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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772780/the-radon-gas-in-underground-buildings-in-clay-soils-the-plaza-balmis-shelter-as-a-paradigm
#1
Carlos Rizo Maestre, Víctor Echarri Iribarren
In healthy buildings, it is considered essential to quantify air quality. One of the most fashionable indicators is radon gas. To determine the presence of this element, which is harmful to health, in the environment, the composition of the soil is studied. The presence of radon gas within a building depends both on the terrain in which it is located and on the composition of the materials of which it is composed, and not as was previously believed, only by the composition of the soil (whether granitic or not)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757265/application-and-comparison-of-the-modis-derived-enhanced-vegetation-index-to-viirs-landsat-5-tm-and-landsat-8-oli-platforms-a-case-study-in-the-arid-colorado-river-delta-mexico
#2
Christopher J Jarchow, Kamel Didan, Armando Barreto-Muñoz, Pamela L Nagler, Edward P Glenn
The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) is a key Earth science parameter used to assess vegetation, originally developed and calibrated for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. With the impending decommissioning of the MODIS sensors by the year 2020/2022, alternative platforms will need to be used to estimate EVI. We compared Landsat 5 (2000⁻2011), 8 (2013⁻2016) and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2013⁻2016) to MODIS EVI (2000⁻2016) over a 420,083-ha area of the arid lower Colorado River Delta in Mexico...
May 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751304/heavy-metal-loss-from-agricultural-watershed-to-aquatic-system-a-scientometrics-review
#3
REVIEW
Wei Ouyang, Yidi Wang, Chunye Lin, Mengchang He, Fanghua Hao, Hongbin Liu, Weihong Zhu
Heavy metal pollution in soil and aquatic environments has attracted widespread attention due to its persistence, accumulation in the food chain and negative effects on ecological and human health. However, analyses of the watershed-scale migration mechanisms of heavy metal loss from agricultural systems to aquatic systems have seldom been studied systematically. Therefore, this review summarizes the available data in the literature (2003-2017) using CiteSpace software to provide insights into the specific characteristics of heavy metal loss from agricultural watersheds to aquatic systems and consequently shows global development trends that scientists can use for establishing future research directions...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745173/-silver-nanoparticles-in-natural-water-environment-source-analysis-and-transformation
#4
Yue Suo Yang, Chen Wang, Xue Mei Yuan, Chang Wei An, Xin Yao Yang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as one of the most widely used metal nanomaterials can enter soil and water environment via various pathways, exert toxicity on water-borne organisms and deteriorate the aquatic eco-environment. With complex composition of natural water, the physicochemical property of AgNPs as nano materials makes their transformation process more complicated in water system. Therefore, understanding of the fate and transport of AgNPs in aqueous environment is extremely important for water quality management and protection of the eco-environment...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702653/efficacy-and-safety-of-co-administered-ivermectin-plus-albendazole-for-treating-soil-transmitted-helminths-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-individual-patient-data-analysis
#5
Marta S Palmeirim, Eveline Hürlimann, Stefanie Knopp, Benjamin Speich, Vicente Belizario, Serene A Joseph, Michel Vaillant, Piero Olliaro, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms infect 1.5 billion people worldwide and cause an estimated burden of 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Current control strategies focus on morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy (PC) but the most commonly used recommended drugs (albendazole and mebendazole) are particularly inefficacious against T. trichiura. This, together with the threat of emerging drug resistance, calls for new control strategies, including co-administration with other anthelminthics...
