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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739294/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-female-reproductive-health-a-scoping-review
#1
REVIEW
Ashley L Bolden, Johanna R Rochester, Kim Schultz, Carol F Kwiatkowski
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of common persistent environmental pollutants found in water, air, soil, and plants and can be released by natural sources. However, the majority of atmospheric PAHs are from vehicular emissions, coal-burning plants, and the production and use of petroleum-derived substances. Exposure to PAHs has been implicated in cancer and other diseases, including reproductive disorders. This scoping review is a preliminary step that explores the utility and feasibility of completing a systematic review evaluating the effect of PAHs on female reproduction...
July 21, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738262/systematic-review-of-community-health-impacts-of-mountaintop-removal-mining
#2
REVIEW
Abee L Boyles, Robyn B Blain, Johanna R Rochester, Raghavendhran Avanasi, Susan B Goldhaber, Sofie McComb, Stephanie D Holmgren, Scott A Masten, Kristina A Thayer
BACKGROUND: The objective of this evaluation is to understand the human health impacts of mountaintop removal (MTR) mining, the major method of coal mining in and around Central Appalachia. MTR mining impacts the air, water, and soil and raises concerns about potential adverse health effects in neighboring communities; exposures associated with MTR mining include particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, hydrogen sulfide, and other recognized harmful substances...
July 21, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737219/impacts-of-hydraulic-redistribution-on-grass-tree-competition-vs-facilitation-in-a-semi-arid-savanna
#3
Greg A Barron-Gafford, Enrique P Sanchez-Cañete, Rebecca L Minor, Sean M Hendryx, Esther Lee, Leland F Sutter, Newton Tran, Elizabeth Parra, Tony Colella, Patrick C Murphy, Erik P Hamerlynck, Praveen Kumar, Russell L Scott
A long-standing ambition in ecosystem science has been to understand the relationship between ecosystem community composition, structure and function. Differential water use and hydraulic redistribution have been proposed as one mechanism that might allow for the coexistence of overstory woody plants and understory grasses. Here, we investigated how patterns of hydraulic redistribution influence overstory and understory ecophysiological function and how patterns vary across timescales of an individual precipitation event to an entire growing season...
July 24, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725218/all-new-faces-of-diatoms-potential-source-of-nanomaterials-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Meerambika Mishra, Ananta P Arukha, Tufail Bashir, Dhananjay Yadav, G B K S Prasad
Nature's silicon marvel, the diatoms have lately astounded the scientific community with its intricate designs and lasting durability. Diatoms are a major group of phytoplanktons involved in the biogeochemical cycling of silica and are virtually inherent in every environment ranging from water to ice to soil. The usage of diatoms has proved prudently cost effective and its handling neither requires costly materials nor sophisticated instruments. Diatoms can easily be acquired from the environment, their culture requires ambient condition and does not involve any costly media or expensive instruments, besides, they can be transported in small quantities and proliferated to a desirable confluence from that scratch, thus are excellent cost effective industrial raw material...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724228/a-new-method-for-correlation-analysis-of-compositional-environmental-data-a-worked-example
#5
C Reimann, P Filzmoser, K Hron, P Kynčlová, R G Garrett
Most data in environmental sciences and geochemistry are compositional. Already the unit used to report the data (e.g., μg/l, mg/kg, wt%) implies that the analytical results for each element are not free to vary independently of the other measured variables. This is often neglected in statistical analysis, where a simple log-transformation of the single variables is insufficient to put the data into an acceptable geometry. This is also important for bivariate data analysis and for correlation analysis, for which the data need to be appropriately log-ratio transformed...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716581/diversifying-food-systems-in-the-pursuit-of-sustainable-food-production-and-healthy-diets
#6
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Edith T Lammerts van Bueren, Salvatore Ceccarelli, Stefania Grando, Hari D Upadhyaya, Rodomiro Ortiz
Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived food, may reduce diet-related illnesses. Investments in plant sciences will be necessary to design diverse cropping systems balancing productivity, sustainability, and nutritional quality. Cultivar diversity and nutritional quality are crucial...
