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"Agent based model"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645858/vascular-adaptation-pattern-formation-and-cross-validation-between-an-agent-based-model-and-a-dynamical-system
#1
Marc Garbey, Stefano Casarin, Scott A Berceli
Myocardial infarction is the global leading cause of mortality (Go AS et al. 2014). Coronary artery occlusion is its main etiology and it is commonly treated by Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery (Wilson CT 2007). The long-term outcome remains unsatisfactory (Benedetto U 2016). The vein faces the phenomenon of restenosis during the post-surgery, which consists of re-occlusion of the lumen and usually requires secondary intervention even within one year after the initial surgery (Harskamp RE 2013). We propose an extensive study of the restenosis phenomenon by implementing two mathematical models previously developed: a heuristic Dynamical System (DS) (Garbey M and Berceli SA 2013), and a stochastic Agent Based Model (ABM) (Garbey M et al...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622934/selection-to-outsmart-the-germs-the-evolution-of-disease-recognition-and-social-cognition
#2
Sharon E Kessler, Tyler R Bonnell, Richard W Byrne, Colin A Chapman
The emergence of providing care to diseased conspecifics must have been a turning point during the evolution of hominin sociality. On a population level, care may have minimized the costs of socially transmitted diseases at a time of increasing social complexity, although individual care-givers probably incurred increased transmission risks. We propose that care-giving likely originated within kin networks, where the costs may have been balanced by fitness increases obtained through caring for ill kin. We test a novel hypothesis of hominin cognitive evolution in which disease may have selected for the cognitive ability to recognize when a conspecific is infected...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606814/does-cost-effectiveness-of-influenza-vaccine-choice-vary-across-the-u-s-an-agent-based-modeling-study
#3
Jay V DePasse, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Kenneth J Smith, Jonathan M Raviotta, Eunha Shim, Richard K Zimmerman, Shawn T Brown
BACKGROUND: In a prior agent-based modeling study, offering a choice of influenza vaccine type was shown to be cost-effective when the simulated population represented the large, Washington DC metropolitan area. This study calculated the public health impact and cost-effectiveness of the same four strategies: No Choice, Pediatric Choice, Adult Choice, or Choice for Both Age Groups in five United States (U.S.) counties selected to represent extremes in population age distribution. METHODS: The choice offered was either inactivated influenza vaccine delivered intramuscularly with a needle (IIV-IM) or an age-appropriate needle-sparing vaccine, specifically, the nasal spray (LAIV) or intradermal (IIV-ID) delivery system...
June 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606148/development-of-a-stochastic-agent-based-model-to-evaluate-surveillance-strategies-for-detection-of-emergent-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-strains
#4
A G Arruda, Z Poljak, D Knowles, A McLean
BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to develop a stochastic agent-based model using empirical data from Ontario (Canada) swine sites in order to evaluate different surveillance strategies for detection of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains at the regional level. Four strategies were evaluated, including (i) random sampling of fixed numbers of swine sites monthly; (ii) risk-based sampling of fixed numbers, specifically of breeding sites (high-consequence sites); (iii) risk-based sampling of fixed numbers of low biosecurity sites (high-risk); and (iv) risk-based sampling of breeding sites that are characterized as low biosecurity sites (high-risk/high-consequence)...
June 12, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601116/nonlinearities-in-behavioral-macroeconomics
#5
Orlando Gomes
This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model)...