April 27, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696912/-effect-of-agricultural-application-of-municipal-sewage-sludge-on-plant-soil-system-a-review
#6
Meng Jiao Liu, Shao Pan Xia, Jun Wang, Qing Xu Ma, Zhong Qiang Wang, Liang Huan Wu
Currently, reasonable disposal of municipal sewage sludge is one of the important issues in the field of resources and environmental science. Sludge is rich in large amounts of organic matter and available nutrients, promoting soil fertility, soil physical structure and biological properties. However, sludge contains a variety of heavy metals, organic contaminants and other hazardous substance, especially heavy metals, which are the bottlenecks of agricultural application of sludge. To improve the sewage sludge utilization efficiency and decrease the effect on soil, this essay made a summary on domestic and foreign studies on plant-soil interaction ecosystem with sewage sludge to provide a theoretical basis and scientific guidance for advancing sewage sludge utilization efficiency...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691715/influence-of-sewage-sludge-as-a-substrate-in-the-plasticity-of-functional-characteristics-of-plants
#7
Vicente Elício Porfiro Sales Gonçalves da Silva, Patrícia Marques Carneiro Buarque, Wanessa Nepomuceno Ferreira, Hugo Leonardo de Brito Buarque, Maria Amanda Menezes Silva
This work aimed to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge application as fertilizer on the plasticity of functional characteristics of species commonly found in the Caatinga. The research was developed in the nursery of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará (IFCE), Quixadá campus, located in northeastern Brazil. Three treatments were applied: raw sludge, sanitized sludge, and no manipulation. In each treatment, five species were planted, each with five individuals, totaling 75 individuals, which were tagged, and 4 months after germination, they were destroyed to obtain dry matter content (TMSF) from leaf, stem (TMSC), fine root (TMSRF), and thick root (TMSRG); leaf area; height and diameter of the seedling; and length above and below the ground...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676648/global-tobacco-use-old-and-new-products
#8
Ana Navas-Acien
Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke remain major but avoidable causes of premature mortality and disease worldwide. Although the age-standardized prevalence of daily smoking has declined for both men and women in many countries, the number of smokers continues to increase because of global population growth. Although cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product, the tobacco epidemic has become tremendously complex with the emergence and popularity of alternative products such as waterpipes and electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes)...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675816/brc4env-a-network-of-biological-resource-centres-for-research-in-environmental-and-agricultural-sciences
#9
Christian Mougin, Emmanuelle Artige, Frédéric Marchand, Samuel Mondy, Céline Ratié, Nadine Sellier, Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Armelle Cœur D'Acier, Daniel Esmenjaud, Céline Faivre-Primot, Laurent Granjon, Valérie Hamelet, Frederic Lange, Sylvie Pagès, Frédéric Rimet, Nicolas Ris, Guillaume Sallé
The Biological Resource Centre for the Environment BRC4Env is a network of Biological Resource Centres (BRCs) and collections whose leading objectives are to improve the visibility of genetic and biological resources maintained by its BRCs and collections and to facilitate their use by a large research community, from agriculture research to life sciences and environmental sciences. Its added value relies on sharing skills, harmonizing practices, triggering projects in comparative biology, and ultimately proposing a single-entry portal to facilitate access to documented samples, taking into account the partnership policies of research institutions as well as the legal frame which varies with the biological nature of resources...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673735/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-triple-drug-therapy-with-albendazole-pyrantel-pamoate-and-oxantel-pamoate-compared-with-albendazole-plus-oxantel-pamoate-pyrantel-pamoate-plus-oxantel-pamoate-and-mebendazole-plus-pyrantel-pamoate-and-oxantel-pamoate-against-hookworm
#10
Wendelin Moser, Somphou Sayasone, Syda Xayavong, Bangon Bounheuang, Maxim Puchkov, Jörg Huwyler, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Albendazole and mebendazole are commonly used to control hookworm, but have shortcomings in their efficacy profiles. We assessed whether triple drug therapy (TDT) with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and oxantel pamoate was more effective than the co-administration of two drugs for the treatment of hookworm infections. METHODS: A randomised, single-blind trial was done from Sept 27 until Nov 17, 2017, in Laos. Children (6-15 years) from six schools were invited to participate...
April 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660731/remediation-of-multiple-heavy-metal-contaminated-soil-through-the-combination-of-soil-washing-and-in-situ-immobilization
#11
Xiuqing Zhai, Zhongwu Li, Bin Huang, Ninglin Luo, Mei Huang, Qiu Zhang, Guangming Zeng
The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils is a great challenge for global environmental sciences and engineering. To control the ecological risks of heavy metal-contaminated soil more effectively, the present study focused on the combination of soil washing (with FeCl3 ) and in situ immobilization (with lime, biochar, and black carbon). The results showed that the removal rate of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu was 62.9%, 52.1%, 30.0%, and 16.7%, respectively, when washed with FeCl3 . After the combined remediation (immobilization with 1% (w/w) lime), the contaminated soils showed 36...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652811/spatial-distribution-of-stony-desertification-and-key-influencing-factors-on-different-sampling-scales-in-small-karst-watersheds
#12
Zhenming Zhang, Yunchao Zhou, Shijie Wang, Xianfei Huang
Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS) technology and geo-statistics...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574351/soil-chemistry-changes-beneath-decomposing-cadavers-over-a-one-year-period
#13
Ildikó Szelecz, Isabelle Koenig, Christophe V W Seppey, Renée-Claire Le Bayon, Edward A D Mitchell
Decomposing vertebrate cadavers release large, localized inputs of nutrients. These temporally limited resource patches affect nutrient cycling and soil organisms. The impact of decomposing cadavers on soil chemistry is relevant to soil biology, as a natural disturbance, and forensic science, to estimate the postmortem interval. However, cadaver impacts on soils are rarely studied, making it difficult to identify common patterns. We investigated the effects of decomposing pig cadavers (Sus scrofa domesticus) on soil chemistry (pH, ammonium, nitrate, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and carbon) over a one-year period in a spruce-dominant forest...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570040/chemical-warfare-in-colombia-evidentiary-ecologies-and-senti-actuando-practices-of-justice
#14
Kristina Lyons
Between 1994 and 2015, militarized aerial fumigation was a central component of US-Colombia antidrug policy. Crop duster planes sprayed a concentrated formula of Monsanto's herbicide, glyphosate, over illicit crops, and also forests, soils, pastures, livestock, watersheds, subsistence food and human bodies. Given that a national peace agreement was signed in 2016 between FARC-EP guerrillas and the state to end Colombia's over five decades of war, certain government officials are quick to proclaim aerial fumigation of glyphosate an issue of the past...
