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Taurine AND Dopamine

Hongyu Ji, Yu Liu, Fang He, Ran An, Zhimin Du
Hyperlipidemia has been highlighted to be one of the most prominent and global chronic condition nowadays. Daming capsule (DMC), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation, has treated hyperlipidemia on clinic in China for decades. Our recent study showed that aloe-emodin (AE) is one of the main bioactive components in DMC. Therefore, the present study aims to further investigate the lipid-lowering effect by serum biochemistry and histopathological examination, and reveal the underlying mechanisms by urinary metabolomics approach...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Chun-Ching Chiu, Li-Jeng Chen, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Bor-Show Tzang
Dopaminergic deficits in the prefrontal cortex and striatum have been attributed to the pathogenesis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Our recent study revealed that high-dose taurine improves hyperactive behavior and brain-functional signals in SHR rats. This study investigates the effect of taurine on the SHR striatum by detecting the spontaneous alternation, DA transporter (DAT) level, dopamine uptake and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. A significant increase in the total arm entries was detected in both WKY and SHR rats fed with low-dose taurine but not in those fed with high-dose taurine...
April 22, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shuai Chen, Meiyan Zhang, Lu Bo, Siqi Li, Liyan Hu, Xiujuan Zhao, Changhao Sun
This study aimed to assess the toxic effect of chronic exposure to cadmium through a metabolomic approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, low-dose cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) (0.13 mg/kg body weight (bw)), middle-dose CdCl2 (0.8/kg bw), and high-dose CdCl2 (4.9 mg/kg bw). The rats continuously received CdCl2 via drinking water for 24 weeks. Rat urine samples were then collected at different time points to establish the metabolomic profiles...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Omar S Mabrouk, John L Han, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Huda Akil, Robert T Kennedy, Shelly B Flagel
Relative to bred low-responder (bLR) rats, bred high-responder (bHR) rats have an exaggerated locomotor response to a novel environment, take more risks, are more impulsive, and more likely to exhibit compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. These phenotypic differences in addiction-related behaviors and temperament have previously been associated with differences in neurotransmitter signaling, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. In this study, we applied advanced in vivo microdialysis sampling in the nucleus accumbens of bHRs and bLRs to assess differences in basal and stimulated neurochemical efflux more broadly...
December 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
N Kokras, N Pastromas, D Papasava, C de Bournonville, C A Cornil, C Dalla
Aromatase inhibitors, which are widely used for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers, have been associated with psychiatric side effects ranging from mania to depression. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of aromatase inhibition on male and female, sham-operated or gonadectomized adult rats. Three weeks after surgery, rats received chronic treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole or vehicle and were then subjected to the open field test, which assesses general activity...
January 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Fabiana Piscitelli, Heather B Bradshaw
Identification of the two major endogenous cannabinoid ligands, known as endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), opened the way for the identification and isolation of other lipid congeners, all derivatives of fatty acids and related to the Endocannabinoid System. The nomenclature of this anandamide-type class of lipids is evolving as new species are discovered all the time. However, they each fall under the larger umbrella of lipids that are a conjugation of a fatty acid with an amine through and amide bond, which we will refer to as lipoamines...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
Gao-Feng Wu, Shuang Ren, Ri-Yi Tang, Chang Xu, Jia-Qi Zhou, Shu-Mei Lin, Ying Feng, Qun-Hui Yang, Jian-Min Hu, Jian-Cheng Yang
Depression, a psychiatric and dysthymic disorder, severely affects the learning, work and life quality. The main pathogenesis of depression is associated with central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Taurine has been demonstrated to exert protective effects on the brain development and can improve learning ability and memory. Our study investigated the antidepressant-like effects of taurine pre-treatment by examining the changes in depression-like behavior, hormones, neurotransmitters, inflammatory factors and neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus of a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive rat model...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christian Pifl, Harald Reither, Natalia Lopez-Gonzalez Del Rey, Carmen Cavada, Jose A Obeso, Javier Blesa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with both motor and non-motor manifestations. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms, which can precede motor symptoms by several years. The relationship between hyposmia and PD remains elusive. Olfactory bulb (OB) pathology shows an increased number of olfactory dopaminergic cells, protein aggregates and dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems. In this study we examined tissue levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and their metabolites, of noradrenaline (NA) and of the amino acid neurotransmitters aspartate, glutamate, taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid in OBs of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated Macaca fascicularis in different stages, including monkeys who were always asymptomatic, monkeys who recovered from mild parkinsonian signs, and monkeys with stable moderate or severe parkinsonism...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Brian S Nielsen, Erik H Larsen, Ole Ladefoged, Henrik R Lam
Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic and can induce manganism, a Parkinson-like disease categorized as being a serious central nervous system irreversible neurodegenerative disease. An increased risk of developing symptoms of Parkinson disease has been linked to work-related exposure, for example, for workers in agriculture, horticulture, and people living near areas with frequent use of Mn-containing pesticides. In this study, the focus was placed on neurochemical effects of Mn. Rats were dosed intraperitoneally with 0...
