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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533757/multiscale-modeling-of-bone-healing-toward-a-systems-biology-approach
#1
REVIEW
Edoardo Borgiani, Georg N Duda, Sara Checa
Bone is a living part of the body that can, in most situations, heal itself after fracture. However, in some situations, healing may fail. Compromised conditions, such as large bone defects, aging, immuno-deficiency, or genetic disorders, might lead to delayed or non-unions. Treatment strategies for those conditions remain a clinical challenge, emphasizing the need to better understand the mechanisms behind endogenous bone regeneration. Bone healing is a complex process that involves the coordination of multiple events at different length and time scales...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513208/self-organization-of-vocabularies-under-different-interaction-orders
#2
Javier Vera
Traditionally, the formation of vocabularies has been studied by agent-based models (primarily, the naming game) in which random pairs of agents negotiate word-meaning associations at each discrete time step. This article proposes a first approximation to a novel question: To what extent is the negotiation of word-meaning associations influenced by the order in which agents interact? Automata networks provide the adequate mathematical framework to explore this question. Computer simulations suggest that on two-dimensional lattices the typical features of the formation of word-meaning associations are recovered under random schemes that update small fractions of the population at the same time; by contrast, if larger subsets of the population are updated, a periodic behavior may appear...
May 17, 2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484606/an-agent-based-model-of-anoikis-in-the-colon-crypt-displays-novel-emergent-behaviour-consistent-with-biological-observations
#3
Tim Ingham-Dempster, Dawn C Walker, Bernard M Corfe
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality. Colon crypts are multi-cellular flask-shaped invaginations of the colonic epithelium, with stem cells at their base which support the continual turnover of the epithelium with loss of cells by anoikis from the flat mucosa. Mutations in these stem cells can become embedded in the crypts, a process that is strongly implicated in CRC initiation. We describe a computational model which includes novel features, including an accurate representation of the geometry of the crypt mouth...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481887/epidemiological-modeling-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-low-stercorarian-transmission-and-failure-of-host-adaptive-immunity-explain-the-frequency-of-mixed-infections-in-humans
#4
Nicolás Tomasini, Paula Gabriela Ragone, Sébastien Gourbière, Juan Pablo Aparicio, Patricio Diosque
People living in areas with active vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease have multiple contacts with its causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi. Reinfections by T. cruzi are possible at least in animal models leading to lower or even hardly detectable parasitaemia. In humans, although reinfections are thought to have major public health implications by increasing the risk of chronic manifestations of the disease, there is little quantitative knowledge about their frequency and the timing of parasite re-inoculation in the course of the disease...
May 8, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432889/reducing-domestic-heating-demand-managing-the-impact-of-behavior-changing-feedback-devices-via-marketing
#5
Thorben Jensen, Émile J L Chappin
Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421127/using-agent-based-models-to-develop-public-policy-about-food-behaviours-future-directions-and-recommendations
#6
REVIEW
Philippe J Giabbanelli, Rik Crutzen
Most adults are overweight or obese in many western countries. Several population-level interventions on the physical, economical, political, or sociocultural environment have thus attempted to achieve a healthier weight. These interventions have involved different weight-related behaviours, such as food behaviours. Agent-based models (ABMs) have the potential to help policymakers evaluate food behaviour interventions from a systems perspective. However, fully realizing this potential involves a complex procedure starting with obtaining and analyzing data to populate the model and eventually identifying more efficient cross-sectoral policies...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419160/an-empirically-grounded-agent-based-model-for-modeling-directs-conflict-detection-and-resolution-operations-in-air-traffic-management
#7
Christian Bongiorno, Salvatore Miccichè, Rosario N Mantegna
We present an agent based model of the Air Traffic Management socio-technical complex system aiming at modeling the interactions between aircraft and air traffic controllers at a tactical level. The core of the model is given by the conflict detection and resolution module and by the directs module. Directs are flight shortcuts that are given by air controllers to speed up the passage of an aircraft within a certain airspace and therefore to facilitate airline operations. Conflicts between flight trajectories can occur for two main reasons: either the planning of the flight trajectory was not sufficiently detailed to rule out all potential conflicts or unforeseen events during the flight require modifications of the flight plan that can conflict with other flight trajectories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416219/displacement-of-sexual-partnerships-in-trials-of-sexual-behavior-interventions-a-model-based-assessment-of-consequences
#8
Alethea W McCormick, Nadia N Abuelezam, Thomas Fussell, George R Seage, Marc Lipsitch
We investigated the impact of the displacement of sexual activity from adherent recipients of an intervention to others within or outside a trial population on the results from hypothetical trials of different sexual behavior interventions. A short-term model of HIV-prevention interventions that lead to female rejection of male partnership requests showed the impact of displacement expected at the start of a trial. An agent-based model, with sexual mixing and other South African specific demographics, evaluated consequences of displacement for sexual behavior interventions targeting young females in South Africa...
