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Brittany F Lees, Taylor P Stewart, Joanne K Rash, Shirley R Baron, Stacy Tessler Lindau, David M Kushner
More than 30% of women have a history of abuse. Women with cancer may be at substantially increased risk for abuse, but this issue is rarely discussed in the course of oncology care. Women with a history of abuse who present for cancer care commonly have a high prevalence of co-morbid illness. Sexual dysfunction, a highly prevalent but under-recognized condition among women of all ages, is also more common among both women with a history of abuse and women with cancer. Although common after cancer, sexual dysfunction, like abuse, can be stigmatizing and often goes undiagnosed and untreated...
April 13, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Peter Fentz Haastrup, Wade Thompson, Jens Søndergaard, Dorte Ejg Jarbøl
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used, and concerns about overuse have been raised. Therefore, side effects are important to be aware of and several suggested side effects of long-term use have been studied. In this MiniReview, we sum up the evidence of side effects related to long-term PPI treatment. Suspected side effects are mainly related to increased susceptibility to infections, secondary hypergastrinaemia, impeded absorption of micronutrients or idiosyncratic reactions. This article is protected by copyright...
April 15, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Jan Perner, Sára Kropáčková, Petr Kopáček, José M C Ribeiro
Ticks salivate while feeding on their hosts. Saliva helps blood feeding through host anti-hemostatic and immunomodulatory components. Previous transcriptomic and proteomic studies revealed the complexity of tick saliva, comprising hundreds of polypeptides grouped in several multi-genic families such as lipocalins, Kunitz-domain containing peptides, metalloproteases, basic tail secreted proteins, and several other families uniquely found in ticks. These studies also revealed that the composition of saliva changes with time; expression of transcripts from the same family wax and wane as a function of feeding time...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dimas Yusuf, Joanna Christy, David Owen, Meghan Ho, David Li, Martin J Fishman
BACKGROUND: Nifedipine is a generic, well-known and commonly-prescribed dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and Prinzmetal's angina. A known but very rare and serious adverse effect of nifedipine is clinically-apparent hepatitis which can take months to resolve. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present a case of nifedipine-induced hepatitis in a 78-year-old Caucasian female with no prior history of liver or autoimmune disease...
April 3, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Chloé Michel, Rita Küchler, Iris Martin, Bruno Kyewski, Sheena Pinto
The study of organogenesis, tissue-homeostasis and regeneration requires the precise assessment of in vivo cell proliferation. To this end a host of methods have been developed to detect and quantify DNA synthesis in proliferating cells. These include cell labeling with various nucleotide analogues and fluorescence reporter-based animal models with each method presenting its idiosyncratic shortcomings. Quantitative assessment of epithelial cell turnover has been partly hampered due to their variable and limited in vivo accessibility and the requirement for harsher isolation procedures to procure single cells for FACS analysis...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Simon D Shorvon, Pedro E Bermejo, Ayana A Gibbs, Gilles Huberfeld, Reetta Kälviäinen
BACKGROUND: A generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) is the most severe form of common epileptic seizure and carries the greatest risk of harm. The aim of this review is to provide an evidence-based guide for the selection of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for patients with GTCSs. Eight AEDs are approved in Europe and the USA for the treatment of both primarily GTCSs (PGTCSs) and secondarily GTCSs (SGTCSs) and are considered in this paper. METHODS: Each AED is evaluated using five criteria: (1) efficacy, by seizure type (a: PGTCSs and b: SGTCSs); (2) adverse effects; (3) interactions; (4) adherence and dosing; and (5) mechanism of action (MOA)...