March 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553912/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-methods-for-evaluating-soil-arsenic-bioavailability-relevant-to-human-health-risk-assessment
#15
Karen D Bradham, Gary L Diamond, Michele Burgess, Albert Juhasz, Julie M Klotzbach, Mark Maddaloni, Clay Nelson, Kirk Scheckel, Sophia M Serda, Marc Stifelman, David J Thomas
Arsenic (As) is the most frequently occurring contaminant on the priority list of hazardous substances, which lists substances of greatest public health concern to people living at or near U.S. National Priorities List site. Accurate assessment of human health risks from exposure to As-contaminated soils depends on estimating its bioavailability, defined as the fraction of ingested As absorbed across the gastrointestinal barrier and available for systemic distribution and metabolism. Arsenic bioavailability varies among soils and is influenced by site-specific soil physical and chemical characteristics and internal biological factors...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546234/comment-on-climate-legacies-drive-global-soil-carbon-stocks-in-terrestrial-ecosystems
#16
Jonathan Sanderman
Delgado-Baquerizo et al . ( Science Advances , 12 April 2017, e1602008) use statistical correlations to infer that paleoclimate (6000 to 22,000 years ago) is a more important driver of current soil organic carbon stocks than the current-day climate. On the other hand, a wealth of radiocarbon measurements indicates that the organic carbon in most topsoils is only a few decades to perhaps a few centuries old. These seemingly incongruous results can perhaps be reconciled by considering that the long-term pedogenic development of a soil strongly influences the physiochemical properties, which lead to stabilization of new carbon entering that soil regardless of current climate...
March 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526265/soil-forensics-how-far-can-soil-clay-analysis-distinguish-between-soil-vestiges
#17
R S Corrêa, V F Melo, G G F Abreu, M H Sousa, J A Chaker, J A Gomes
Soil traces are useful as forensic evidences because they frequently adhere to individuals and objects associated with crimes and can place or discard a suspect at/from a crime scene. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic components and among them soil clay contains signatures that make it reliable as forensic evidence. In this study, we hypothesized that soils can be forensically distinguished through the analysis of their clay fraction alone, and that samples of the same soil type can be consistently distinguished according to the distance they were collected from each other...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505723/detection-and-quantification-of-graphene-family-nanomaterials-in-the-environment
#18
David G Goodwin, Adeyemi S Adeleye, Lipiin Sung, Kay T Ho, Robert M Burgess, Elijah J Petersen
An increase in production of commercial products containing graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) has led to concern over their release into the environment. The fate and potential ecotoxicological effects of GFNs in the environment are currently unclear, partially due to the limited analytical methods for GFN measurements. In this review, the unique properties of GFNs that are useful for their detection and quantification are discussed. The capacity of several classes of techniques to identify and/or quantify GFNs in different environmental matrices (water, soil, sediment, and organisms), after environmental transformations, and after release from a polymer matrix of a product is evaluated...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503668/recent-strategies-of-increasing-metal-tolerance-and-phytoremediation-potential-using-genetic-transformation-of-plants
#19
REVIEW
Aleksandra Koźmińska, Alina Wiszniewska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Ewa Muszyńska
Avoidance and reduction of soil contamination with heavy metals is one of the most serious global challenges. Nowadays, science offers us new opportunities of utilizing plants to extract toxic elements from the soil by means of phytoremediation. Plant abilities to uptake, translocate, and transform heavy metals, as well as to limit their toxicity, may be significantly enhanced via genetic engineering. This paper provides a comprehensive review of recent strategies aimed at the improvement of plant phytoremediation potential using plant transformation and employing current achievements in nuclear and cytoplasmic genome transformation...
2018: Plant Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502209/delineation-of-contaminant-plume-for-an-inorganic-contaminated-site-using-electrical-resistivity-tomography-comparison-with-direct-push-technique
#20
Qing Liao, Yaping Deng, Xiaoqing Shi, Yuanyuan Sun, Weidong Duan, Jichun Wu
Precise delineation of contaminant plume distribution is essential for effective remediation of contaminated sites. Traditional in situ investigation methods like direct-push (DP) sampling are accurate, but are usually intrusive and costly. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, as a non-invasive geophysical technique to map spatiotemporal changes in resistivity of the subsurface, is becoming increasingly popular in environmental science. However, the resolution of ERT for delineation of contaminant plumes still remains controversial...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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