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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818636/east-west-paths-to-unconventional-computing
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Adamatzky, Selim Akl, Mark Burgin, Cristian S Calude, José Félix Costa, Mohammad Mahdi Dehshibi, Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Zoran Konkoli, Bruce MacLennan, Bruno Marchal, Maurice Margenstern, Genaro J Martínez, Richard Mayne, Kenichi Morita, Andrew Schumann, Yaroslav D Sergeyev, Georgios Ch Sirakoulis, Susan Stepney, Karl Svozil, Hector Zenil
Unconventional computing is about breaking boundaries in thinking, acting and computing. Typical topics of this non-typical field include, but are not limited to physics of computation, non-classical logics, new complexity measures, novel hardware, mechanical, chemical and quantum computing. Unconventional computing encourages a new style of thinking while practical applications are obtained from uncovering and exploiting principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of, physical, chemical and living systems; in particular, efficient algorithms are developed, (almost) optimal architectures are designed and working prototypes of future computing devices are manufactured...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813201/applying-movement-ecology-to-marine-animals-with-complex-life-cycles
#2
Richard M Allen, Anna Metaxas, Paul V R Snelgrove
Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812559/evolution-alters-the-consequences-of-invasions-in-experimental-communities
#3
Cara A Faillace, Peter J Morin
Evolution has the capacity to alter the course of biological invasions, although such changes remain mostly unexplored by experiments. Integrating evolution into studies of invasions is important, because species traits can potentially evolve in ways that either moderate or exacerbate the impacts of invasions. We have assessed whether species evolved during experimental invasions by comparing the performance of founder populations and their potentially evolved descendants in communities of ciliates and rotifers...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809737/acute-liver-failure-due-to-etodolac-a-selective-cycloxygenase-2-cox-2-inhibitor-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-established-by-rucam-based-causality-assessment
#4
Sunil Taneja, Pramod Kumar, Sahaj Rathi, Ajay Duseja, Virendra Singh, Radha Krishan Dhiman, Yogesh Kumar Chawla
Drug induced liver injury is a common cause of acute liver failure (ALF). While most of these cases are due to dose dependent hepatotoxicity with acetaminophen, idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is responsible for about 15% cases of ALF. Antibiotics are the most common cause of idiosyncratic DILI as well as DILI induced ALF. Etodolac is a selective cycloxygenase- 2 (COX -2) inhibitor non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory in musculoskeletal diseases. Severe liver impairment is extremely rare...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798365/mass-secondary-structure-propensity-of-amino-acids-explain-their-mutability-and-evolutionary-replacements
#5
Hugo J Bohórquez, Carlos F Suárez, Manuel E Patarroyo
Why is an amino acid replacement in a protein accepted during evolution? The answer given by bioinformatics relies on the frequency of change of each amino acid by another one and the propensity of each to remain unchanged. We propose that these replacement rules are recoverable from the secondary structural trends of amino acids. A distance measure between high-resolution Ramachandran distributions reveals that structurally similar residues coincide with those found in substitution matrices such as BLOSUM: Asn ↔ Asp, P™he ↔ Tyr, Lys ↔ Arg, Gln ↔ Glu, Ile ↔ Val, Met → Leu; with Ala, Cys, His, Gly, Ser, Pro, and Thr, as structurally idiosyncratic residues...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797086/epigenetic-differences-between-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-provide-clues-to-disease-pathogenesis
#6
Paul E Young, Stephen Kum Jew, Michael E Buckland, Roger Pamphlett, Catherine M Suter
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating late-onset neurodegenerative disorder in which only a small proportion of patients carry an identifiable causative genetic lesion. Despite high heritability estimates, a genetic etiology for most sporadic ALS remains elusive. Here we report the epigenetic profiling of five monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ALS, four with classic ALS and one with the progressive muscular atrophy ALS variant, in whom previous whole genome sequencing failed to uncover a genetic basis for their disease discordance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796318/he-says-she-says-mothers-and-children-remembering-the-same-events
#7
Qi Wang, Qingfang Song
This study examined the consistency of memories for the same events in mothers and children, and how that varied as a function of culture and organizational components of memories. European American (EA) and Chinese immigrant (CI) mothers and their 6-year-old children (N = 127) independently recalled two emotionally salient events. In both cultures, mothers and children agreed more on factual event details and observable behaviors and less on subjective experiences and idiosyncratic interpretations. EA mothers and children told more diverse stories than did CI mothers and children...