July 14, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709097/effects-of-land-use-and-climate-change-on-ecosystem-services-in-central-asia-s-arid-regions-a-case-study-in-altay-prefecture-china
#7
Qi Fu, Bo Li, Ying Hou, Xu Bi, Xinshi Zhang
The sustainable use of ecosystem services (ES) can contribute to enhancing human well-being. Understanding the effects of land use and climate change on ES can provide scientific and targeted guidance for the sustainable use of ES. The objective of this study was to reveal the way in which land use and climate change influence the spatial and temporal variations of ES in the mountain-oasis-desert system (MODS). In this study, we assessed water yield, soil conservation, crop production, and sand fixation in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in Altay Prefecture, which is representative of the MODS, based on widely used biophysical models...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707243/research-trends-and-hotspots-related-to-ammonia-oxidation-based-on-bibliometric-analysis
#8
Maosheng Zheng, Hui-Zhen Fu, Yuh-Shan Ho
Ammonia oxidation is the rate-limiting and central step in global biogeochemistry cycle of nitrogen. A bibliometric analysis based on 4314 articles extracted from Science Citation Index Expanded database was carried out to provide insights into publication performances and research trends of ammonia oxidation in the period 1991-2014. These articles were originated from a wide range of 602 journals and 95 Web of Science Categories, among which Applied and Environmental Microbiology and Environmental Sciences took the leading position, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671575/a-satellite-based-imaging-instrumentation-concept-for-hyperspectral-thermal-remote-sensing
#9
Thomas Udelhoven, Martin Schlerf, Karl Segl, Kaniska Mallick, Christian Bossung, Rebecca Retzlaff, Gilles Rock, Peter Fischer, Andreas Müller, Tobias Storch, Andreas Eisele, Dennis Weise, Werner Hupfer, Thiemo Knigge
This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes...
July 1, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654086/a-multiscale-dataset-for-understanding-complex-eco-hydrological-processes-in-a-heterogeneous-oasis-system
#10
Xin Li, Shaomin Liu, Qin Xiao, Mingguo Ma, Rui Jin, Tao Che, Weizhen Wang, Xiaoli Hu, Ziwei Xu, Jianguang Wen, Liangxu Wang
We introduce a multiscale dataset obtained from Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) in an oasis-desert area in 2012. Upscaling of eco-hydrological processes on a heterogeneous surface is a grand challenge. Progress in this field is hindered by the poor availability of multiscale observations. HiWATER is an experiment designed to address this challenge through instrumentation on hierarchically nested scales to obtain multiscale and multidisciplinary data. The HiWATER observation system consists of a flux observation matrix of eddy covariance towers, large aperture scintillometers, and automatic meteorological stations; an eco-hydrological sensor network of soil moisture and leaf area index; hyper-resolution airborne remote sensing using LiDAR, imaging spectrometer, multi-angle thermal imager, and L-band microwave radiometer; and synchronical ground measurements of vegetation dynamics, and photosynthesis processes...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653341/opensimroot-widening-the-scope-and-application-of-root-architectural-models
#11
Johannes A Postma, Christian Kuppe, Markus R Owen, Nathan Mellor, Marcus Griffiths, Malcolm J Bennett, Jonathan P Lynch, Michelle Watt
OpenSimRoot is an open-source, functional-structural plant model and mathematical description of root growth and function. We describe OpenSimRoot and its functionality to broaden the benefits of root modeling to the plant science community. OpenSimRoot is an extended version of SimRoot, established to simulate root system architecture, nutrient acquisition and plant growth. OpenSimRoot has a plugin, modular infrastructure, coupling single plant and crop stands to soil nutrient and water transport models. It estimates the value of root traits for water and nutrient acquisition in environments and plant species...
June 27, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642741/the-hyperarid-core-of-the-atacama-desert-an-extremely-dry-and-carbon-deprived-habitat-of-potential-interest-for-the-field-of-carbon-science
#12
Armando Azua-Bustos, Carlos González-Silva, Gino Corsini
The Atacama Desert in Chile is the driest and oldest desert on Earth, also considered one of the best Mars analog models. Here, several heterotrophic microbial communities have been discovered in its driest regions, with the ones present in the soil subsurface being one of the most interesting due to its existence in a habitat with almost no water available and almost undetectable organic carbon sources. Our recent discovery of the driest site of the Atacama known to date (and the heterotrophic microbial species that are able to survive in this site) reaffirms the opportunity to better characterize the physiological and molecular mechanisms that these species use to detect, mobilize, incorporate and use carbon under these extremely harsh conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623832/a-review-on-in-situ-phytoremediation-of-mine-tailings
#13
REVIEW
Li Wang, Bin Ji, Yuehua Hu, Runqing Liu, Wei Sun
Mine tailings are detrimental to natural plant growth due to their physicochemical characteristics, such as high pH, high salinity, low water retention capacity, high heavy metal concentrations, and deficiencies in soil organic matter and fertility. Thus, the remediation of mine tailings has become a key issue in environmental science and engineering. Phytoremediation, an in situ cost-effective technology, is emerging as the most promising remediation method for mine tailings by introducing tolerant plant species...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611464/relict-high-andean-ecosystems-challenge-our-concepts-of-naturalness-and-human-impact
