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Taurine AND Dopamine

Nihar J Mehta, Karam Asmaro, David J Hermiz, Meredith M Njus, Ashraf H Saleh, Karen A Beningo, David Njus
The dopamine oxidation product cysteinyl-dopamine has attracted attention as a contributor to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Treatment of cysteinyl-dopamine with hypochlorite yields an even more cytotoxic product. This product has potent redox-cycling activity and initiates production of superoxide in PC12 cells. Taurine, which scavenges hypochlorite, protects PC12 cells from cysteinyl-dopamine but not from the hypochlorite product, suggesting that the product, not cysteinyl-dopamine itself, is toxic...
September 25, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Naoko Goto-Inoue, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Keiko Kashiwagi, Tsukasa Mori
In developmental and cell biology it is crucial to evaluate the dynamic profiles of metabolites. An emerging frog model system using Xenopus tropicalis, whose genome sequence and inbred strains are available, is now ready for metabolomics investigation in amphibians. In this study we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) analysis to identify and visualize metabolomic molecular markers in tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis We detected tissue-specific peaks and visualized their distribution in tissues, and distinguished 19 tissues and their specific peaks...
2016: Biology Open
Om P Mishra, Anatoliy V Popov, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou
BACKGROUND: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in whole grain flaxseed, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger with known radioprotective properties. However, the exact mechanism of SDG radioprotection is not well understood. The current study identified a novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection by SDG in physiological solutions by scavenging active chlorine species (ACS) and reducing chlorinated nucleobases. METHODS: The ACS scavenging activity of SDG was determined using two highly specific fluoroprobes: hypochlorite-specific 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and hydroxyl radical-sensitive 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF)...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mojdeh Mostafavi, Paul Hardy, L Eugene Arnold
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential benefits of varenicline (CHANTIX(®)), a highly specific partial agonist of neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), for autistic symptoms, and present resulting biochemical changes in light of dopamine-related genotype. METHODS: The clinical and biochemical changes exhibited by a 19-year-old severely autistic man following the use of low-dose varenicline in an ABA experiment of nature, and his genotype, were extracted from chart review...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Oscar Solís, Patricia García-Sanz, Antonio S Herranz, María-José Asensio, Rosario Moratalla
Perturbations in the cerebral levels of various amino acids are associated with neurological disorders, and previous studies have suggested that such alterations have a role in the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the direct effects of chronic L-DOPA treatment, that produces dyskinesia, on neural tissue amino acid concentrations have not been explored in detail. To evaluate whether striatal amino acid concentrations are altered in peak dose dyskinesia, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian mice were treated chronically with L-DOPA and tissue amino acid concentrations were assessed by HPLC analysis...
July 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Yoshiaki Omura, Dominic Lu, Marilyn K Jones, Ahdallah Nihrane, Harsha Duvvi, Yasuhiro Shimotsuura, Motomu Ohki
A brief historical background on Autism & some of the important symptoms associated with Autism are summarized. Using strong Electro Magnetic Field Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received U.S. Patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. Simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected Autism patients indicated that in Autism patients following changes were often found: 1) Acetylcholine is markedly reduced; 2) Alzheimer's disease markers (i...
2015: Acupuncture & Electro-therapeutics Research
Sanket N Patel, Kashyap Pandya, George J Clark, Mitul C Parikh, Cesar A Lau-Cam
This study has comparatively evaluated the antiradical and antilipid peroxidizing actions of taurine (TAU) and its N-pantoyl analog pantoyltaurine (PTAU) in vitro, and has determined the extent to which these findings agree with the in vivo ability of these compounds to prevent changes in plasma glucose and in indices of oxidative stress in the plasma, brain and spinal cord induced by the diabetogen streptozotocin (STZ) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Using free radical-generating and oxidizing systems, PTAU was found more effective than TAU in scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl, peroxyl, and superoxide anion radicals and peroxynitrite, and in preventing lipid peroxidation of a brain homogenate by iron (III)-dopamine and the oxidation of dopamine by iron (III)...
