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Robin S S Kramer, Andrew W Young, A Mike Burton
It has been known for many years that identifying familiar faces is much easier than identifying unfamiliar faces, and that this familiar face advantage persists across a range of tasks. However, attempts to understand face familiarity have mostly used a binary contrast between 'familiar' and 'unfamiliar' faces, with no attempt to incorporate the vast range of familiarity we all experience. From family members to casual acquaintances and from personal to media exposure, familiarity is a more complex categorisation than is usually acknowledged...
December 9, 2017: Cognition
Maxim S Svetlov, Nora Vázquez-Laslop, Alexander S Mankin
Antibiotics can cause dormancy (bacteriostasis) or induce death (cidality) of the targeted bacteria. The bactericidal capacity is one of the most important properties of antibacterial agents. However, the understanding of the fundamental differences in the mode of action of bacteriostatic or bactericidal antibiotics, especially those belonging to the same chemical class, is very rudimentary. Here, by examining the activity and binding properties of chemically distinct macrolide inhibitors of translation, we have identified a key difference in their interaction with the ribosome, which correlates with their ability to cause cell death...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
András Hári-Kovács, Judit Soós, Tamás Gyetvai, Andrea Facskó, Mihály Végh
Sulpha drugs are widely employed in medicine for various diseases and disorders. During the last several decades, numerous papers had been published on supra ciliary and posterior choroidal effusion likely presenting as an idiosyncratic effect of these drugs especially of acetazolamide. In each publication, the effusion was associated with either an acute angle-closure glaucoma or transitory myopia or both of these as leading symptoms. In the current publication, authors report on two cases where the acetazolamide-induced choroidal effusion was an accidental finding without either a myopic shift in refraction or an acute elevation in intraocular pressure...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
Brian R Curtis
Non-chemotherapy idiosyncratic drug-induced neutropenia (IDIN) is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disorder that occurs in susceptible individuals, with an incidence of 2.4 to 15.4 cases per million population. Affected patients typically experience severe neutropenia within several weeks to several months after first exposure to a drug, and mortality is ∼5%. The drugs most frequently associated with IDIN include metamizole, clozapine, sulfasalazine, thiamazole, carbimazole, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, ticlopidine, and valganciclovir...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Hongbo Xie, Diheng Zeng, Xiujie Chen, Diwei Huo, Lei Liu, Denan Zhang, Qing Jin, Kehui Ke, Ming Hu
Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are drug reactions that occur rarely and unpredictably among the population. These reactions often occur after a drug is marketed, which means that they are strongly related to the genotype of the population. The prediction of such adverse reactions is a major challenge because of the lack of appropriate test models during the drug development process. In this study, we chose withdrawn drugs because the reasons why they were withdrawn and from which countries or regions is easily obtained...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Richard T Thakor, Nicholas Anaya, Yuwei Zhang, Christian Vilanilam, Kien Wei Siah, Chi Heem Wong, Andrew W Lo
Uncertainty surrounding the risk and reward of investments in biopharmaceutical companies poses a challenge to those interested in funding such enterprises. Using data on publicly traded stocks, we track the performance of 1,066 biopharmaceutical companies from 1930 to 2015-the most comprehensive financial analysis of this sector to date. Our systematic exploration of methods for distinguishing biotech and pharmaceutical companies yields a dynamic, more accurate classification method. We find that the performance of the biotech sector is highly sensitive to the presence of a few outlier companies, and confirm that nearly all biotech companies are loss-making enterprises, exhibiting high stock volatility...
December 2017: Nature Biotechnology
Hong-Pin Li, Hong-Yu Zhu, Xing Gao, Peng-Kai Ma, Jian-Hua Chen, Xin-Ning Bi, Qi Wang, Yu-Jie Zhang
To explore the possible mechanism of liver injury, the effects of Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis and its extractive on the function of bilirubin-associated transporters were investigated in normal (N) and idiosyncratic (LPS) rats (M). The normal and LPS rats were respectively administrated powder of Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis, its extractive and same volume of 0.5% CMC-Na solution for 7 d. BSP, a substrate of the transporters of Oatp1a1 and Oatp1b2 was selected, and its pharmacokinetic parameters of intravenous injection were determined to examined the activity these transporters...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
John P Hutson, Tim J Smith, Joseph P Magliano, Lester C Loschky
Film is ubiquitous, but the processes that guide viewers' attention while viewing film narratives are poorly understood. In fact, many film theorists and practitioners disagree on whether the film stimulus (bottom-up) or the viewer (top-down) is more important in determining how we watch movies. Reading research has shown a strong connection between eye movements and comprehension, and scene perception studies have shown strong effects of viewing tasks on eye movements, but such idiosyncratic top-down control of gaze in film would be anathema to the universal control mainstream filmmakers typically aim for...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Scott M Seki, Alban Gaultier
At the beginning of the twentieth century, discoveries in cancer research began to elucidate the idiosyncratic metabolic proclivities of tumor cells (1). Investigators postulated that revealing the distinct nutritional requirements of cells with unchecked growth potential would reveal targetable metabolic vulnerabilities by which their survival could be selectively curtailed. Soon thereafter, researchers in the field of immunology began drawing parallels between the metabolic characteristics of highly proliferative cancer cells and those of immune cells that respond to perceived threats to host physiology by invading tissues, clonally expanding, and generating vast amounts of pro-inflammatory effector molecules to provide the host with protection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Jana Steinig, Ariane Bazan, Svenja Happe, Sarah Antonetti, Howard Shevrin
Primary and secondary processes are the foundational axes of the Freudian mental apparatus: one horizontally as a tendency to associate, the primary process, and one vertically as the ability for perspective taking, the secondary process. Primary process mentation is not only supposed to be dominant in the unconscious but also, for example, in dreams. The present study tests the hypothesis that the mental activity during REM-sleep has more characteristics of the primary process, while during non-REM-sleep more secondary process operations take place...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniel Z Atwater, Carissa Ervine, Jacob N Barney
Our understanding of how climate influences species distributions and our ability to assess the risk of introduced species depend on the assumption that species' climatic niches remain stable across space and time. While niche shifts have been detected in individual invasive species, one assessment of ~50 plants in Europe and North America concluded that niche shifts were rare, while another concluded the opposite. These contradictory findings, limited in species number and geographic scope, leave open a need to understand how often introduced species experience niche shifts and whether niche shifts can be predicted...