April 2, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415187/poverty-index-with-time-varying-consumption-and-income-distributions
#9
Amit K Chattopadhyay, T Krishna Kumar, Sushanta K Mallick
Starting from a stochastic agent-based model to represent market exchange in a developing economy, we study time variations of the probability density function of income with simultaneous variation of the consumption deprivation (CD), where CD represents the shortfall in consumption from the saturation level of an essential commodity, cereal. Together, these two models combine income-expenditure-based market dynamics with time variations in consumption due to income. In this new unified theoretical structure, exchange of trade in assets is only allowed when the income exceeds consumption-deprivation while CD itself is endogenously obtained from a separate kinetic model...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410760/deconstructing-the-relative-benefits-of-a-universal-glove-and-gown-intervention-on-mrsa-acquisition
#10
A D Harris, D J Morgan, L Pineles, E N Perencevich, S L Barnes
BACKGROUND: The 20-site Benefits of Universal Glove and Gown (BUGG) study found that wearing gloves and gowns for all patient contacts in the intensive care unit (ICU) reduced acquisition rates of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The relative importance of gloves and gowns as a barrier, improved hand hygiene, and reduced healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contact rates is unknown. AIM: To determine what proportion of the reduction in acquisition rates observed in the BUGG study was due to improved hand hygiene, reduced contact rates, and universal glove and gown use using agent-based simulation modelling...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408892/conceptualizing-the-dynamics-between-bicultural-identification-and-personal-social-networks
#11
Lydia Repke, Verónica Benet-Martínez
An adequate understanding of the acculturation processes affecting immigrants and their descendants involves ascertaining the dynamic interplay between the way these individuals manage their multiple (and sometimes conflictual) cultural value systems and identifications and possible changes in their social networks. To fill this gap, the present research examines how key acculturation variables (e.g., strength of ethnic/host cultural identifications, bicultural identity integration or BII) relate to the composition and structure of bicultural individuals' personal social networks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406935/micro-level-explanations-for-emergent-patterns-of-self-governance-arrangements-in-small-scale-fisheries-a-modeling-approach
#12
Emilie Lindkvist, Xavier Basurto, Maja Schlüter
Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in developing countries are expected to play a significant role in poverty alleviation and enhancing food security in the decades to come. To realize this expectation, a better understanding of their informal self-governance arrangements is critical for developing policies that can improve fishers' livelihoods and lead to sustainable ecosystem stewardship. The goal of this paper is to develop a more nuanced understanding of micro-level factors-such as fishers' characteristics and behavior-to explain observed differences in self-governance arrangements in Northwest Mexico...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405381/a-model-of-urban-scaling-laws-based-on-distance-dependent-interactions
#13
Fabiano L Ribeiro, Joao Meirelles, Fernando F Ferreira, Camilo Rodrigues Neto
Socio-economic related properties of a city grow faster than a linear relationship with the population, in a log-log plot, the so-called superlinear scaling. Conversely, the larger a city, the more efficient it is in the use of its infrastructure, leading to a sublinear scaling on these variables. In this work, we addressed a simple explanation for those scaling laws in cities based on the interaction range between the citizens and on the fractal properties of the cities. To this purpose, we introduced a measure of social potential which captured the influence of social interaction on the economic performance and the benefits of amenities in the case of infrastructure offered by the city...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402385/does-choice-of-influenza-vaccine-type-change-disease-burden-and-cost-effectiveness-in-the-united-states-an-agent-based-modeling-study
#14
Jay V DePasse, Kenneth J Smith, Jonathan M Raviotta, Eunha Shim, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Richard K Zimmerman, Shawn T Brown
