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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931656/comparative-social-grooming-networks-in-captive-chimpanzees-and-bonobos
#1
Michelle A Rodrigues, Emily R Boeving
Despite similar dispersal patterns, models of Pan sociality emphasize sex differences in social bonding between the two species. Such disparities are attributed to hypothesized differences in environmental selective pressures that structure association patterns. However, recent research documents greater within-species variation in social bonds in both species. Here, we examine grooming networks in captive chimpanzees at the North Carolina Zoo, and captive bonobos at the Columbus Zoo. We hypothesized that male-female grooming relationships would be the strongest in both species, but that males and females of both species would not significantly differ between centrality, strength, or clustering...
June 21, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928244/husserlian-phenomenology-as-a-kind-of-introspection
#2
Christopher Gutland
The thesis of this article is that Husserl's proposed method for intuitively exploring the essential or a priori laws of consciousness is a kind of introspection. After a first reflection on the meaning of "introspection," four elements of Husserl's methodology are introduced: the principle of all principles, epoché , phenomenological reduction, and eidetic variation. These features are then individually related to six common features Eric Schwitzgebel mentions in his definition of introspection in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926293/treatment-for-higher-order-restricted-repetitive-behaviors-h-rrb-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
C Enjey Lin, Robert Koegel
Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRB) are one of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Evidence suggests that higher-order RRB (H-RRB) are particularly challenging and can negatively impact family functioning (e.g., insistence on sameness, following idiosyncratic routines). The study examined the effects of a parent-implemented behavior intervention using a multiple baseline single case experimental design in three young children with ASD. The intervention involved self-management procedures and included principles of pivotal response treatment during which parents provided bids for children to vary from H-RRB and children obtained points for engaging in these other interests and activities...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920996/smiles-in-face-matching-idiosyncratic-information-revealed-through-a-smile-improves-unfamiliar-face-matching-performance
#4
Mila Mileva, A Mike Burton
Unfamiliar face matching is a surprisingly difficult task, yet we often rely on people's matching decisions in applied settings (e.g., border control). Most attempts to improve accuracy (including training and image manipulation) have had very limited success. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that using smiling rather than neutral pairs of images brings about significant improvements in face matching accuracy. This is true for both match and mismatch trials, implying that the information provided through a smile helps us detect images of the same identity as well as distinguishing between images of different identities...
June 19, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920866/monozygotic-twin-differences-in-school-performance-are-stable-and-systematic
#5
Sophie von Stumm, Robert Plomin
School performance is one of the most stable and heritable psychological characteristics. Notwithstanding, monozygotic twins (MZ), who have identical genotypes, differ in school performance. These MZ differences result from non-shared environments that do not contribute to the similarity within twin pairs. Because to date few non-shared environmental factors have been reliably associated with MZ differences in school performance, they are thought to be idiosyncratic and due to chance, suggesting that the effect of non-shared environments on MZ differences are age- and trait-specific...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916176/processing-schmidtea-mediterranea-for-transmission-electron-microscopy-classical-and-microwave-techniques
#6
John L Brubacher, Ana P Vieira, Juliette Azimzadeh
The flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea and related species are emerging model systems in such fields as stem-cell biology, regeneration, and evolutionary biology. Excellent molecular tools have been developed for S. mediterranea, but ultrastructural techniques have received less attention, which is unfortunate, as these methods are necessary to better understand the actual histological, cellular and subcellular features of regeneration and development. Tissue-processing regimens can be quite idiosyncratic for particular species or specimen types-what works for mammalian tissues or cell cultures will not necessarily give good results with freshwater planarians...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914590/being-vs-appearing-socially-uninterested-challenging-assumptions-about-social-motivation-in-autism
#7
Vikram K Jaswal, Nameera Akhtar
Progress in psychological science can be limited by a number of factors, not least of which are the starting assumptions of scientists themselves. We believe that some influential accounts of autism rest on a questionable assumption that many of its behavioral characteristics indicate a lack of social interest-an assumption that is flatly contradicted by the testimony of many autistic people themselves. In this paper, we challenge this assumption by describing alternative explanations for four such behaviors: (a) low levels of eye contact, (b) infrequent pointing, (c) motor stereotypies, and (d) echolalia...