February 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Samah R Khalil, Mohamed M A Hussein
Few studies have been carried out to assess the neurotoxic effect of aluminum (Al) on the aquatic creatures. This study aims to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of long term Al exposure on the Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and the potential ameliorative influence of ascorbic acid (ASA) over a 180 days exposure period. Forty eight Nile catfish were divided into four groups: control group, placed in clean water, ASA exposed group (5mg/l), AlCl3 received group (28.96 μg/l; 1/20 LC50), and group received AlCl3 concomitantly with ASA...
December 2015: Neurotoxicology
Christophe Melon, Carine Chassain, Guy Bielicki, Jean-Pierre Renou, Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff, Pascal Salin, Franck Durif
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficient neurosurgical treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. Non-invasive metabolic neuroimaging during the course of DBS in animal models may contribute to our understanding of its action mechanisms. Here, DBS was adapted to in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 11.7 T in the rat to follow metabolic changes in main basal ganglia structures, the striatum, and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Measurements were repeated OFF and ON acute and subchronic (7 days) STN-DBS in control and parkinsonian (6-hydroxydopamine lesion) conditions...
March 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Caterina Michetti, Emilia Romano, Luisa Altabella, Angela Caruso, Paolo Castelluccio, Gaurav Bedse, Silvana Gaetani, Rossella Canese, Giovanni Laviola, Maria Luisa Scattoni
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with multifactorial origin characterized by social communication deficits and the presence of repetitive behaviors/interests. Several studies showed an association between the reelin gene mutation and increased risk of ASD and a reduced reelin expression in some brain regions of ASD subjects, suggesting a role for reelin deficiency in ASD etiology. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing important roles during development of the central nervous system...
2014: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Asarí Márquez, Mary Urbina, Lucimey Lima
Zinc regulates Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters, similar to taurine one, such as those for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. This study examined the ex vivo effect of zinc (ZnSO4), N,N,N,N-tetraquis-(2-piridilmetil)etilendiamino (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), intracellular and extracellular zinc chelators, respectively, on rat retina [(3)H]taurine transport. Isolated cells were incubated in Locke solution with 100 nM of [(3)H]taurine for 25 s. Different concentrations of ZnSO4 (0...
November 2014: Neurochemical Research
Irene Bolea, Maria Alessandra Colivicchi, Chiara Ballini, José Marco-Contelles, Keith Francis Tipton, Mercedes Unzeta, Laura Della Corte
BACKGROUND: PF9601N [N-(2-propynyl)-2-(5-benzyloxy-indolyl) methylamine] is an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), which has shown to possess neuroprotective properties in several in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease (PD). As there is evidence that excitotoxicity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of PF9601N in an acute in vivo model of excitotoxicity induced by the local administration of kainic acid during striatal microdialysis in adult rats...
July 2014: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Diptendu Chatterjee, Soaleha Shams, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish is increasingly utilized in the analysis of the effects of ethanol (alcohol) on brain function and behavior. We have shown significant population-dependent alcohol-induced changes in zebrafish behavior and have started to analyze alterations in dopaminergic and serotoninergic responses. Here, we analyze the effects of alcohol on levels of selected neurochemicals using a 2 × 3 (chronic × acute) between-subject alcohol exposure paradigm randomized for two zebrafish populations, AB and SF. Each fish first received the particular chronic treatment (0 or 0...
April 2014: Amino Acids
Piotr Maciejak, Janusz Szyndler, Karolina Kołosowska, Danuta Turzyńska, Alicja Sobolewska, Jerzy Walkowiak, Adam Płaźnik
We investigated the effect of valproate (ip, 500 mg/kg), which is regarded as a potent plasma protein tryptophan (TRP) displacer, on the central nervous system (hippocampal) and peripheral (plasma) levels of the aromatic amino acids (AAAs; e.g. TRP, tyrosine and phenylalanine) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; e.g. valine, isoleucine and leucine) as well as the other amino acids (glutamate, GABA, alanine, glutamine, glycine, aspartate and taurine) involved in the regulation of neurotransmission. Furthermore, we investigated whether the changes in the BCAA/AAA ratio affected the hippocampal concentration of monoamines [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA)]...