March 27, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nick Bailey, Guanpeng Dong, Jon Minton, Gwilym Pryce
This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jon Juliusson Sigurdur, Jon Kristinn Nielsen, Valgerdur Runarsdottir, Ingunn Hansdottir, Ragna Sigurdardottir, Einar S Björnsson
OBJECTIVE: To examine lifetime drinking patterns in men and women with alcohol-induced pancreatitis (AIP) in comparison with patients with alcoholic use disorder (AUD) without pancreatic disease. METHODS: Alcohol consumption patterns were assessed using a validated questionnaire, the Lifetime Drinking History (LDH), during an outpatient visit. Patients diagnosed with AIP were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years) with patients with AUD in addiction treatment...
March 29, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Robert R McCrae
The magnitude of components of variance in trait scales-true score, method variance, and error-can be estimated from information on the mono-method correlations among personality traits within a domain and on cross-observer agreement on domains and facets. Estimates of these components in NEO Inventory facet scales were compared with prior estimates that were based on a consideration of internal consistency and retest reliability (McCrae, 2015). Together, results suggested that (a) about 40% of the variance in self-reports and single informant ratings is due to method variance; (b) as with substantive traits, method biases exist on several different levels, some broad, some narrow; and (c) consequently, a large number of distinct biases affect personality scale scores...
March 29, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Anna Licata, Antonina Giammanco, Maria Giovanna Minissale, Salvatore Pagano, Salvatore Petta, Maurizio Averna
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Statins are a class of drugs whose main adverse effects are drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and myopathy. Some of these may be predictable, due to their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, while others, unfortunately, are idiosyncratic. Genetic factors may also influence patient susceptibility to DILI and myopathy in the case of statins. This review will first discuss the role of statins in cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention and the underlying mechanisms of action...
March 26, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Nancy Jokinen, Tiziano Gomiero, Karen Watchman, Matthew P Janicki, Mary Hogan, Frode Larsen, Anna Beránková, Flávia Heloísa Santos, Kathy Service, Jim Crowe
This article, an output of the 2016 International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia, examines familial caregiving situations within the context of a support-staging model for adults with intellectual disability (ID) affected by dementia. Seven narratives offer context to this support-staging model to interpret situations experienced by caregivers. The multidimensional model has two fundamental aspects: identifying the role and nature of caregiving as either primary (direct) or secondary (supportive); and defining how caregiving is influenced by stage of dementia...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
T Amaro, I Bertocci, A M Queiros, E Rastelli, G Borgersen, M Brkljacic, J Nunes, K Sorensen, R Danovaro, S Widdicombe
The continued rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels is driving climate change and temperature shifts at a global scale. CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies have been suggested as a feasible option for reducing CO2 emissions and mitigating their effects. However, before CCS can be employed at an industrial scale, any environmental risks associated with this activity should be identified and quantified. Significant leakage of CO2 from CCS reservoirs and pipelines is considered to be unlikely, however direct and/or indirect effects of CO2 leakage on marine life and ecosystem functioning must be assessed, with particular consideration given to spatial (e...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Marta S Shocket, Alexander T Strauss, Jessica L Hite, Maja Šljivar, David J Civitello, Meghan A Duffy, Carla E Cáceres, Spencer R Hall
Climatic warming will likely have idiosyncratic impacts on infectious diseases, causing some to increase while others decrease or shift geographically. A mechanistic framework could better predict these different temperature-disease outcomes. However, such a framework remains challenging to develop, due to the nonlinear and (sometimes) opposing thermal responses of different host and parasite traits and due to the difficulty of validating model predictions with observations and experiments. We address these challenges in a zooplankton-fungus (Daphnia dentifera-Metschnikowia bicuspidata) system...
