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Melha Zidani, Jean-Sébastien Audet, François Borgeat, Frederick Aardema, Kieron Philip O'Connor, Yasser Khazaal
The current paper describes a case series using a new strategy for facilitating change based on Augmentation of Psychotherapy through Alternative Preconscious Priming (APAP) (1) in the treatment of eight treatment-resistant patients suffering from social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder. The patients had previously only shown a partial response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) despite good treatment adherence. The patients completed APAP using a computerized program, which consisted of three steps during which alternative, more functional thoughts and beliefs relevant to the idiosyncratic difficulties experienced by the patients were formulated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sophie R Homer, Catherine Deeprose
BACKGROUND: Negative mental imagery is ubiquitous in cognitive models of social anxiety and in the social anxiety literature. Previous research has shown that it is causal of increased anxiety, lower social performance ratings and lower implicit self-esteem. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated this imagery directly. AIMS: This study aimed to provide an in-depth analysis of the phenomenology of negative imagery experienced by socially anxious individuals, and to compare recurrent and intrusive images with images deliberately generated by participants during the study...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Hitoshi Sato, Ken Umemura, Tae Yamamoto, Hiroshi Sato
Although renal impairment is a rare complication of ulcerative colitis (UC), interstitial nephritis can occur as an idiosyncratic reaction to 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) treatment for UC. Monozygotic twins developed UC at ages 49 and 51, and they were separately treated at different medical institutes. They did not know that they had the same disease and were treated with the same drug (5-ASA). During the course of 5-ASA treatment, renal impairment diagnosed as interstitial nephritis occurred in both. Granulocyte/monocyte adsorption was initiated, UC remission was achieved and renal function deterioration subsided in both...
February 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Valentí Rull, Teresa Vegas-Vilarrúbia
The neotropical Guayana Highlands (GH) are one of the few remaining pristine environments on Earth, and they host amazing biodiversity with a high degree endemism, especially among vascular plants. Despite the lack of direct human disturbance, GH plants and their communities are threatened with extinction from habitat loss due to global warming (GW). Geographic information systems simulations involving the entire known vascular GH flora (>2430 species) predict potential GW-driven extinctions on the order of 80% by the end of this century, including nearly half of the endemic species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Robert Schlaberg, Charles Y Chiu, Steve Miller, Gary W Procop, George Weinstock
CONTEXT: -Metagenomic sequencing can be used for detection of any pathogens using unbiased, shotgun next-generation sequencing (NGS), without the need for sequence-specific amplification. Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated in infectious disease outbreaks of unknown causes and in patients with suspected infections but negative results for conventional tests. Metagenomic NGS tests hold great promise to improve infectious disease diagnostics, especially in immunocompromised and critically ill patients...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
E Andrès, R Mourot-Cottet, F Maloisel, F Séverac, O Keller, T Vogel, M Tebacher, J-C Weber, G Kaltenbach, J-E Gottenberg, B Goichot, J Sibilia, A-S Korganow, R Herbrecht
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Gerassimos J Mantzaris
Although we have been living in the era of biologic therapy for several decades, the use of immunomodulators (primarily thiopurines [azathioprine and mercaptopurine] and less so methotrexate) still remains an important component of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pharmaceutical arsenal. Thiopurines as monotherapy exert corticosteroid-sparing effects and can maintain long-term remission in a considerable proportion of patients who have frequent relapses and are or have become mesalazine and/or corticosteroid intolerant or refractory...
February 3, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
J Gerry Kenna
Animal toxicity studies used to assess the safety of new candidate pharmaceuticals prior to their progression into human clinical trials are unable to assess the risk of non-pharmacologically mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the most frequent of which are drug-induced liver injury and cardiotoxicity. Idiosyncratic ADRs occur only infrequently and in certain susceptible humans, but are caused by many hundreds of different drugs and may lead to serious illness. Areas covered: Idiosyncratic ADRs are initiated by drug-related chemical insults, which cause toxicity due to susceptibility factors that manifest only in certain patients...
February 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Klaus Blischke, Andreas Malangré
This paper addresses the notion of chunk concatenation being associated with sleep-related enhancement consolidation of motor sequence memory, thereby essentially contributing to improvements in sequence execution speed. To this end, element movement times of a multi-joint arm movement sequence incorporated in a recent study by Malangré et al. (2014) were reanalyzed. As sequence elements differed with respect to movement distance, element movement times had to be purged from differences solely due to varying trajectory lengths...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
Peter James O'Brien, Anna Edvardsson
A multiparametric, live-cell, high-content-screening (HCS) cytotoxicity assay was first demonstrated in 2006 (Arch Toxicol 80, 580-604) to be highly concordant with human hepatotoxicity, including idiosyncratic hepatotoxicities, and other target organ toxicities, in contrast to historical assays. The success of the assay was attributed to its simultaneous measurement of multiple, appropriate "cytobiomarkers; use of human cells with xenometabolic competence for toxicities mediated by metabolites, 72-hour exposure to enable expression of slower-acting toxicants, exposure to a wide-range of concentrations, up to 30- to 100-fold the efficacious concentration, and normalising the in vitro cytotoxic concentration to an estimate of the in vivo concentration of exposure...