June 19, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904782/multidimensional-internal-dynamics-underlying-the-perception-of-motion
#8
Mark Wexler
When ambiguous visual stimuli are presented continuously, they often lead to oscillations between usually two perceptions. Because of these oscillations, it has been thought that the underlying neural dynamics also arises from a binary or two-state system. Contradicting the binary assumption, it has been shown recently that the perception of some ambiguous stimuli is governed by continuously varying internal states, measured as biases that differ considerably from one observer to the next and that can also evolve over time (Wexler, Duyck, & Mamassian, 2015)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902520/drugp-induced-rhabdomyolysis-atlas-dira-for-idiosyncratic-adverse-drug-reaction-management
#9
Zhining Wen, Yu Liang, Yingyi Hao, Brian Delavan, Ruili Huang, Mike Mikailov, Weida Tong, Menglong Li, Zhichao Liu
Drug-induced rhabdomyolysis (DIR) is an idiosyncratic and fatal adverse drug reaction (ADR) characterized in severe muscle injuries accompanied by multiple-organ failure. Limited knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of rhabdomyolysis is the main obstacle to developing early biomarkers and prevention strategies. Given the lack of a centralized data resource to curate, organize, and standardize widespread DIR information, here we present a Drug-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Atlas (DIRA) that provides DIR-related information, including: a classification scheme for DIR based on drug labeling information; postmarketing surveillance data of DIR; and DIR drug property information...
June 11, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901563/an-idiosyncratic-acute-systemic-and-life-threatening-adverse-reaction-in-a-young-patient-treated-with-clozapine-a-case-report
#10
Giorgia Dimitri Valente, Nicola Dusi, Antonio Lasalvia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901473/management-of-adverse-reactions-to-first-line-tuberculosis-antibiotics
#11
Sowmya Nagarajan, Paul Whitaker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) is the commonest infectious cause of death globally. Adverse reactions to first-line tuberculosis antibiotics are common and have a major impact on the outcomes of patients as second-line antibiotics are less effective and more toxic. The present review addresses the most recent literature regarding epidemiology, investigating reactions, and reintroducing treatment in patients who have had their treatment interrupted. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have demonstrated that up to 60% of patients experience adverse reactions to TB treatment; around a third of these are idiosyncratic and may relate to immune sensitization...
June 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893162/long-distance-vowel-to-vowel-coarticulation-in-arabic-influences-of-intervening-consonant-pharyngealization-and-length
#12
Sarah Ahmed, Michael Grosvald
This study investigates anticipatory vowel-to-vowel coarticulation in Arabic, and seeks to determine the degree to which it is affected by the pharyngealization and length of intervening consonants. Speakers of Egyptian Arabic were recorded saying sentences containing nonsense sequences of the form /baɁabaCV:/, where C was chosen from {/t/, /tˤ/, /t:/, /tˤ:/} and V was a long vowel /i:/, /a:/ or /u:/. Analysis of the first and second formants of the recorded vowels revealed that (a) vowel-to-vowel coarticulatory effects could sometimes extend to a distance of three vowels before the context vowel; (b) the consonant-to-vowel effects associated with pharyngealization were consistently seen at similar distances, while also decreasing in magnitude at greater distances from the triggering consonant; and (c) effects related to intervening consonant length were idiosyncratic, and in particular did not lead to consistent blocking of vowel-to-vowel effects...
June 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891849/pervasive-influence-of-idiosyncratic-associative-biases-during-facial-emotion-recognition
#13
Marwa El Zein, Valentin Wyart, Julie Grèzes
Facial morphology has been shown to influence perceptual judgments of emotion in a way that is shared across human observers. Here we demonstrate that these shared associations between facial morphology and emotion coexist with strong variations unique to each human observer. Interestingly, a large part of these idiosyncratic associations does not vary on short time scales, emerging from stable inter-individual differences in the way facial morphological features influence emotion recognition. Computational modelling of decision-making and neural recordings of electrical brain activity revealed that both shared and idiosyncratic face-emotion associations operate through a common biasing mechanism rather than an increased sensitivity to face-associated emotions...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890209/diversity-of-multidrug-resistant-epidemic-clostridium-difficile-nap1-rt027-st01-strains-in-tertiary-hospitals-from-honduras
#14
Fanny Hidalgo-Villeda, Edgardo Tzoc, Luque Torres, Efraín Bu, César Rodríguez, Carlos Quesada-Gómez
In recent years, reports of NAP1/RT027/ST01 epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile producing outbreaks of healthcare-associated diarrhea have increased in America and Europe. We cultivated multidrug-resistant NAP1/RT027/ST01 strains from the FQR2 linage from TcdA/TcdB+ stool samples obtained from patients in two Honduran hospitals. The PFGE macrorestriction patterns of two of the isolates were new. These bacteria were toxigenic and induced with different magnitude classical cytopathic effects on HeLa cells...
