, gekkonid lizards have independently evolved adhesive toe pads and many species are scansorial. We quantified gecko and anole limb length and microhabitat use, finding that geckos tend to have shorter limbs than anoles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953761/a-review-of-the-efficacy-and-role-of-the-card-sort-exercise-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder
#17
Paul Jie Wen Tern, Ali Abdaal, Jake Tobin, Katherine Macfarland, Molly Hunt, Mark Agius
The current card sort exercise described by Agius et al. in 2006 provides a tool for patients and their families to characterise the temporal pattern of occurrence of both stereotyped and idiosyncratic prodromal symptoms that serve as early warning signs predicting a relapse. This 'individual relapse signature' is highly specific for bipolar relapse, and aids identification of a relapse such that patients can be channeled into appropriate early intervention pathways. This review examines the role of the card sort exercise in the treatment of bipolar disorder, and evaluates the evidence for its efficacy...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934317/photosynthetic-epibionts-and-endobionts-of-pacific-oyster-shells-from-oyster-reefs-in-rocky-versus-mudflat-shores
#18
Laurent Barillé, Anthony Le Bris, Vona Méléder, Patrick Launeau, Marc Robin, Ioanna Louvrou, Lourenço Ribeiro
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), is the main bivalve species cultivated in the world. With global warming enabling its reproduction and larval survival at higher latitudes, this species is now recognized as invasive and creates wild oyster reefs globally. In this study, the spatial distribution of photosynthetic assemblages colonizing the shells of wild C. gigas was investigated on both a large scale (two contrasting types of reefs found in mudflats and rocky areas) and a small scale (within individual shells) using a hyperspectral imager...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930710/at-the-intersection-of-faith-culture-and-family-dynamics-a-complex-case-of-refusal-of-treatment-for-childhood-cancer
#19
Amy E Caruso Brown
Refusing treatment for potentially curable childhood cancers engenders much discussion and debate. I present a case in which the competent parents of a young Amish child with acute myeloid leukemia deferred authority for decision making to the child's maternal grandfather, who was vocal in his opposition to treatment. I analyze three related concerns that distinguish this case from other accounts of refused treatment. First, I place deference to grandparents as decision makers in the context of surrogate decision making more generally...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927713/risk-factors-of-early-adverse-drug-reactions-with-phenytoin-a-prospective-inpatient-cohort
#20
Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Wilhelm Uslar, Silvana Villagra, Jose Plaza, Jaime Godoy, Patricio Mellado
INTRODUCTION: Phenytoin (PHT) is an effective and inexpensive antiepileptic drug (AED). However, its use has been limited for fear of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and is being replaced by newer AED, increasing the costs and causing major budget problems, particularly for developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine ADR frequency, explore, and establish related risk factors. METHODS: Prospective data were collected from a cohort of inpatients using PHT for the first time...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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