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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903707/formation-of-long-term-locomotor-memories-is-associated-with-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical-network
#1
Firas Mawase, Simona Bar-Haim, Lior Shmuelof
: Although motor adaptation is typically rapid, accumulating evidence shows that it is also associated with long-lasting behavioural and neuronal changes. Two processes were suggested to explain the formation of long-term motor memories: recall -- reflecting a retrieval of previous motor actions, and faster relearning -- reflecting an increased sensitivity to errors. While these manifestations of motor memories were initially demonstrated in the context of adaptation experiments in reaching, indications of long-term motor memories were also recently demonstrated in other kinds of adaptation, such as in locomotor adaptation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902848/topiramate-in-migraine-prevention-a-2016-perspective
#2
Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients...
November 30, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899707/the-influence-of-presentation-modality-on-the-social-comprehension-of-naturalistic-scenes-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Haley M Gedek, Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
The comprehension of dynamically unfolding social situations is made possible by the seamless integration of multimodal information merged with rich intuitions about the thoughts and behaviors of others. We examined how high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder and neurotypical controls made a complex social judgment (i.e. rating the social awkwardness of scenes from a television sitcom) across three conditions that manipulated presentation modality-visual alone, transcribed text alone, or visual and auditory together...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898459/characterization-of-the-adverse-effects-induced-by-acetaminophen-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-based-on-the-analysis-of-the-japanese-adverse-drug-event-report-database
#4
Junko Nagai, Yoshihiro Uesawa, Ryotaro Shimamura, Hajime Kagaya
OBJECTIVES: Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are antipyretic analgesics with established adverse effects; however, only a few studies have compared their adverse effects simultaneously. We aimed to compare the adverse effects of these medications to confirm the respective frequencies of both rare and major adverse effects. METHODS: We used a high-quality database for spontaneous adverse drug event reporting in Japan. Data were extracted regarding the adverse effects of acetaminophen and NSAIDs to compare the tendency of the appearance of those adverse effects between the drugs...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891378/isoniazid-induced-lupus-presenting-as-oral-mucosal-ulcers-with-pancytopenia
#5
Ria Shah, Padmaraj Ankale, Kanishk Sinha, Aparna Iyer, T K Jayalakshmi
Drug Induced Lupus Erythematous (DILE) is a rare adverse reaction to a large variety of drugs including Isoniazid (INH), with features resembling idiopathic Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Diagnosis require identification of a temporal relationship between drug administered and symptom. It is an idiosyncratic reaction, with no pre-existing lupus. Our case highlights a rare presentation of isoniazid induced lupus with profound pancytopenia and mucosal ulcers, thus posing a diagnostic challenge. The patient was on multidrug treatment for pulmonary and knee joint tuberculosis...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890005/mechanism-based-inhibitors-from-phytomedicine-risks-of-hepatotoxicity-and-their-potential-hepatotoxic-substructures
#6
Lili Wang, Xin He, Chunhuan Jin, Gregory Ondieki
The adverse reactions and side effects associated with use of herbal medicines, especially their damaging effects on the liver have increasingly been reported worldwide. Some of the herbal ingredients have the potential risk of herb-induced liver injury but their hepatotoxicity mechanisms and associated risk factors are not well characterized until now. Xenobiotics are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes into highly reactive metabolites, which can covalently bind to the enzyme itself and subsequently cause mechanism-based inhibition (MBI)...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885750/they-re-nice-and-neat-but-are-they-useful-a-grounded-theory-of-clinical-psychologists-beliefs-about-and-use-of-nice-guidelines
#7
Alex John Court, Anne Cooke, Amanda Scrivener
Guidelines are ubiquitous but inconsistently used in UK mental health services. Clinical psychologists are often influential in guideline development and implementation, but opinion within the profession is divided. This study utilized grounded theory methodology to examine clinical psychologists' beliefs about and use of NICE guidelines. Eleven clinical psychologists working in the NHS were interviewed. The overall emerging theme was; NICE guidelines are considered to have benefits but to be fraught with dangers...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879968/can-urinary-indolylacroylglycine-iag-levels-be-used-to-determine-whether-children-with-autism-will-benefit-from-dietary-intervention
#8
Julie Wilson, Barry Wright, Sandra Jost, Robert Smith, Helen Pearce, Sally Richardson
BACKGROUND: An increase in urinary indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (IAG) has been reported in children with ASD who suffer with bowel problems in comparison to ASD children without gastrointestinal (GI) problems. The case for dietary intervention for ASD children with GI symptoms might be strengthened were such a difference to be autism-specific. METHODS: Quantitative analysis of urinary IAG levels was performed for 53 children on the autism spectrum and 146 age-matched controls...
