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Soil Science

Inge Werner, Annette Aldrich, Benjamin Becker, Dennis Becker, Markus Brinkmann, Michael Burkhardt, Norbert Caspers, Sophie Campiche, Nathalie Chèvre, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Beate I Escher, Fabian Fischer, Sabrina Giebner, Katharina Heye, Henner Hollert, Marion Junghans, Cornelia Kienle, Katja Knauer, Muris Korkaric, Veronika Märkl, Jane Muncke, Jörg Oehlmann, Georg Reifferscheid, Daniel Rensch, Andreas Schäffer, Sabrina Schiwy, Simon Schwarz, Helmut Segner, Eszter Simon, Rita Triebskorn, Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Thomas Wintgens, Markus Zennegg
This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, and Mesocosm GmbH (Germany)...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Patricia E J Wiltshire
Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Dorcus C Gemenet, Willmar L Leiser, Francesca Beggi, Ludger H Herrmann, Vincent Vadez, Henry F W Rattunde, Eva Weltzien, Charles T Hash, Andreas Buerkert, Bettina I G Haussmann
West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tao Lu, Jumei Li, Xiaoqing Wang, Yibing Ma, Erik Smolders, Nanwen Zhu
The difference in availability between soil metals added via biosolids and soluble salts was not taken into account in deriving the current land-applied biosolids standards. In the present study, a biosolids availability factor (BAF) approach was adopted to investigate the ecological thresholds for copper (Cu) in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. First, the soil property-specific values of HC5add (the added hazardous concentration for 5% of species) for Cu(2+) salt amended were collected with due attention to data for organisms and soils relevant to China...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
François Bizet, A Glyn Bengough, Irène Hummel, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Lionel X Dupuy
Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Holger Kirchmann, Gunnar Börjesson, Thomas Kätterer, Yariv Cohen
The composition of municipal wastewater and sewage sludge reflects the use and proliferation of elements and contaminants within society. In Sweden, official statistics show that concentrations of toxic metals in municipal sewage sludge have steadily decreased, by up to 90 %, since the 1970s, due to environmental programmes and statutory limits on metals in sludge and soil. Results from long-term field experiments show that reduced metal pollution during repeated sewage sludge application has reversed negative trends in soil biology...
September 20, 2016: Ambio
Benjamin R Fitzpatrick, David W Lamb, Kerrie Mengersen
Modern soil mapping is characterised by the need to interpolate point referenced (geostatistical) observations and the availability of large numbers of environmental characteristics for consideration as covariates to aid this interpolation. Modelling tasks of this nature also occur in other fields such as biogeography and environmental science. This analysis employs the Least Angle Regression (LAR) algorithm for fitting Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) penalized Multiple Linear Regressions models...
2016: PloS One
Ingrid J Pickering, Monica Barney, Julien J H Cotelesage, Linda Vogt, M Jake Pushie, Andrew Nissan, Roger C Prince, Graham N George
Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy increasingly is used as a tool to provide speciation information about the sulfur chemical form in complex samples, with applications ranging from fossil fuels to soil science to health research. As part of an ongoing program of systematic investigations of the factors that affect the variability of sulfur K near-edge spectra, we have examined the X-ray absorption spectra of a series of organic symmetric disulfide compounds. We have used polarized sulfur K-edge spectra of single crystals of dibenzyl disulfide to confirm the assignments of the major transitions in the spectrum as 1s → (S-S)σ* and 1s → (S-C)σ*...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Diana Maria Ceballos, Zhao Dong
BACKGROUND: E-waste includes electrical and electronic equipment discarded as waste without intent of reuse. Informal e-waste recycling, typically done in smaller, unorganized businesses, can expose workers and communities to serious chemical health hazards. It is unclear if formalization into larger, better-controlled electronics recycling (e-recycling) facilities solves environmental and occupational health problems. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on occupational and environmental health hazards of formal e-recycling facilities and discuss challenges and opportunities to strengthen research in this area...
