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"Agent based model"

Mohammad Mamunur Rahman, Yusheng Feng, Thomas E Yankeelov, J Tinsley Oden
Most biological systems encountered in living organisms involve highly complex heterogeneous multi-component structures that exhibit different physical, chemical, and biological behavior at different spatial and temporal scales. The development of predictive mathematical and computational models of multiscale events in such systems is a major challenge in contemporary computational biomechanics, particularly the development of models of growing tumors in humans. The aim of this study is to develop a general framework for tumor growth prediction by considering major biological events at tissue, cellular, and subcellular scales...
June 15, 2017: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
Gina L Tonn, Seth D Guikema
Although individual behavior plays a major role in community flood risk, traditional flood risk models generally do not capture information on how community policies and individual decisions impact the evolution of flood risk over time. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the temporal aspects of flood risk through a combined analysis of the behavioral, engineering, and physical hazard aspects of flood risk. Additionally, the study aims to develop a new modeling approach for integrating behavior, policy, flood hazards, and engineering interventions...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Yanli Wang, Wing-Cheong Lo, Ching-Shan Chou
Budding yeast, which undergoes polarized growth during budding and mating, has been a useful model system to study cell polarization. Bud sites are selected differently in haploid and diploid yeast cells: haploid cells bud in an axial manner, while diploid cells bud in a bipolar manner. While previous studies have been focused on the molecular details of the bud site selection and polarity establishment, not much is known about how different budding patterns give rise to different functions at the population level...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Anna K Barker, Oguzhan Alagoz, Nasia Safdar
Background: Despite intensified efforts to reduce hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (C. difficile; HO-CDI), its clinical and economic impacts continue to worsen. Many institutions have adopted bundled interventions that vary considerably in composition, strength of evidence, and effectiveness. Considerable gaps remain in our knowledge of intervention effectiveness and disease transmission, which hinders HO-CDI prevention. Methods: We developed an agent-based model of C...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Tomoko Sakiyama
The droplets of a set of ants were studied while they constructed a bridge. A droplet is a group of ants derived from a larger group. Several experimental studies have revealed the droplet dynamics of ants that resemble the self-organising characteristics that are displayed in their physico-chemical systems. However, little is known regarding how these typical behaviours emerge from individual decision-making. In this study, I developed an agent-based model where artificial ants aggregated, thereby resulting in chain and droplet growth...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel Conroy-Beam
Three studies tested the hypothesis that human mate choice psychology uses a Euclidean algorithm to integrate mate preferences into estimates of mate value. In Study 1, a series of agent-based models identify a pattern of results relatively unique to mating markets where individuals high in Euclidean mate value experience greater power of choice: strong preference fulfillment overall and correlations between mate value and (a) preference fulfillment, (b) ideal standards, and (c) partner mate value. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that this pattern of results that emerges in human romantic relationships, is specific to mate value as a long-term partner, and is not accounted for by participant biases...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Thomas Kistemann, Jürgen Schweikart
The (re)-discovery of the spatial dimension in many sciences has been guided for some time under the designation "spatial turn". Immense progress in geographic information sciences (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), remote sensing and computer-aided cartography, in addition to geostatistical methods such as spatial distribution analysis and trend analysis, multi-level analysis, spatial data-mining and agent-based modelling, has created entirely new opportunities for spatial analysis and the modelling of spatial, health-relevant processes...
October 27, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Md Zahangir Alam, S M Niaz Arifin, Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Mohammad Shafiul Alam, M Sohel Rahman
BACKGROUND: Malaria, being a mosquito-borne infectious disease, is still one of the most devastating global health issues. The malaria vector Anopheles vagus is widely distributed in Asia and a dominant vector in Bandarban, Bangladesh. However, despite its wide distribution, no agent based model (ABM) of An. vagus has yet been developed. Additionally, its response to combined vector control interventions has not been examined. METHODS: A spatial ABM, denoted as ABM[Formula: see text], was designed and implemented based on the biological attributes of An...
October 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
André Grow, Christine Schnor, Jan Van Bavel
Recent evidence from the United States suggests that the reversal of the gender gap in education was associated with changes in relative divorce risks: hypogamous marriages, where the wife was more educated than the husband, used to have a higher divorce risk than hypergamous marriages, where the husband was more educated, but this difference has disappeared. One interpretation holds that this may result from cultural change, involving increasing social acceptance of hypogamy. We propose an alternative mechanism that need not presuppose cultural change: the gender-gap reversal in education has changed the availability of alternatives from which highly educated women and men can choose new partners...
October 2017: Population Studies
Jonathan Gray, Jason Hilton, Jakub Bijak
This paper investigates the issues associated with choosing appropriate models of choice for demographic agent-based models. In particular, we discuss the importance of context, time preference, and dealing with uncertainty in decision modelling, as well as the heterogeneity between agents in their decision-making strategies. The paper concludes by advocating empirically driven, modular, and multi-model approaches to designing simulations of human decision-making, given the lack of an agreed strategy for dealing with any of these issues...