Offering a choice of influenza vaccine type may increase vaccine coverage and reduce disease burden, but it is more costly. This study calculated the public health impact and cost-effectiveness of 4 strategies: no choice, pediatric choice, adult choice, or choice for both age groups. Using agent-based modeling, individuals were simulated as they interacted with others, and influenza was tracked as it spread through a population in Washington, DC. Influenza vaccination coverage derived from data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was increased by 6...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384572/assessing-surface-water-flood-risk-and-management-strategies-under-future-climate-change-insights-from-an-agent-based-model
#15
K Jenkins, S Surminski, J Hall, F Crick
Climate change and increasing urbanization are projected to result in an increase in surface water flooding and consequential damages in the future. In this paper, we present insights from a novel Agent Based Model (ABM), applied to a London case study of surface water flood risk, designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options; how risk reduction could be achieved by homeowners and government; and the role of flood insurance and the new flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382639/adaptive-anchoring-model-how-static-and-dynamic-presentations-of-time-series-influence-judgments-and-predictions
#16
Petko Kusev, Paul van Schaik, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Asgeir Juliusson, Nick Chater
When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping (modeled by anchoring on, and insufficient adjustment from, the average of recent time series values). Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially (dynamic mode), or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously (static mode), not experienced individually in real time...
April 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370771/toll-like-receptor-variation-in-the-bottlenecked-population-of-the-seychelles-warbler-computer-simulations-see-the-ghost-of-selection-past-and-quantify-the-drift-debt
#17
Danielle Gilroy, Karl Phillips, David S Richardson, Cock van Oosterhout
Balancing selection can maintain immunogenetic variation within host populations, but detecting its signal in a post-bottlenecked population is challenging due to the potentially overriding effects of drift. Toll-like receptor genes (TLRs) play a fundamental role in vertebrate immune defence and are predicted to be under balancing selection. We previously characterised variation at TLR loci in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), an endemic passerine that has undergone a historical bottleneck...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365845/assessing-the-effects-of-rural-livelihood-transition-on-non-point-source-pollution-a-coupled-abm-iecm-model
#18
Chengcheng Yuan, Liming Liu, Jinwei Ye, Guoping Ren, Dong Zhuo, Xiaoxing Qi
Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365293/a-unified-inter-host-and-in-host-model-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-infection-spread-in-a-hospital-ward
#19
Lester Caudill, Barry Lawson
As the battle continues against hospital-acquired infections and the concurrent rise in antibiotic resistance among many of the major causative pathogens, there is a dire need to conduct controlled experiments, in order to compare proposed control strategies. However, cost, time, and ethical considerations make this evaluation strategy either impractical or impossible to implement with living patients. This paper presents a multi-scale model that offers promise as the basis for a tool to simulate these (and other) controlled experiments...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349573/where-is-the-dialectic-in-the-community-diversity-dialectic
#20
Jean L Hill
Agent-based modeling has provided some interesting investigations of the hypothesis that there is a dialectical relationship between sense of community and diversity. A close look at those models strongly suggests that only models in which the attributes of agents are fixed completely support that hypothesis. Models which acknowledge that diversity is contextually defined, and thus changeable, suggest that there is no inherent dialectical relationship between the two values. Rather, it is the context of the setting, the way in which the setting is socially constructed, that determines whether a strong sense of community can exist in highly diverse settings...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
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