May 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
Roberto Bassi, Monika A Niewczas, Luigi Biancone, Stefania Bussolino, Sai Merugumala, Sara Tezza, Francesca D'Addio, Moufida Ben Nasr, Alessandro Valderrama-Vasquez, Vera Usuelli, Valentina De Zan, Basset El Essawy, Massimo Venturini, Antonio Secchi, Francesco De Cobelli, Alexander Lin, Anil Chandraker, Paolo Fiorina
BACKGROUND: Alteration of certain metabolites may play a role in the pathophysiology of renal allograft disease. METHODS: To explore metabolomic abnormalities in individuals with a failing kidney allograft, we analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS; for ex vivo profiling of serum and urine) and two dimensional correlated spectroscopy (2D COSY; for in vivo study of the kidney graft) 40 subjects with varying degrees of chronic allograft dysfunction stratified by tertiles of glomerular filtration rate (GFR; T1, T2, T3)...
2017: PloS One
Nihar J Mehta, Karam Asmaro, David J Hermiz, Meredith M Njus, Ashraf H Saleh, Karen A Beningo, David Njus
The dopamine oxidation product cysteinyl-dopamine has attracted attention as a contributor to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Treatment of cysteinyl-dopamine with hypochlorite yields an even more cytotoxic product. This product has potent redox-cycling activity and initiates production of superoxide in PC12 cells. Taurine, which scavenges hypochlorite, protects PC12 cells from cysteinyl-dopamine but not from the hypochlorite product, suggesting that the product, not cysteinyl-dopamine itself, is toxic...
December 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Naoko Goto-Inoue, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Keiko Kashiwagi, Tsukasa Mori
In developmental and cell biology it is crucial to evaluate the dynamic profiles of metabolites. An emerging frog model system using Xenopus tropicalis, whose genome sequence and inbred strains are available, is now ready for metabolomics investigation in amphibians. In this study we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) analysis to identify and visualize metabolomic molecular markers in tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis We detected tissue-specific peaks and visualized their distribution in tissues, and distinguished 19 tissues and their specific peaks...
September 15, 2016: Biology Open
Om P Mishra, Anatoliy V Popov, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou
BACKGROUND: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in whole grain flaxseed, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger with known radioprotective properties. However, the exact mechanism of SDG radioprotection is not well understood. The current study identified a novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection by SDG in physiological solutions by scavenging active chlorine species (ACS) and reducing chlorinated nucleobases. METHODS: The ACS scavenging activity of SDG was determined using two highly specific fluoroprobes: hypochlorite-specific 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and hydroxyl radical-sensitive 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF)...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mojdeh Mostafavi, Paul Hardy, L Eugene Arnold
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential benefits of varenicline (CHANTIX® ), a highly specific partial agonist of neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), for autistic symptoms, and present resulting biochemical changes in light of dopamine-related genotype. METHODS: The clinical and biochemical changes exhibited by a 19-year-old severely autistic man following the use of low-dose varenicline in an ABA experiment of nature, and his genotype, were extracted from chart review...