October 2017: Population Studies
Mario Ceresa, Andy L Olivares, Silvia Fernandez Suelves, Jerome Noailly, Miguel A Gonzalez Ballester
This work presents a multi-scale agent-based model of emphysema progression that includes both the slow action of the immune system and the fast action of force redistribution and fracture propagation of the biological tissue. The two scales are coupled because the immune response causes inflammation and adaptation, which affects the biomechanical parameters of the tissue such as his elasticity. During repeated inflammation and breathing cycles, the tissue weakens and breaks down. We found that macrophages lifespan and cytokynes diffusion ratio are the parameters that influence the outcome of the model the most...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Joseph D Butner, Vittorio Cristini, Zhihui Wang
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most commonly diagnosed form of non-invasive breast cancer, constituting 20% of all new breast cancer cases in the United States. Although non-invasive, DCIS is usually treated surgically through resection. Interestingly, long-term survival studies have shown that patient survival rates are not significantly impacted by the type or resection, indicating that increased breast conservation through minimized surgical resection may indeed be possible. This requires a greater understanding of disease development, so that clinicians may more accurately determine surgical margins which minimize patient impact while maintaining survival rates...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Sarah A Nowak, Luke Joseph Matthews, Andrew M Parker
When engaging in behaviors that may entail risks or outcomes that are unknown or uncertain, individuals often look beyond their own experiences (including past behaviors and subsequent outcomes) to consider the experiences of others in their immediate social networks. This social influence at the micro-scale (i.e., the way in which individuals are influenced by their immediate social networks) can affect change in the greater social web in such a way that social networks may have profound effects on decisionmaking at the population level...
January 2017: Rand Health Quarterly
Michail Kovanis, Ludovic Trinquart, Philippe Ravaud, Raphaël Porcher
The debate on whether the peer-review system is in crisis has been heated recently. A variety of alternative systems have been proposed to improve the system and make it sustainable. However, we lack sufficient evidence and data related to these issues. Here we used a previously developed agent-based model of the scientific publication and peer-review system calibrated with empirical data to compare the efficiency of five alternative peer-review systems with the conventional system. We modelled two systems of immediate publication, with and without online reviews (crowdsourcing), a system with only one round of reviews and revisions allowed (re-review opt-out) and two review-sharing systems in which rejected manuscripts are resubmitted along with their past reviews to any other journal (portable) or to only those of the same publisher but of lower impact factor (cascade)...
2017: Scientometrics
Simone Righi, Károly Takács
It is not easy to rationalize how peer review, as the current grassroots of science, can work based on voluntary contributions of reviewers. There is no rationale to write impartial and thorough evaluations. If reviewers are unmotivated to carefully select high quality contributions, there is no risk in submitting low-quality work by authors. As a result, scientists face a social dilemma: if everyone acts according to his or her own self-interest, the outcome is low scientific quality. We examine how the increased relevance of public good benefits (journal impact factor), the editorial policy of handling incoming reviews, and the acceptance decisions that take into account reputational information, can help the evolution of high-quality contributions from authors...
2017: Scientometrics
Sen Li, Linda Juhász-Horváth, László Pintér, Mark D A Rounsevell, Paula A Harrison
Impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic change on agricultural land systems are inherently uncertain. The role of regional and local-level actors is critical in developing effective policy responses that accommodate such uncertainty in a flexible and informed way across governance levels. This study identified potential regional challenges in arable land use systems, which may arise from climate and socio-economic change for two counties in western Hungary: Veszprém and Tolna. An empirically-grounded, agent-based model was developed from an extensive farmer household survey about local land use practices...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jo-An Atkinson, Dylan Knowles, John Wiggers, Michael Livingston, Robin Room, Ante Prodan, Geoff McDonnell, Eloise O'Donnell, Sandra Jones, Paul S Haber, David Muscatello, Nadine Ezard, Nghi Phung, Louise Freebairn, Devon Indig, Lucie Rychetnik, Jaithri Ananthapavan, Sonia Wutzke
OBJECTIVES: Alcohol misuse is a complex systemic problem. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a transparent and participatory agent-based modelling approach to develop a robust decision support tool to test alcohol policy scenarios before they are implemented in the real world. METHODS: A consortium of Australia's leading alcohol experts was engaged to collaboratively develop an agent-based model of alcohol consumption behaviour and related harms...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
Huihui Wang, Jiarui Zhang, Weihua Zeng
Rapid urbanization and population growth have resulted in serious water shortage and pollution of the aquatic environment, which are important reasons for the complex increase in environmental deterioration in the region. This study examines the environmental consequences and economic impacts of water resource shortages under variant economic policies; however, this requires complex models that jointly consider variant agents and sectors within a systems perspective. Thus, we propose a complex system model that couples multi-agent based models (ABM) and system dynamics (SD) models to simulate the impact of alternative economic policies on water use and pricing...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Faisal Riaz, Muaz A Niazi
This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented...
2017: PloS One
Ruoyan Sun, David Mendez
We investigated the impact of peers' opinions on the smoking initiation process among adolescents. We applied the Continuous Opinions and Discrete Actions (CODA) model to study how social interactions change adolescents' opinions and behaviors about smoking. Through agent-based modeling (ABM), we simulated a population of 2500 adolescents and compared smoking prevalence to data from 9 cohorts of adolescents in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from year 2001 till 2014. Our model adjusts well for NSDUH data according to pseudo R2 values, which are at least 96%...
2017: PloS One
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