February 2, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Ramadhan Oruch, Ian F Pryme, Bernt A Engelsen, Anders Lund
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an unpredictable iatrogenic neurologic emergency condition, mainly arising as an idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic agent use. It is characterized by distinctive clinical features including a change in mental status, generalized rigidity, hyperpyrexia, and dysautonomia. It can be lethal if not diagnosed and treated properly. Mortality and morbidity attributed to this syndrome have recently declined markedly due to greater awareness, earlier diagnosis, and intensive care intervention...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
P Schönfeld, F Preusser, J Margraf
Encounters with stressors induce diverse idiosyncratic neuroendocrine, behavioral and psychological reactions across people. Perceived self-efficacy can alter autonomic responses and their effects on mental health. The beneficial effects of self-efficacy in buffering physiological arousal, enhancing performance, and diminishing psychopathological symptoms have been observed in diverse contexts. We show that the role of self-efficacy is not uniformly beneficial, and that higher levels of self-efficacy can sometimes lead to increases in neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses and decreases in performance, a phenomenon that has been widely neglected...
January 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Lindsay Huffhines, Angela M Tunno, Bridget Cho, Erin P Hambrick, Ilse Campos, Brittany Lichty, Yo Jackson
State social service agency case files are a common mechanism for obtaining information about a child's maltreatment history, yet these documents are often challenging for researchers to access, and then to process in a manner consistent with the requirements of social science research designs. Specifically, accessing and navigating case files is an extensive undertaking, and a task that many researchers have had to maneuver with little guidance. Even after the files are in hand and the research questions and relevant variables have been clarified, case file information about a child's maltreatment exposure can be idiosyncratic, vague, inconsistent, and incomplete, making coding such information into useful variables for statistical analyses difficult...
August 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Veli Yıldırım, Meltem Çobanogulları Direk, Serkan Güneş, Çetin Okuyaz, Fevziye Toros
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening idiosyncratic reaction that usually occurs after the administration of antipsychotic drugs. Antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and antiepileptic drugs are also suggested to be associated with NMS. It is believed to result from a dopaminergic blockade in the central nervous system. NMS is manifested by hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, autonomic dysfunction, altered mental status, leukocytosis, and elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase. Valproate is commonly used in the treatment of many psychiatric and neurologic disorders...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Amrit Kirpalani, Michael J Rieder, Kevin C Bax, Guido Filler
An infant boy with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (idiopathic membranous glomerulonephropathy) achieved remission with ciclosporin but developed eosinophilia and high IgE levels (max 19 000  iU/mL). Conversion to tacrolimus resulted in chronic diarrhoea (eosinophilic gastroenteritis), muscle weakness, polyserositis and failure-to-thrive. In contrast, a trial without tacrolimus resulted in a ciclosporin-responsive relapse, therapy-resistant focal seizures with generalised spikes, worsening muscle weakness and diarrhoea...
January 30, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Tetsuo Sasabe, Shinichiro Maeda, Kenichi Kishida, Mariko Yamano, Yoshihiro Miwa, Toshihiro Sugiyama
OBJECTIVE: Drug therapy is occasionally accompanied by an idiosyncratic severe toxicity, which occurs very rarely, but can lead to patient mortality. Methazolamide, an anti-glaucomatous agent, could cause severe skin eruptions called Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolyis (SJS/TEN). Its precise etiology is still uncertain. In this study, the metabolism of methazolamide was investigated in immortalized human keratinocytes to reveal the possible mechanism which causes SJS/TEN...
January 27, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
Zemzem Shigute, Anagaw D Mebratie, Robert Sparrow, Zelalem Yilma, Getnet Alemu, Arjun S Bedi
Due to lack of well-developed insurance and credit markets, rural families in Ethiopia are exposed to a range of covariate and idiosyncratic risks. In 2005, to deal with the consequences of covariate risks, the government implemented the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP), and in 2011, to mitigate the financial consequences of ill-health, the government introduced a pilot Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) Scheme. This paper explores whether scheme uptake and retention is affected by access to the PSNP...
January 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Alexander D Roth, Moo-Yeal Lee
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a significant source of drug recall and acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States. While current drug development processes emphasize general toxicity and drug metabolizing enzyme- (DME-) mediated toxicity, it has been challenging to develop comprehensive models for assessing complete idiosyncratic potential. In this review, we describe the enzymes and proteins that contain polymorphisms believed to contribute to IDILI, including ones that affect phase I and phase II metabolism, antioxidant enzymes, drug transporters, inflammation, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)...
2017: BioMed Research International
Jeffrey L Woodhead, Paul B Watkins, Brett A Howell, Scott Q Siler, Lisl K M Shoda
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI) is a serious concern in drug development. The rarity and multifactorial nature of iDILI makes it difficult to predict and explain. Recently, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele associations have provided strong support for a role of an adaptive immune response in the pathogenesis of many iDILI cases; however, it is likely that an adaptive immune attack requires several preceding events. Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP), an in silico modeling technique that leverages known physiology and the results of in vitro experiments in order to make predictions about how drugs affect biological processes, is proposed as a potentially useful tool for predicting and explaining critical events that likely precede immune-mediated iDILI, as well as the immune attack itself...
November 21, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Kousei Ito, Kaoru Kobayashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
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