May 2014: Neurotoxicity Research
Luz M Suárez, Julián Bustamante, Luís M Orensanz, Rafael Martín del Río, José M Solís
Co-activation of NMDA and dopamine receptors is required for the induction of the late phase of LTP (L-LTP) that is dependent on new protein synthesis. Other neuromodulatory substances may also contribute to this process. Here, we examined whether taurine is one of the neuromodulators contributing to L-LTP induction, since it is known that taurine uptake induces a long-lasting synaptic potentiation dependent on protein synthesis, and taurine uptake inhibition blocks L-LTP induced by tetanization. Experiments were conducted using rat hippocampal slices where field synaptic potentials were evoked and recorded in CA3-CA1 synapses...
April 2014: Neuropharmacology
Magali Cazade, Cindy E Nuss, Isabelle Bidaud, John J Renger, Victor N Uebele, Philippe Lory, Jean Chemin
T-type calcium channels (T/Ca(v)3-channels) are implicated in various physiologic and pathophysiologic processes such as epilepsy, sleep disorders, hypertension, and cancer. T-channels are the target of endogenous signaling lipids including the endocannabinoid anandamide, the ω3-fatty acids, and the lipoamino-acids. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which these molecules inhibit T-current is unknown. In this study, we provided a detailed electrophysiologic and pharmacologic analysis indicating that the effects of the major N-acyl derivatives on the Ca(v)3...
February 2014: Molecular Pharmacology
Jan Bielecki, Gösta Nachman, Anders Garm
The four rhopalia of cubomedusae are integrated parts of the central nervous system carrying their many eyes and thought to be the centres of visual information processing. Rhopalial pacemakers control locomotion through a complex neural signal transmitted to the ring nerve and the signal frequency is modulated by the visual input. Since electrical synapses have never been found in the cubozoan nervous system all signals are thought to be transmitted across chemical synapses, and so far information about the neurotransmitters involved are based on immunocytochemical or behavioural data...
September 2013: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Fang Ju Lin, Michael M Pierce, Amita Sehgal, Tianyi Wu, Daniel C Skipper, Radhika Chabba
Caffeine and taurine are two major neuromodulators present in large quantities in many popular energy drinks. We investigated their effects on sleep-wake control in constant darkness using the fruit fly Drosophila as a model system. It has been shown that caffeine, as the most widely used psychostimulant, can boost arousal through the dopamine pathway in the mushroom bodies of flies. Taurine is a GABA receptor agonist, which is inhibitory to neuronal firing. We show here that flies receiving a low dose of caffeine (0...
2010: Nature and Science of Sleep
L Adermark, S Jonsson, B Söderpalm, M Ericson
The nucleus accumbens (nAc) is the primary target for the mesolimbic dopamine system and a key brain region for the reinforcing effects displayed by drugs of abuse, including ethanol. During the transition from recreational to compulsive consumption of reinforcing drugs, however, the dorsal striatum seems to be recruited. Understanding how synaptic activity is altered in a sub-region specific manner in the striatum during the course of long-term drug consumption thus could be essential for understanding the long-lasting changes produced by addictive substances, including ethanol...
June 2013: Alcohol
Stephanie S O'Malley, Patrick G O'Connor
The prevalence of unidentified or untreated unhealthy alcohol use remains high. With the advent of pharmacotherapy and models of counseling appropriate for use in primary care settings as well as in specialty care, clinicians have new tools to manage the range of alcohol problems across the spectrum of health care settings. By extending treatment to primary care, many people who do not currently receive specialty care may have increased access to treatment. In addition, primary care providers, by virtue of their ongoing relationship with patients, may be able to provide continuing treatment over time...
2011: Alcohol Research & Health: the Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
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