November 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Oscar Solís, Patricia García-Sanz, Antonio S Herranz, María-José Asensio, Rosario Moratalla
Perturbations in the cerebral levels of various amino acids are associated with neurological disorders, and previous studies have suggested that such alterations have a role in the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the direct effects of chronic L-DOPA treatment, that produces dyskinesia, on neural tissue amino acid concentrations have not been explored in detail. To evaluate whether striatal amino acid concentrations are altered in peak dose dyskinesia, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian mice were treated chronically with L-DOPA and tissue amino acid concentrations were assessed by HPLC analysis...
July 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Yoshiaki Omura, Dominic Lu, Marilyn K Jones, Ahdallah Nihrane, Harsha Duvvi, Yasuhiro Shimotsuura, Motomu Ohki
A brief historical background on Autism & some of the important symptoms associated with Autism are summarized. Using strong Electro Magnetic Field Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received U.S. Patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. Simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected Autism patients indicated that in Autism patients following changes were often found: 1) Acetylcholine is markedly reduced; 2) Alzheimer's disease markers (i...
2015: Acupuncture & Electro-therapeutics Research
Sanket N Patel, Kashyap Pandya, George J Clark, Mitul C Parikh, Cesar A Lau-Cam
This study has comparatively evaluated the antiradical and antilipid peroxidizing actions of taurine (TAU) and its N-pantoyl analog pantoyltaurine (PTAU) in vitro, and has determined the extent to which these findings agree with the in vivo ability of these compounds to prevent changes in plasma glucose and in indices of oxidative stress in the plasma, brain and spinal cord induced by the diabetogen streptozotocin (STZ) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Using free radical-generating and oxidizing systems, PTAU was found more effective than TAU in scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl, peroxyl, and superoxide anion radicals and peroxynitrite, and in preventing lipid peroxidation of a brain homogenate by iron (III)-dopamine and the oxidation of dopamine by iron (III)...
February 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Samah R Khalil, Mohamed M A Hussein
Few studies have been carried out to assess the neurotoxic effect of aluminum (Al) on the aquatic creatures. This study aims to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of long term Al exposure on the Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and the potential ameliorative influence of ascorbic acid (ASA) over a 180 days exposure period. Forty eight Nile catfish were divided into four groups: control group, placed in clean water, ASA exposed group (5mg/l), AlCl3 received group (28.96 μg/l; 1/20 LC50), and group received AlCl3 concomitantly with ASA...
December 2015: Neurotoxicology
Christophe Melon, Carine Chassain, Guy Bielicki, Jean-Pierre Renou, Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff, Pascal Salin, Franck Durif
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficient neurosurgical treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. Non-invasive metabolic neuroimaging during the course of DBS in animal models may contribute to our understanding of its action mechanisms. Here, DBS was adapted to in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 11.7 T in the rat to follow metabolic changes in main basal ganglia structures, the striatum, and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Measurements were repeated OFF and ON acute and subchronic (7 days) STN-DBS in control and parkinsonian (6-hydroxydopamine lesion) conditions...
March 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Caterina Michetti, Emilia Romano, Luisa Altabella, Angela Caruso, Paolo Castelluccio, Gaurav Bedse, Silvana Gaetani, Rossella Canese, Giovanni Laviola, Maria Luisa Scattoni
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with multifactorial origin characterized by social communication deficits and the presence of repetitive behaviors/interests. Several studies showed an association between the reelin gene mutation and increased risk of ASD and a reduced reelin expression in some brain regions of ASD subjects, suggesting a role for reelin deficiency in ASD etiology. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing important roles during development of the central nervous system...
2014: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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