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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722127/contrasting-outcomes-of-species-and-community-level-analyses-of-the-temporal-consistency-of-functional-composition
#1
Masatoshi Katabuchi, S Joseph Wright, Nathan G Swenson, Kenneth J Feeley, Richard Condit, Stephen P Hubbell, Stuart J Davies
Multiple anthropogenic drivers affect every natural community, and there is broad interest in using functional traits to understand and predict the consequences for future biodiversity. There is, however, no consensus regarding the choice of analytical methods. We contrast species- and community-level analyses of change in the functional composition for four traits related to drought tolerance using three decades of repeat censuses of trees in the 50-ha Forest Dynamics Plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama...
July 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716125/mercury-alters-endogenous-phosphorylation-profiles-of-syk-in-murine-b-cells
#2
Joseph A Caruso, Nicholas Carruthers, Namhee Shin, Randal Gill, Paul M Stemmer, Allen Rosenspire
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence and animal models suggest that exposure to low and non-neurotoxic concentrations of mercury may contribute to idiosyncratic autoimmune disease. Since defects in function and signaling in B cells are often associated with autoimmunity, we investigated whether mercury exposure might alter B cell responsiveness to self-antigens by interfering with B cell receptor (BCR) signal transduction. In this study we determined the effects of mercury on the protein tyrosine kinase SYK, a critical protein involved in regulation of the BCR signaling pathway...
July 17, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713494/caspase-3-role-and-immunohistochemical-expression-in-assessment-of-apoptosis-as-a-feature-of-h1n1-vaccine-caused-drug-induced-liver-injury-dili
#3
Abir Khalil Mohamed, Mona Magdy
BACKGROUND: Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) changes, occur post exposure to natural or chemical compounds including apoptosis. AIM: To assess the H1N1 vaccine-caused DILI by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. METHODS: This 2014's experimental study was conducted on 70 albino rats. They were given Arepanrix(TM) H1N1 vaccine and were divided into 7 groups; 10 mice each, as control (non-vaccinated), vac2 and vac4 injected with 1(st) and 2(nd) doses of vaccine (suspension only) and euthanized after 3 weeks each, vac5 euthanized 6 weeks after 2(nd) dose, mix2 and mix4 injected with 1(st) and 2(nd) doses of vaccine (mixture of suspension and adjuvant) and euthanized after 3 weeks each, mix5 and euthanized 6 weeks after 2(nd) dose...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699636/idiosyncratic-m%C3%A3-ji%C3%A4-ng-virus-attachment-glycoprotein-directs-a-host-cell-entry-pathway-distinct-from-genetically-related-henipaviruses
#4
Ilona Rissanen, Asim A Ahmed, Kristopher Azarm, Shannon Beaty, Patrick Hong, Sham Nambulli, W Paul Duprex, Benhur Lee, Thomas A Bowden
In 2012, cases of lethal pneumonia among Chinese miners prompted the isolation of a rat-borne henipavirus (HNV), Mòjiāng virus (MojV). Although MojV is genetically related to highly pathogenic bat-borne henipaviruses, the absence of a conserved ephrin receptor-binding motif in the MojV attachment glycoprotein (MojV-G) indicates a differing host-cell recognition mechanism. Here we find that MojV-G displays a six-bladed β-propeller fold bearing limited similarity to known paramyxoviral attachment glycoproteins, in particular at host receptor-binding surfaces...
July 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693676/matter-a-current-picture
#5
Roderick M Macrae
A century ago, a two-part review by W. C. McC. Lewis entitled "The Structure of Matter" appeared in this journal, surveying the achievements that had been made to date in that field. Topics included the value of Avogadro's constant, the dimensions of a molecule, equations of state for non-ideal gases, then-current theories relating electron configurations to the Periodic Law, the then-new nuclear atom model of Rutherford, and the first findings from X-ray crystallographic studies of matter, a field then in its nascent phase...