August 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795997/celecoxib-induced-liver-injury-analysis-of-published-case-reports-and-cases-reported-to-the-food-and-drug-administration
#8
Pavan K Mukthinuthalapati, Robert J Fontana, Raj Vuppalanchi, Naga Chalasani, Marwan Ghabril
BACKGROUND: Celecoxib is a widely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and has been associated with rare instances of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The aim of this study is to describe and analyze the salient features of published cases of celecoxib DILI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search using common terms for liver injury cross-referenced with celecoxib was undertaken from the year 2000 through June 2016. Identified cases were analyzed with respect to reported demographic and clinical data with descriptive...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794485/the-roles-of-barriers-refugia-and-chromosomal-clines-underlying-diversification-in-atlantic-forest-social-wasps
#9
Rodolpho S T Menezes, Seán G Brady, Antônio F Carvalho, Marco A Del Lama, Marco A Costa
Phylogeographic studies have sought to explain the genetic imprints of historical climatic changes and geographic barriers within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (AF) biota, and consequently two processes of diversification (refugia and barriers) have been proposed. Additionally, there is evidence that eustatic changes influenced the biogeographic history of the AF. Here we evaluate these contrasting diversification processes using two AF social wasp species - the mid-montane Synoeca cyanea and the lowland Synoeca aff...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782153/n-acetylcysteine-and-prednisolone-treatment-improved-serum-biochemistries-in-suspected-flupirtine-cases-of-severe-idiosyncratic-liver-injury
#10
Jürgen Borlak, Florian van Bömmel, Thomas Berg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The analgesic flupirtine has been linked to cases of severe idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (sFILI). We therefore examined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glucocorticoid therapy is effective in the management of sFILI. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study efficacy of NAC-infusion and oral prednisolone treatments on liver-function-tests (LFTs) and clinical outcome of 21 sFILI cases was evaluated by comparing it to an external cohort of 30 sFILI cases not receiving the antidote...
August 7, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777176/circadian-rhythm-sleep-wake-disorders
#11
Milena Pavlova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The endogenous circadian rhythms are one of the cardinal processes that control sleep. They are self-sustaining biological rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours that may be entrained by external zeitgebers (German for time givers), such as light, exercise, and meal times. This article discusses the physiology of the circadian rhythms, their relationship to neurologic disease, and the presentation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776430/the-effects-of-conducting-a-functional-analysis-on-problem-behavior-in-other-settings-a-descriptive-study-on-potential-interaction-effects
#12
Nathan A Call, Andrea R Reavis, Seth B Clark, Natalie A Parks, Tom Cariveau, Colin S Muething
It has been suggested that reinforcing problem behavior during functional analyses (FAs) may raise ethical questions, such as resulting in an increase in problem behavior outside of FA sessions. The current translational study assessed whether conducting an FA resulted in increases in problem behavior outside of the FA setting for six participants using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. The rate of problem behavior was measured outside the FA setting prior to and during an FA. Idiosyncratic results suggest that problem behavior outside of the FA setting may increase, decrease, or be unaffected by conducting an FA...
September 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775332/temporally-robust-eye-movements-through-task-priming-and-self-referential-stimuli
#13
Eun-Soo Jung, Dong-Gun Lee, Kyeongho Lee, Soo-Young Lee
Studies have demonstrated connections between eye movements and attention shifts. However, little is known about the general factors that contribute to the self-consistency of idiosyncratic scanpaths as a function of attention shifts over time. The present work repeatedly measured human eye movements at various time intervals that ranged from less than one hour to one year between recording sessions. With and without task context, subjects observed multiple images with multiple areas of interest, including their own sporadically interspersed facial images...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771932/acute-liver-failure-induced-by-idiosyncratic-reaction-to-drugs-challenges-in-diagnosis-and-therapy
#14
Shannan R Tujios, William M Lee
Acute liver failure (ALF) requires urgent attention to identify etiology and determine prognosis, in order to assess likelihood of survival or need for transplantation. Identifying idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI) may be particularly difficult, but the illness generally follows a subacute course, allowing time to assess outcome and find a liver graft if needed. Not all drugs that cause iDILI lead to ALF; the most common are antibiotics including anti-tuberculous medications, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and herbal and dietary supplements (HDS)...