#14
Steven P Sylvester, Felix Heitkamp, Mitsy D P V Sylvester, Hermann F Jungkunst, Harrie J M Sipman, Johanna M Toivonen, Carlos A Gonzales Inca, Juan C Ospina, Michael Kessler
What would current ecosystems be like without the impact of mankind? This question, which is critical for ecosystem management, has long remained unanswered due to a lack of present-day data from truly undisturbed ecosystems. Using mountaineering techniques, we accessed pristine relict ecosystems in the Peruvian Andes to provide this baseline data and compared it with the surrounding accessible and disturbed landscape. We show that natural ecosystems and human impact in the high Andes are radically different from preconceived ideas...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601018/geospatial-evaluation-of-lead-bioaccessibility-and-distribution-for-site-specific-prediction-of-threshold-limits
#15
Jennifer A Bower, Sydney Lister, Garrett Hazebrouck, Nicolas Perdrial
Recent work identified the need for site-specific Pb bioaccessibility evaluation and scaled contaminant modeling. Pb heterogeneity has made bioaccessibility characterization difficult, and complicated distribution models. Using field testing, bioaccessibility measurement, Integrated Exposure Uptake and Biokinetic (IEUBK) modeling, and geospatial techniques, we propose a framework for conducting applied risk-based, multiscale assessment. This framework was tested and implemented in Burlington, VT, an area of old housing stock and high Pb burden (up to 15 000 mg kg(-1)) derived primarily from paint...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600571/micro-scale-heterogeneity-of-soil-phosphorus-depends-on-soil-substrate-and-depth
#16
Florian Werner, Carsten W Mueller, Jürgen Thieme, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Camille Rivard, Carmen Höschen, Jörg Prietzel
Soils comprise various heterogeneously distributed pools of lithogenic, free organic, occluded, adsorbed, and precipitated phosphorus (P) forms, which differ depending on soil forming factors. Small-scale heterogeneity of element distributions recently has received increased attention in soil science due to its influence on soil functions and soil fertility. We investigated the micro-scale distribution of total P and different specific P binding forms in aggregates taken from a high-P clay-rich soil and a low-P sandy soil by combining advanced spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques to introduce new insights on P accessibility and availability in soils...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596410/genome-sequences-for-streptomyces-spp-isolated-from-disease-suppressive-soils-and-long-term-ecological-research-sites
#17
Stephen C Heinsch, Lindsey Otto-Hanson, Szu-Yi Hsu, Linda Kinkel, Michael J Smanski
We report here the high-quality genome sequences of three Streptomyces spp. isolated as part of a long-term study of microbial soil ecology. Streptomyces sp. strain GS93-23 was isolated from naturally disease-suppressive soil (DSS) in Grand Rapids, MN, and Streptomyces sp. strains S3-4 and 3211-3 were isolated from experimental plots in the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve (CCESR).
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591179/a-systematic-review-of-elephant-impact-across-africa
#18
Robert A R Guldemond, Andrew Purdon, Rudi J van Aarde
Contradictory findings among scientific studies that address a particular issue may impede the conversion of science to management implementation. A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to generate a single outcome may overcome this problem. The contentious topic of the impact that a megaherbivore such as the savanna elephant have for other species and their environment can benefit from such an approach. After some 68 years, 367 peer-reviewed papers covered the topic and 51 of these papers provided sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585590/isolation-of-potentially-pathogenic-fungi-from-selected-pigeons-feeding-sites-in-karachi-a-new-dimension-to-health-hazard
#19
Sehar Afshan Naz, Muhammad Yaseen, Nusrat Jabeen, Maryam Shafique
OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of pathogenic fungal strains in areas where pigeons are present in a large number. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, from February 2015 to March2016, and comprised samples of soil contaminated with pigeons' excreta. The samples were collected from 20 different pigeon-feeding places in the city. These samples were processed for the isolation and identification of fungi by using standard conventional methods...
June 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556942/the-elusive-ettringite-under-the-high-vacuum-sem-a-reflection-based-on-natural-samples-the-use-of-monte-carlo-modelling-of-eds-analyses-and-an-extension-to-the-ettringite-group-minerals
#20
Vincent Thiéry, Vincent Trincal, Catherine A Davy
Ettringite, Ca6 Al2 (SO4 )3 (OH)12 .26H2 O, or C6 AS¯3 H32 as it is known in cement chemistry notation, is a major phase of interest in cement science as an hydration product and in polluted soil treatment since its structure can accommodate with many hazardous cations. Beyond those anthropogenic features, ettringite is first of all a naturally occurring mineral (although rare). An example of its behaviour under the scanning electron microscope and during energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) qualitative analysis is presented, based on the study of natural ettringite crystals from the N'Chwaning mine in South Africa...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
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