May 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687704/synergistic-cytotoxicity-from-drugs-and-cytokines-in-vitro-as-an-approach-to-classify-drugs-according-to-their-potential-to-cause-idiosyncratic-hepatotoxicity-a-proof-of-concept-study
#6
Ashley R Maiuri, Bronlyn Wassink, Jonathan D Turkus, Anna B Breier, Theresa Lansdell, Gurpreet Kaur, Sarah L Hession, Patricia E Ganey, Robert A Roth
Idiosyncratic, drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) typically occurs in a small fraction of patients and has resulted in removal of otherwise efficacious drugs from the market. Current preclinical testing methods are ineffective in predicting which drug candidates have IDILI liability. Recent results suggest that immune mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and interferon-gamma (IFN) interact with drugs that cause IDILI to kill hepatocytes. This proof-of-concept study was designed to test the hypothesis that drugs can be classified according to their ability to cause IDILI in humans using logistic regression modeling with covariates derived from concentration-response relationships that describe cytotoxic interaction with cytokines...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679728/idiosyncratic-development-of-sensory-structures-in-brains-of-diapausing-butterfly-pupae-implications-for-information-processing
#7
Philipp Lehmann, Sören Nylin, Karl Gotthard, Mikael A Carlsson
Diapause is an important escape mechanism from seasonal stress in many insects. A certain minimum amount of time in diapause is generally needed in order for it to terminate. The mechanisms of time-keeping in diapause are poorly understood, but it can be hypothesized that a well-developed neural system is required. However, because neural tissue is metabolically costly to maintain, there might exist conflicting selective pressures on overall brain development during diapause, on the one hand to save energy and on the other hand to provide reliable information processing during diapause...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677123/the-influence-of-chinese-culture-on-family-caregivers-of-stroke-survivors-a-qualitative-study
#8
Olivia Xichenhui Qiu, Janet W H Sit, Fung Kuen Koo
BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated that culture can have a significant impact on the stroke caregiving experience. Moreover, scant research exists on stroke caregivers' experience within the Chinese culture. AIMS: The present study aims to explore and describe the caregiving experiences of Chinese stroke caregivers. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive design was used. METHODS: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 family caregivers of stroke survivors...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675502/dmrt1-polymorphism-and-sex-chromosome-differentiation-in-rana-temporaria
#9
Nicolas Rodrigues, Tania Studer, Christophe Dufresnes, Wen-Juan Ma, Paris Veltsos, Nicolas Perrin
Sex-determination mechanisms vary both within and among populations of common frogs, opening opportunities to investigate the molecular pathways and ultimate causes shaping their evolution. We investigated the association between sex-chromosome differentiation (as assayed from microsatellites) and polymorphism at the candidate sex-determining gene Dmrt1 in two Alpine populations. Both populations harbored a diversity of X-linked and Y-linked Dmrt1 haplotypes. Some males had fixed male-specific alleles at all markers ('differentiated' Y chromosomes), others only at Dmrt1 ('proto-' Y chromosomes), while still others were genetically indistinguishable from females (undifferentiated X chromosomes)...
July 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668987/a-case-of-fatal-idiosyncratic-reaction-to-the-designer-drug-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Brigitte Desharnais, Yann Dazé, Laura M Huppertz, Pascal Mireault, Cameron D Skinner
The stimulant designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) was first synthesized by Boehringer Ingelheim in 1969 and introduced on the black market in 2006. Only a small number of fatal intoxication cases have been reported in the literature, all with significant blood MDPV concentrations. In this report, we describe one fatality attributed to an idiosyncratic reaction to MDPV. The victim displayed agitation, violent behavior and delirium followed by cardiac arrest. Hyperthermia was observed at the hospital...