April 2018: American Naturalist
Vijay Gayam, Mazin Khalid, Binav Shrestha, Muhammad Rajib Hossain, Sumit Dahal, Pavani Garlapati, Arshpal Gill, Amrendra Kumar Mandal, Ruby Sangha
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the USA. DILI can be broadly classified as Intrinsic and Idiosyncratic. Identifying predictors and at-risk patients are challenging but can have a substantial clinical implication. This case report series demonstrates the importance of valproic acid, fluconazole, and amiodarone as potential hepatoxic agents of drug-induced liver injury leading to acute hepatic failure. The causality in all cases was established by Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method/Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences score and Naranjo Algorithm...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Kiarash Aramesh, Hitoshi Arima, Dale Gardiner, Seema K Shah
The "dead-donor rule" states that, in any case of vital organ donation, the potential donor should be determined to be dead before transplantation occurs. In many countries around the world, neurological criteria can be used to legally determine death (also referred to as brain death). Nevertheless, there is considerable controversy in the bioethics literature over whether brain death is the equivalent of biological death. This international legal review demonstrates that there is considerable variability in how different jurisdictions have evolved to justify the legal status of brain death and its relationship to the dead-donor rule...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Zahra Fakhroueian, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Mehdi Assmar, Alireza Massiha, Afshin Zahedi, Pegah Esmaeilzadeh, Fatemeh Katouzian, Sara Rezaei, Peyman Keyhanvar, Alireza Mozafari Dehshiri
Nanoformulations derived from fine porous ZnO quantum dot nanoparticles (QD NPs) can offer strong potential medical applications; especially in cancer therapy. ZnO QD NPs was synthesized by sol-gel hydrothermal process, fast cold quenching and further smart surface functionalization methods to obtain ultrasmall size (1-4 nm) NPs. ZnO nanopolymer, a wetting agent, PEG co-solvent and water/oil emulsion stabilizer were considered in our nanofluid formulation. The resulting nanofluid was characterized by SEM, FTIR, photoluminescence, band gap energy, zeta potential and UV-Vis spectroscopy...
March 22, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Yilmaz Bilgic, Cengiz Yilmaz, Yasir Furkan Cagin, Yahya Atayan, Nese Karadag, Murat Muhsin Muhip Harputluoglu
INTRODUCTION: Drug induced acute toxic hepatitis can be idiosyncratic. Albendazole, a widely used broad spectrum antiparasitic drug is generally accepted as a safe drug. It may cause asymptomatic transient liver enzyme abnormalities but acute toxic hepatitis is very rare. Case Report : Herein, we present the case of 47 year old woman with recurrent acute toxic hepatitis after a single intake of albendazole in 2010 and 2014. The patient was presented with symptoms and findings of anorexia, vomiting and jaundice...
April 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Xiao-Meng Zhang, Fan Li, Bing Zhang, Xiao-Fen Chen, Jing-Zhu Piao
The common Aconitum herbs in clinical application mainly include Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu), Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia(Fuzi), all of which have toxicity. Therefore, the safety of using Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum herbs has become an hot topic in clinical controversy. Based on the data-mining methods, this study explored the characteristics and causes of adverse drug reactions/events (ADR/ADE) of the Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum, in order to provide pharmacovigilance and rational drug use suggestions for clinical application...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Laura Jayne Broome, Cristina Izura, Nuria Lorenzo-Dus
Within the literature individuals who use the internet to facilitate the sexual abuse of a minor are generally classified as being fantasy or contact driven. Classification is based upon the intended location for sexual climax: fantasy driven individuals aim to reach sexual climax online, whereas contact driven individuals target minors to achieve physical sex offline. This review systematically investigates whether there is an empirical basis for the distinction between these two proposed discrete types. Comparison of tactics and behaviour are considered to examine whether the contact vs...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Niki Oikonomopoulou, Ana Belén Martínez López, Javier Urbano Villaescusa, María Del Carmen Molina Molina, Laura Butragueño Laiseca, Daniel Barraca Nuñez, Olalla Álvarez Blanco
INTRODUCTION: Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is a rare entity in the pediatric age. It is de fined by the infiltration of the renal parenchyma by mononuclear and/or polynuclear cells with se condary involvement of the tubules, without glomerular injury. It can be triggered by infections or immunological diseases, drugs like NSAIDs or be of idiopathic origin. OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness among pediatricians about the prescription of NSAIDs, especially to patients of less than a year old, since they can provoke renal damage...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
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