November 23, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879050/structural-studies-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-2-reveal-its-interactions-with-potential-substrates-and-inhibitors
#9
Vincent Cura, Nils Marechal, Nathalie Troffer-Charlier, Jean-Marc Strub, Matthijs J van Haren, Nathaniel I Martin, Sarah Cianférani, Luc Bonnefond, Jean Cavarelli
: PRMT2 is the less-characterized member of the protein arginine methyltransferase family in terms of structure, activity, and cellular functions. PRMT2 is a modular protein containing a catalytic Ado-Met-binding domain and unique Src homology 3 domain that binds proteins with proline-rich motifs. PRMT2 is involved in a variety of cellular processes and has diverse roles in transcriptional regulation through different mechanisms depending on its binding partners. PRMT2 has been demonstrated to have weak methyltransferase activity on a histone H4 substrate, but its optimal substrates have not yet been identified...
November 5, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864933/woody-plant-richness-does-not-influence-invertebrate-community-reassembly-trajectories-in-a-tree-diversity-experiment
#10
Peter Yeeles, Lori Lach, Richard J Hobbs, Mary van Wees, Raphael K Didham
Understanding the relationship between plant diversity and diversity at higher trophic levels is important from both conservation and restoration perspectives. Although there is strong evidence for bottom-up maintenance of biodiversity, this is based largely on studies of simplified grassland systems. Recently, studies in the 'TreeDivNet' global network of tree diversity experiments have begun to test whether these findings are generalizable to more complex ecosystems, such as woodlands. We monitored invertebrate community reassembly over 5 years of experimental woodland restoration at the TreeDivNet 'Ridgefield' site in southwest Australia, testing the effects of woody plant species richness and herb-layer manipulation on invertebrate community structure and ant species composition...
November 19, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862537/pervasive-yet-idiosyncratic-epistatic-pleiotropy-during-adaptation-in-a-behaviourally-complex-microbe
#11
P C Zee, J Liu, G J Velicer
Understanding how multiple mutations interact to jointly impact multiple ecologically important traits is critical for creating a robust picture of organismal fitness and the process of adaptation. However, this is complicated by both environmental heterogeneity and the complexity of genotype-to-phenotype relationships generated by pleiotropy and epistasis. Moreover, little is known about how pleiotropic and epistatic relationships themselves change over evolutionary time. The soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus employs several distinct social traits across a range of environments...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861792/drug-induced-liver-injury-advances-in-mechanistic-understanding-that-will-inform-risk-management
#12
Merrie Mosedale, Paul B Watkins
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major public health problem. Intrinsic (dose-dependent) DILI associated with acetaminophen overdose is the number one cause of acute liver failure in the US. However the most problematic type of DILI impacting drug development is idiosyncratic, occurring only very rarely among treated patients and often only after several weeks or months of treatment with the offending drug. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of DILI suggest that three mechanisms may underlie the hepatocyte effects in response to both intrinsic and idiosyncratic DILI drugs: mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and alterations in bile acid homeostasis...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860186/profiles-of-mirnas-in-serum-in-severe-acute-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-their-prognostic-significance
#13
Mark W Russo, Nury Steuerwald, Harry J Norton, William E Anderson, David Foureau, Naga Chalasani, Robert J Fontana, Paul B Watkins, Jose Serrano, Herbert L Bonkovsky
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is challenging because of the lack of biomarkers to predict mortality. Our aim was to describe miRNA changes in sera of subjects with acute idiosyncratic DILI and determine if levels of miRNAs were associated with 6 month mortality. METHODS: Clinical data and sera were collected from subjects enrolled in the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network prospective study. miRNAs were isolated from serum obtained from 78 subjects within 2 weeks of acute DILI and followed up for 6 months or longer...