July 1, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667173/a-time-for-promiscuity-in-a-eukaryotic-recombinase
#11
REVIEW
Maria Spies
The exchange of DNA strands between broken and intact molecules lies at the heart of fundamental cellular processes ranging from repairing DNA damage by homologous recombination to generation of genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. New work by Lee and colleagues utilizes the DNA curtain method, an elegant single-molecule technique, to demonstrate common and idiosyncratic features in the DNA strand exchange mechanisms of three RecA-family recombinases, bacterial RecA, and eukaryotic Rad51 and Dmc1 proteins...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665895/dress-syndrome-or-hematologic-malignancy-a-case-report-of-a-4-year-old-boy
#12
Gulser Esen Besli, Sema Yildirim, Kutluhan Yilmaz, Elif Yuksel
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom (DRESS) is a serious idiosyncratic drug reaction. It is characterized by skin eruption, fever, hematologic abnormalities, and multi-organ involvement. Diagnosis is challenging because of the wide clinical spectrum. Its association with aromatic antiepileptic drugs, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, has been well described in adults. There are few reports of DRESS syndrome in children, and knowledge about the relationship between new antiepileptic drugs such as oxcarbazepine and this syndrome is limited...
July 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650997/disambiguating-authenticity-interpretations-of-value-and-appeal
#13
Kieran O'Connor, Glenn R Carroll, Balázs Kovács
While shaping aesthetic judgment and choice, socially constructed authenticity takes on some very different meanings among observers, consumers, producers and critics. Using a theoretical framework positing four distinct meanings of socially constructed authenticity-type, moral, craft, and idiosyncratic-we aim to document empirically the unique appeal of each type. We develop predictions about the relationships between attributed authenticity and corresponding increases in the value ascribed to it through: (1) consumer value ratings, (2) willingness to pay, and (3) behavioral choice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649126/cis-stilbene-glucoside-in-polygonum-multiflorum-induces-immunological-idiosyncratic-hepatotoxicity-in-lps-treated-rats-by-suppressing-ppar-%C3%AE
#14
Ya-Kun Meng, Chun-Yu Li, Rui-Yu Li, Lan-Zhi He, He-Rong Cui, Ping Yin, Cong-En Zhang, Peng-Yan Li, Xiu-Xiu Sang, Ya Wang, Ming Niu, Ya-Ming Zhang, Yu-Ming Guo, Rong Sun, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhao-Fang Bai, Xiao-He Xiao
The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (PM) has been used in China to treat a variety of diseases, such as constipation, early graying of the hair and hyperlipemia. Recent evidence shows that PM causes idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) in humans. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of PM-induced liver injury in a rat model of IDILI based on a non-hepatotoxic dose of LPS. SD rats were orally administered 3 potentially hepatotoxic compounds of PM: cis-stilbene glucoside (cis-SG, 50 mg/kg), trans-SG (50 mg/kg) or emodin (5 mg/kg), followed by injection of LPS (2...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648637/xyloglucan-a-functional-biomacromolecule-for-drug-delivery-applications
#15
REVIEW
Abhijeet D Kulkarni, Aditya A Joshi, Chirag L Patil, Prasad D Amale, Harun M Patel, Sanjay J Surana, Veena S Belgamwar, Kapil S Chaudhari, Chandrakantsing V Pardeshi
The near future of drug delivery system would lie in the search of a versatile and innocuous material, based mostly on the natural resources. The tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) is a natural neutral hemicellulose and a hydrophilic polysaccharide consisting of a main chain of glucan backbone with xylose and galactose side chains. XG is endowed with idiosyncratic mucoadhesive and in situ gelling properties which rated XG as an attractive, functional polymer for numerous drug delivery applications. In milieu of this, the present review is designed to underline the plausible potential of XG or XG-based systems in drug delivery...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645575/prediction-of-drug-induced-immune-mediated-hepatotoxicity-using-hepatocyte-like-cells-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#16