August 3, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766399/monitoring-of-learning-for-emotional-faces-how-do-fine-grained-categories-of-emotion-influence-participants-judgments-of-learning-and-beliefs-about-memory
#15
Amber E Witherby, Sarah K Tauber
Researchers have evaluated how broad categories of emotion (i.e. positive and negative) influence judgments of learning (JOLs) relative to neutral items. Specifically, JOLs are typically higher for emotional relative to neutral items. The novel goal of the present research was to evaluate JOLs for fine-grained categories of emotion. Participants studied faces with afraid, angry, sad, or neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and with afraid, angry, or sad expressions (Experiment 2). Participants identified the expressed emotion, made a JOL for each, and completed a recognition test...
August 2, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762375/idiosyncratic-drug-induced-liver-injury-in-african-americans-is-associated-with-greater-morbidity-and-mortality-compared-to-caucasians
#16
Naga Chalasani, K Rajender K Reddy, Robert J Fontana, Huiman Barnhart, Jiezhun Gu, Paul H Hayashi, Jawad Ahmad, Andrew Stolz, Victor Navarro, Jay H Hoofnagle
OBJECTIVES: Idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare but potentially serious liver disorder and a major cause of significant liver injury. Limited data exist on racial differences in DILI incidence, presentation, and course. METHODS: We compared the causative agents, clinical features, and outcomes of DILI among self-described African-Americans and non-Hispanic whites (Caucasians) enrolled in the DILIN Prospective Study. Individuals with definite, highly likely, or probable DILI enrolled between September 2004 and February 2016 were included in this analysis...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762043/customised-in-vitro-model-to-detect-human-metabolism-dependent-idiosyncratic-drug-induced-liver-injury
#17
Laia Tolosa, Nuria Jiménez, Gabriela Pérez, José V Castell, M José Gómez-Lechón, M Teresa Donato
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has a considerable impact on human health and is a major challenge in drug safety assessments. DILI is a frequent cause of liver injury and a leading reason for post-approval drug regulatory actions. Considerable variations in the expression levels of both cytochrome P450 (CYP) and conjugating enzymes have been described in humans, which could be responsible for increased susceptibility to DILI in some individuals. We herein explored the feasibility of the combined use of HepG2 cells co-transduced with multiple adenoviruses that encode drug-metabolising enzymes, and a high-content screening assay to evaluate metabolism-dependent drug toxicity and to identify metabolic phenotypes with increased susceptibility to DILI...
July 31, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756552/perspectives-of-university-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Anastasia H Anderson, Mark Carter, Jennifer Stephenson
Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at heightened risk of post-secondary educational failure and account for approximately 1% of students in post-secondary education. Findings from an on-line survey of students with ASD attending university in Australian are reported in this study. Respondents indicated high rates of academic and non-academic difficulties but low usage of supports. Ratings for supports were idiosyncratic, and some students indicated discomfort from using supports or disclosing their disability...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753250/idiosyncratic-responses-to-climate-driven-forest-fragmentation-and-marine-incursions-in-reed-frogs-from-central-africa-and-the-gulf-of-guinea-islands
#19
Rayna C Bell, Juan L Parra, Gabriel Badjedjea, Michael F Barej, David C Blackburn, Marius Burger, Alan Channing, J Maximilian Dehling, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Jos Kielgast, Chifundera Kusamba, Stefan Lötters, Patrick J McLaughlin, Zoltán T Nagy, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Daniel M Portik, Bryan L Stuart, Jeremy Van Der Wal, Ange Ghislain Zassi-Boulou, Kelly R Zamudio
Organismal traits interact with environmental variation to mediate how species respond to shared landscapes. Thus, differences in traits related to dispersal ability or physiological tolerance may result in phylogeographic discordance among co-distributed taxa, even when they are responding to common barriers. We quantified climatic suitability and stability, and phylogeographic divergence within three reed frog species complexes across the Guineo-Congolian forests and Gulf of Guinea archipelago of Central Africa to investigate how they responded to a shared climatic and geological history...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753231/pd-1-inhibitor-associated-lichenoid-inflammation-with-incidental-suprabasilar-acantholysis-or-vesiculation-report-of-four-cases
#20
Shaun Chou, Cathy Zhao, Shelley Ji Eun Hwang, Pablo Fernandez-Penas
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint agents targeting Programmed cell death-1 protein (PD1) or Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Protein-4 (CTLA-4) receptors are increasingly utilised in treatment of advanced malignancies. However, these immunotherapies are commonly associated with idiosyncratic cutaneous adverse reactions. Thus, recognition and awareness of these reactions are necessary. METHODS: We reviewed the skin biopsies of all patients on anti-PD1 therapy with or without ipilimumab who developed lichenoid inflammation and included those with microscopic suprabasal or intraepidermal clefts...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
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