July 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593562/assessing-the-impacts-of-the-changes-in-farming-systems-on-food-security-and-environmental-sustainability-of-a-chinese-rural-region-under-different-policy-scenarios-an-agent-based-model
#6
Chengcheng Yuan, Liming Liu, Xiaoxing Qi, Yonghu Fu, Jinwei Ye
Since China has undergone a series of economic reforms and implemented opening up policies, its farming systems have significantly changed and have dramatically influenced the society, economy, and environment of China. To assess the comprehensive impacts of these changes on food security and environmental sustainability, and establish effective and environment-friendly subsidy policies, this research constructed an agent-based model (ABM). Daligang Town, which is located in the two-season rice region of Southern China, was selected as the case study site...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589364/how-to-simulate-a-germinal-center
#7
Philippe A Robert, Ananya Rastogi, Sebastian C Binder, Michael Meyer-Hermann
Germinal centers host a mini-evolutionary environment where B cells can mutate their receptor and be selected depending on its affinity to target antigens in a process called affinity maturation. Starting from founder cells with a weak B cell receptor affinity, germinal centers release output cells as antibody-secreting cells or memory cells with a very high affinity, a property which is essential for pathogen clearance and immune memory. Therapeutic interventions on the germinal centers are tantalizing approaches to improve vaccines or to support rejection of chronic pathogens such as HIV...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585809/bsim-2-0-an-advanced-agent-based-cell-simulator
#8
Antoni Matyjaszkiewicz, Gianfranco Fiore, Fabio Annunziata, Claire S Grierson, Nigel J Savery, Lucia Marucci, Mario di Bernardo
Agent-based models (ABMs) provide a number of advantages relative to traditional continuum modeling approaches, permitting incorporation of great detail and realism into simulations, allowing in silico tracking of single-cell behaviors and correlation of these with emergent effects at the macroscopic level. In this study we present BSim 2.0, a radically new version of BSim, a computational ABM framework for modeling dynamics of bacteria in typical experimental environments including microfluidic chemostats...
June 23, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577533/an-agent-based-model-simulation-of-influenza-interactions-at-the-host-level-insight-into-the-influenza-related-burden-of-pneumococcal-infections
#9
Hélène Arduin, Matthieu Domenech de Cellès, Didier Guillemot, Laurence Watier, Lulla Opatowski
BACKGROUND: Host-level influenza virus-respiratory pathogen interactions are often reported. Although the exact biological mechanisms involved remain unelucidated, secondary bacterial infections are known to account for a large part of the influenza-associated burden, during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks. Those interactions probably impact the microorganisms' transmission dynamics and the influenza public health toll. Mathematical models have been widely used to examine influenza epidemics and the public health impact of control measures...
June 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573465/from-short-range-repulsion-to-hele-shaw-problem-in-a-model-of-tumor-growth
#10
Sebastien Motsch, Diane Peurichard
We investigate the large time behavior of an agent based model describing tumor growth. The microscopic model combines short-range repulsion and cell division. As the number of cells increases exponentially in time, the microscopic model is challenging in terms of computational time. To overcome this problem, we aim at deriving the associated macroscopic dynamics leading here to a porous media type equation. As we are interested in the long time behavior of the dynamics, the macroscopic equation obtained through usual derivation method fails at providing the correct qualitative behavior (e...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556825/modelling-the-role-of-groundwater-hydro-refugia-in-east-african-hominin-evolution-and-dispersal
#11
M O Cuthbert, T Gleeson, S C Reynolds, M R Bennett, A C Newton, C J McCormack, G M Ashley
Water is a fundamental resource, yet its spatiotemporal availability in East Africa is poorly understood. This is the area where most hominin first occurrences are located, and consequently the potential role of water in hominin evolution and dispersal remains unresolved. Here, we show that hundreds of springs currently distributed across East Africa could function as persistent groundwater hydro-refugia through orbital-scale climate cycles. Groundwater buffers climate variability according to spatially variable groundwater response times determined by geology and topography...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542193/an-agent-based-model-of-leukocyte-transendothelial-migration-during-atherogenesis
#12
Rita Bhui, Heather N Hayenga
A vast amount of work has been dedicated to the effects of hemodynamics and cytokines on leukocyte adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM) and subsequent accumulation of leukocyte-derived foam cells in the artery wall. However, a comprehensive mechanobiological model to capture these spatiotemporal events and predict the growth and remodeling of an atherosclerotic artery is still lacking. Here, we present a multiscale model of leukocyte TEM and plaque evolution in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533757/multiscale-modeling-of-bone-healing-toward-a-systems-biology-approach