Dong Eon Kim, Mi-Jin Jang, Young Ran Kim, Joo-Young Lee, Eun Byul Cho, Eunha Kim, Yeji Kim, Mi Young Kim, Won-Il Jeong, Seyun Kim, Yong-Mahn Han, Seung-Hyo Lee
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of liver disease and a key safety factor during drug development. In addition to the initiation events of drug-specific hepatotoxicity, dysregulated immune responses have been proposed as major pathological events of DILI. Thus, there is a need for a reliable cell culture model with which to assess drug-induced immune reactions to predict hepatotoxicity for drug development. To this end, stem cell-derived hepatocytes have shown great potentials. Here we report that hepatocyte-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hES-HLCs) can be used to evaluate drug-induced hepatotoxic immunological events...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638868/in-vivo-effect-of-ruta-chalepensis-extract-on-hepatic-cytochrome-3a1-in-rats
#17
Edith Fabiola Martínez-Pérez, Fernando Hernández-Terán, Luis Benjamín Serrano-Gallardo
BACKGROUND: Since the time when drugs began to be used, it became evident that they could produce a therapeutic effect, but also a clinical condition of toxicity or no effect at all on humans, despite using the same doses in different patients. Such untoward effects were termed "drug idiosyncrasy" and also "idiosyncratic drug effects", but the factors producing such diverse responses were never taken into account. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ruta chalepensis L. (fringed rue) is an herbaceous plant of the Rutaceae family used in traditional medicine due to its properties, such as its analgesic and antipyretic effects...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636309/quantitative-chemical-proteomic-profiling-of-the-in-vivo-targets-of-reactive-drug-metabolites
#18
Landon R Whitby, R Scott Obach, Gabriel M Simon, Matthew M Hayward, Benjamin F Cravatt
Idiosyncratic liver toxicity represents an important problem in drug research and pharmacotherapy. Reactive drug metabolites that modify proteins are thought to be a principal factor in drug-induced liver injury. Here, we describe a quantitative chemical proteomic method to identify the targets of reactive drug metabolites in vivo. Treating mice with clickable analogues of four representative hepatotoxic drugs, we demonstrate extensive covalent binding that is confined primarily to the liver. Each drug exhibited a distinct target profile that, in certain cases, showed strong enrichment for specific metabolic pathways (e...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628631/computational-explanation-for-bioactivation-mechanism-of-targeted-anticancer-agents-mediated-by-cytochrome-p450s-a-case-of-erlotinib
#19
Chun-Zhi Ai, Yong Liu, Wei Li, De-Meng Chen, Xin-Xing Zhu, Ya-Wei Yan, Du-Chu Chen, Yi-Zhou Jiang
EGFR inhibitors, even with therapeutics superiorities in anticancer, can cause idiosyncratic pulmonary and hepatic toxicities that are associated with the reactive electrophile bioactivated by Cytochrome P450s (P450s). Until now, neither has the electrophilic intermediate been caught experimentally, nor has the subtle mechanism been declared. Herein, the underlying mechanism of bioactivation mediated by P450s was explored by DFT calculations for a case of EGFR inhibitor, Erlotinib. Based on the calculation and analysis, we suggest that with other metabolites, reactive electrophiles of Erlotinib: epoxide and quinine-imine, can be generated by several steps along the oxidative reaction pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624720/retention-of-perampanel-in-adults-with-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-at-a-single-tertiary-care-center
#20
Tim Wehner, Shahidul Mannan, Sanchit Turaga, Kirtana Vallabhaneni, Hao Meng Yip, Carys Wiggans, Rohit Shankar, John S Duncan, Josemir W Sander
RATIONALE: Observational data on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) inform about their use in clinical practice. We describe our clinical experience with perampanel (PER) in a large UK tertiary epilepsy center. METHODS: Adults initiated on PER between October 2012 and March 2015 were followed until they discontinued PER or 10 September 2016. Data on epilepsy syndrome, duration, seizure types, concomitant and previous AED use, PER dosing, efficacy and side effects were recorded...
June 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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