December 4, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Dávid Farkas, Susan L Denham, István Winkler
In perceptual multi-stability, perception stochastically switches between alternative interpretations of the stimulus allowing examination of perceptual experience independent of stimulus parameters. Previous studies found that listeners show temporally stable idiosyncratic switching patterns when listening to a multi-stable auditory stimulus, such as in the auditory streaming paradigm. This inter-individual variability can be described along two dimensions, Exploration and Segregation. In the current study, we explored the functional brain networks associated with these dimensions and their constituents using electroencephalography...
November 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
L Wood, S Alsawy
There is a growing number of qualitative accounts regarding recovery from psychosis from a service user perspective. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of these qualitative accounts. A thematic synthesis was utilised to synthesise and analyse seventeen studies included in the review. Studies were included if they used a qualitative methodology to explore service users' experiences of recovery from psychosis as a primary research question. All included studies were subjected to a quality assessment...
November 29, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
Sabine C Koch, Helena Rautner
In the context of embodiment research, there has been a growing interest in phenomena of interpersonal resonance. Given that haptic communication is particularly under-researched, we focused on the phenomenon of embracing. When we embrace a dear friend to say good-bye at the end of a great evening, we typically first employ smooth and yielding movements with round transitions between muscular tensing and relaxing (smooth, indulging rhythms), and when the embrace is getting too long, we start to use slight patting (sharp, fighting rhythms with sharp transitions) on the back or the shoulders of the partner in order to indicate that we now want to end the embrace...
November 29, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
Luis F H Basile, João R Sato, Henrique A Pasquini, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Renato Anghinah
We have recently provided evidence for highly idiosyncratic topographic distributions of beta oscillations (as well as slow potentials) across individuals. More recently, by emphasizing the analysis of similarity instead of differences across tasks, we concluded that differences between an attention task and quiet resting may be negligible or at least unsystematic across subjects. Due to the possibility that individual differences could be due to noise in a wide sense or some inherent instability of beta activity, we designed a replication study to explicitly test whether pairs of individuals matched for head size and shape would still present less similar beta topography than each individual between sessions or tasks...
November 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Wei-Ning Bai, Peng-Cheng Yan, Bo-Wen Zhang, Keith E Woeste, Kui Lin, Da-Yong Zhang
Whether species demography and diversification are driven primarily by extrinsic environmental changes such as climatic oscillations in the Quaternary or by intrinsic biological interactions like coevolution between antagonists is a matter of active debate. In fact, their relative importance can be assessed by tracking past population fluctuations over considerable time periods. We applied the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent approach on the genomes of 11 temperate Juglans species to estimate trajectories of changes in effective population size (Ne ) and used a Bayesian-coalescent based approach that simultaneously considers multiple genomes (G-PhoCS) to estimate divergence times between lineages...
November 27, 2017: New Phytologist
Luigi Naldi, Anna Venturuzzo, Pietro Invernizzi
Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are a population at high risk for cutaneous adverse events. Their early recognition and appropriate treatment is an important component of the clinical management of OTRs and should be optimally dealt with by dermatologists working in the context of a transplant dermatology clinic. Skin examination should be a standard procedure before performing organ transplantation to assess conditions which may be difficult to manage after the transplant procedure has been performed or which may represent a contraindication to transplantation, e...
November 25, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Hiroaki Shimada, Yuri Kobayashi, Sakiko Tanahashi, Atsushi Kawase, Taro Ogiso, Masahiro Iwaki
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause idiosyncratic liver injury. Mechanisms involved in NSAID-induced liver injury are complex. Previous studies have suggested that acyl glucuronide of NSAIDs (NSAIDs-Glu) plays an important role in the development of liver injury via covalently binds to proteins and the resultant adduct induces immunological toxicity. As only some NSAIDs-Glu are commercially available, the evaluation of covalent protein adduct formation using ready-made NSAIDs-Glu is difficult and inconvenient...
November 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Noriko Imanishi, Yukio Otsu
This study explores how time is conceptualized and linguistically encoded by human beings. In order to examine how the temporal systems develop in child language, we have conducted investigations on how their development relates to universal and idiosyncratic aspects of the temporal systems of the languages of the world. We have found that both the uniformity and the variation across languages in the development of tense-aspect marking in child language are attributable to the interaction of three aspects of the typological pattern of the target language: morphology, the presence or absence of optionality of tense-aspect marking, and the inventory of tense-aspect markers...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Benjamin W Hadden, Zachary G Baker, C Raymond Knee
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present research is to better understand how relationship autonomy-having more self-determined reasons for being committed to a relationship-contributes to pro-relationship responses to transgressions in romantic relationships (e.g., forgiveness and accommodation). METHODS: Study 1 employed a cross-sectional design (N=350) and Study 2 used a weekly diary (N=121) to test associations between relationship autonomy and pro-relationship responses to transgressions...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Personality
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