#13
REVIEW
Edoardo Borgiani, Georg N Duda, Sara Checa
Bone is a living part of the body that can, in most situations, heal itself after fracture. However, in some situations, healing may fail. Compromised conditions, such as large bone defects, aging, immuno-deficiency, or genetic disorders, might lead to delayed or non-unions. Treatment strategies for those conditions remain a clinical challenge, emphasizing the need to better understand the mechanisms behind endogenous bone regeneration. Bone healing is a complex process that involves the coordination of multiple events at different length and time scales...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513208/self-organization-of-vocabularies-under-different-interaction-orders
#14
Javier Vera
Traditionally, the formation of vocabularies has been studied by agent-based models (primarily, the naming game) in which random pairs of agents negotiate word-meaning associations at each discrete time step. This article proposes a first approximation to a novel question: To what extent is the negotiation of word-meaning associations influenced by the order in which agents interact? Automata networks provide the adequate mathematical framework to explore this question. Computer simulations suggest that on two-dimensional lattices the typical features of the formation of word-meaning associations are recovered under random schemes that update small fractions of the population at the same time; by contrast, if larger subsets of the population are updated, a periodic behavior may appear...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484606/an-agent-based-model-of-anoikis-in-the-colon-crypt-displays-novel-emergent-behaviour-consistent-with-biological-observations
#15
Tim Ingham-Dempster, Dawn C Walker, Bernard M Corfe
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality. Colon crypts are multi-cellular flask-shaped invaginations of the colonic epithelium, with stem cells at their base which support the continual turnover of the epithelium with loss of cells by anoikis from the flat mucosa. Mutations in these stem cells can become embedded in the crypts, a process that is strongly implicated in CRC initiation. We describe a computational model which includes novel features, including an accurate representation of the geometry of the crypt mouth...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481887/epidemiological-modeling-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-low-stercorarian-transmission-and-failure-of-host-adaptive-immunity-explain-the-frequency-of-mixed-infections-in-humans
#16
Nicolás Tomasini, Paula Gabriela Ragone, Sébastien Gourbière, Juan Pablo Aparicio, Patricio Diosque
People living in areas with active vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease have multiple contacts with its causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi. Reinfections by T. cruzi are possible at least in animal models leading to lower or even hardly detectable parasitaemia. In humans, although reinfections are thought to have major public health implications by increasing the risk of chronic manifestations of the disease, there is little quantitative knowledge about their frequency and the timing of parasite re-inoculation in the course of the disease...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432889/reducing-domestic-heating-demand-managing-the-impact-of-behavior-changing-feedback-devices-via-marketing
#17
Thorben Jensen, Émile J L Chappin
Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421127/using-agent-based-models-to-develop-public-policy-about-food-behaviours-future-directions-and-recommendations
#18
REVIEW
Philippe J Giabbanelli, Rik Crutzen
Most adults are overweight or obese in many western countries. Several population-level interventions on the physical, economical, political, or sociocultural environment have thus attempted to achieve a healthier weight. These interventions have involved different weight-related behaviours, such as food behaviours. Agent-based models (ABMs) have the potential to help policymakers evaluate food behaviour interventions from a systems perspective. However, fully realizing this potential involves a complex procedure starting with obtaining and analyzing data to populate the model and eventually identifying more efficient cross-sectoral policies...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419160/an-empirically-grounded-agent-based-model-for-modeling-directs-conflict-detection-and-resolution-operations-in-air-traffic-management
#19
Christian Bongiorno, Salvatore Miccichè, Rosario N Mantegna
We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416219/displacement-of-sexual-partnerships-in-trials-of-sexual-behavior-interventions-a-model-based-assessment-of-consequences
#20
Alethea W McCormick, Nadia N Abuelezam, Thomas Fussell, George R Seage, Marc Lipsitch
We investigated the impact of the displacement of sexual activity from adherent recipients of an intervention to others within or outside a trial population on the results from hypothetical trials of different sexual behavior interventions. A short-term model of HIV-prevention interventions that lead to female rejection of male partnership requests showed the impact of displacement expected at the start of a trial. An agent-based model, with sexual mixing and other South African specific demographics, evaluated consequences of displacement for sexual behavior interventions targeting young females in South Africa...
April 2, 2017: Epidemics
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