June 8, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879423/the-contribution-of-the-left-anterior-ventrolateral-temporal-lobe-to-the-retrieval-of-personal-semantics
#15
Matthew D Grilli, John J Bercel, Aubrey A Wank, Steven Z Rapcsak
Autobiographical facts and personal trait knowledge are conceptualized as distinct types of personal semantics, but the cognitive and neural mechanisms that separate them remain underspecified. One distinction may be their level of specificity, with autobiographical facts reflecting idiosyncratic conceptual knowledge and personal traits representing basic level category knowledge about the self. Given the critical role of the left anterior ventrolateral temporal lobe (AVTL) in the storage and retrieval of semantic information about unique entities, we hypothesized that knowledge of autobiographical facts may depend on the integrity of this region to a greater extent than personal traits...
June 4, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872630/hypoxic-respiratory-failure-due-to-hyperammonemic-encephalopathy-induced-by-concurrent-use-of-valproic-acid-and-topiramate-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Yonas Raru, Fuad Zeid
Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used for the treatment of epilepsy, migraine, and a variety of psychiatric symptoms, including bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and alcohol withdrawal. Valproate is associated with severe idiosyncratic adverse effects, the most notable being valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VHE). Topiramate is also a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is also extensively used for migraine prophylaxis, as a mood stabilizer, and for alcohol dependency. There is increased occurrence of VHE when valproate is used with other medications like phenytoin, phenobarbital, and topiramate...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867306/the-dynamics-of-prosthetically-elicited-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-function-across-frequency-and-context-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#17
James O Phillips, Leo Ling, Amy L Nowack, Christopher M Phillips, Kaibao Nie, Jay T Rubinstein
Electrical vestibular neurostimulation may be a viable tool for modulating vestibular afferent input to restore vestibular function following injury or disease. To do this, such stimulators must provide afferent input that can be readily interpreted by the central nervous system to accurately represent head motion to drive reflexive behavior. Since vestibular afferents have different galvanic sensitivity, and different natural sensitivities to head rotational velocity and acceleration, and electrical stimulation produces aphysiological synchronous activation of multiple afferents, it is difficult to assign a priori an appropriate transformation between head velocity and acceleration and the properties of the electrical stimulus used to drive vestibular reflex function, i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863398/specific-formulation-feedback-in-dynamic-relational-group-psychotherapy-of-perfectionism
#18
Paul L Hewitt, Samuel F Mikail, Gordon L Flett, Silvain S Dang
In this article, we describe how individualized feedback, in the form of a clinical formulation, is used in our dynamic-relational group treatment of perfectionism (Hewitt et al., 2015), a core vulnerability or transdiagnostic personality factor. The authors discuss briefly their conceptualization and assessment of perfectionism as well as other aspects of patients' functioning, and the use of both psychodynamic and interpersonal models to derive, for individual patients, their unique formulation or idiosyncratic model of their perfectionistic and related behavior...
June 2018: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850825/expression-of-novel-gene-content-drives-adaptation-to-low-iron-in-the-cyanobacterium-acaryochloris
#19
Amy L Gallagher, Scott R Miller
Variation in genome content is a potent mechanism of microbial adaptation. The genomes of members of the cyanobacterial genus Acaryochloris vary greatly in gene content as a consequence of the idiosyncratic retention of both recent gene duplicates and plasmid-encoded genes acquired by horizontal transfer. For example, the genome of Acaryochloris strain MBIC11017, which was isolated from an iron-limited environment, is enriched in duplicated and novel genes involved in iron assimilation. Here, we took an integrative approach to characterize the adaptation of Acaryochloris MBIC11017 to low environmental iron availability and the relative contributions of the expression of duplicated versus novel genes...
May 29, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849842/an-interdisciplinary-pain-rehabilitation-program-for-veterans-with-chronic-pain-description-and-initial-evaluation-of-outcomes
#20
Nidhi S Anamkath, Sarah A Palyo, Sara C Jacobs, Alain Lartigue, Kathryn Schopmeyer, Irina A Strigo
Objective: Chronic pain conditions are prominent among Veterans. To leverage the biopsychosocial model of pain and comprehensively serve Veterans with chronic pain, the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Healthcare System has implemented the interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program (IPRP). This study aims to (1) understand initial changes in treatment outcomes following IPRP, (2) investigate relationships between psychological factors and pain outcomes, and (3) explore whether changes in psychological factors predict changes in pain outcomes...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
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