November 12, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860156/hepatotoxicity-of-statins-and-other-lipid-lowering-agents
#14
REVIEW
Einar S Björnsson
Statins are generally well tolerated and adverse effects are relatively rare. Clinical trials are underpowered to detect uncommon adverse effects such as idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. This review is aimed at covering the current knowledge on the hepatotoxicity associated with statins and other lipid lowering drugs. Both atorvastatin and simvastatin have been associated with more than 50 case reports of liver injury and other statins have been implicated in this type of liver injury as well. Idiosyncratic liver injury due to statins has been reported to occur 1...
November 8, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859086/foliar-damage-beyond-species-distributions-is-partly-explained-by-distance-dependent-interactions-with-natural-enemies
#15
Daniel S W Katz, Inés Ibáñez
Plant distributions are expected to shift in response to climate change, and range expansion dynamics will be shaped by the performance of individuals at the colonizing front. These plants will encounter new biotic communities beyond their range edges, and the net outcome of these encounters could profoundly affect colonization success. However, little is known about how biotic interactions vary across range edges and this has hindered efforts to predict changes in species distributions in response to climate change...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854302/severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-the-pharmacogenomics-from-research-to-clinical-implementation
#16
REVIEW
Shih-Chi Su, Shuen-Iu Hung, Wen-Lang Fan, Ro-Lan Dao, Wen-Hung Chung
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), previously thought to be idiosyncratic or unpredictable, are a deadly form of adverse drug reactions with skin manifestations. Current pharmacogenomic studies of SCARs have made important strides, as the prevention of SCARs, to some extent, appears attainable with the identification of genetic variants for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Despite the improvement of incidence, a treatment guideline for this devastating condition is still unavailable, highlighting the inadequacy of contemporary accepted therapeutic interventions...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846564/network-science-on-belief-system-dynamics-under-logic-constraints
#17
Noah E Friedkin, Anton V Proskurnikov, Roberto Tempo, Sergey E Parsegov
Breakthroughs have been made in algorithmic approaches to understanding how individuals in a group influence each other to reach a consensus. However, what happens to the group consensus if it depends on several statements, one of which is proven false? Here, we show how the existence of logical constraints on beliefs affect the collective convergence to a shared belief system and, in contrast, how an idiosyncratic set of arbitrarily linked beliefs held by a few may become held by many.
October 21, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842777/phenotypes-and-pathology-of-drug-induced-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Zachary D Goodman
Drug hepatotoxicity can simulate nearly any clinical syndrome or pathologic lesion that may occur in the liver, so clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury may be difficult. Nevertheless, most drugs that are known to idiosyncratic liver injury tend to cause patterns of injury that produce characteristic phenotypes. Recognition of these patterns or phenotypes in liver biopsy material is helpful in evaluation of clinical cases of suspected drug-induced liver injury.
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842776/adverse-drug-reactions-type-a-intrinsic-or-type-b-idiosyncratic
#19
REVIEW
Carlo J Iasella, Heather J Johnson, Michael A Dunn
Hepatotoxic adverse drug reactions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and are the leading cause of postmarketing regulatory action in the United States. They are classified as Type A (intrinsic) or Type B (idiosyncratic). Type A are predictable, dose-related toxicities, often identified in preclinical or clinical trials, and usually occur in overdose settings or with pre-existing hepatic impairment. Type B are not clearly related to increasing dose and are associated with drug-specific and patient-specific characteristics and environmental risks...
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842775/epidemiology-and-genetic-risk-factors-of-drug-hepatotoxicity
#20
REVIEW
Jawad Ahmad, Joseph A Odin
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) from prescription medications and herbal and dietary supplements has an annual incidence rate of approximately 20 cases per 100,000 per year. However, the risk of DILI varies greatly according to the drug. In the United States and Europe, antimicrobials are the commonest implicated agents, with amoxicillin/clavulanate the most common, whereas in Asian countries, herbal and dietary supplements predominate. Genetic analysis of DILI is currently limited, but multiple polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen genes and genes involved in drug metabolism and transport have been identified as risk factors for DILI...
February 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
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