October 2016: Environment International
S Forkapic, D Maletić, J Vasin, K Bikit, D Mrdja, I Bikit, V Udovičić, R Banjanac
The most dominant source of indoor radon is the underlying soil, so the enhanced levels of radon are usually expected in mountain regions and geology units with high radium and uranium content in surface soils. Laboratory for radioactivity and dose measurement, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad has rich databases of natural radionuclides concentrations in Vojvodina soil and also of indoor radon concentrations for the region of Vojvodina, Northern Province of Serbia. In this paper we present the results of correlative and multivariate analysis of these results and soil characteristics in order to estimate the geogenic radon potential...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Marlen C Rice, Jeanette M Norton, Frederica Valois, Annette Bollmann, Peter J Bottomley, Martin G Klotz, Hendrikus J Laanbroek, Yuichi Suwa, Lisa Y Stein, Luis Sayavedra-Soto, Tanja Woyke, Nicole Shapiro, Lynne A Goodwin, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Nikos Kyrpides, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Victor Markowitz, Krishna Palaniappan, Natalia Ivanova, Dimitrios Stamatis, T B K Reddy, Chew Yee Ngan, Chris Daum
Nitrosospira briensis C-128 is an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from an acid agricultural soil. N. briensis C-128 was sequenced with PacBio RS technologies at the DOE-Joint Genome Institute through their Community Science Program (2010). The high-quality finished genome contains one chromosome of 3.21 Mb and no plasmids. We identified 3073 gene models, 3018 of which are protein coding. The two-way average nucleotide identity between the chromosomes of Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196 and Nitrosospira briensis C-128 was found to be 77...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Jeffrey H Driver, Paul S Price, Ian Van Wesenbeeck, John H Ross, Sean Gehen, Larry R Holden, Bryce Landenberger, Kerry Hastings, Zhongyu June Yan, Reza Rasoulpour
Dow AgroSciences (DAS) markets and sells 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), the active ingredient in Telone®, which is used as a pre-plant soil fumigant nematicide in economically important crops in California. 1,3-D has been regulated as a "probable human carcinogen" and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation limits use of 1,3-D based on human health risk assessments for bystanders. This paper presents a risk characterization for bystanders based on advances in the assessment of both exposure and hazard...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Michele Carbone, Shreya Kanodia, Ann Chao, Aubrey Miller, Anil Wali, David Weissman, Alex Adjei, Francine Baumann, Paolo Boffetta, Brenda Buck, Marc de Perrot, A Umran Dogan, Steve Gavett, Alessandro Gualtieri, Raffit Hassan, Mary Hesdorffer, Fred R Hirsch, David Larson, Weimin Mao, Scott Masten, Harvey I Pass, Julian Peto, Enrico Pira, Ian Steele, Anne Tsao, Gavitt Alida Woodard, Haining Yang, Shakun Malik
On November 9 and 10, 2015, the International Conference on Mesothelioma in Populations Exposed to Naturally Occurring Asbestiform Fibers was held at the University of Hawaii Cancer Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The meeting was cosponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and the agenda was designed with significant input from staff at the U.S. National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. A multidisciplinary group of participants presented updates reflecting a range of disciplinary perspectives, including mineralogy, geology, epidemiology, toxicology, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, public health, and clinical oncology...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Abdessamad Imoulan, Hai-Jun Wu, Wei-Lai Lu, Yi Li, Bin-Bin Li, Rei-Heng Yang, Wen-Jing Wang, Xiao-Liang Wang, Paul M Kirk, Yi-Jian Yao
Beauveria is among the most ubiquitous genera of entomopathogenic fungi throughout the world. A previously unknown species of the genus was recently discovered from a soil sample collected from Tibetan Plateau, China and is here described as new to science, B. medogensis sp. nov. The new species is distinguished from its closest relatives based on both morphological characterization and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Beauveria medogensis is characterized by globose to subglobose conidia, morphologically similar to some other species of in the genus, but was conclusively separated from those species in the phylogenetic analyses including sequences of four nuclear genes (RPB1, RPB2, TEF1 and Bloc)...
September 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Brent Altemose, Mark G Robson, Howard M Kipen, Pamela Ohman Strickland, Qingyu Meng, Jicheng Gong, Wei Huang, Guangfa Wang, David Q Rich, Tong Zhu, Junfeng Zhang
Using data collected before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, this study examines associations between biomarkers of blood coagulation (vWF, sCD62P and sCD40L), pulmonary inflammation (EBC pH, EBC nitrite, and eNO), and systemic oxidative stress (urinary 8-OHdG) with sources of air pollution identified utilizing principal component analysis and with concentrations of three aldehydes of health concern. Associations between the biomarkers and the air pollution source types and aldehydes were examined using a linear mixed effects model, regressing through seven lag days and controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, gender, and day of week for the biomarker measurements...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Sergey G Ermilov, Stefan Friedrich
Six species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae) are collected from the German Expedition to Amazonian Peru in 2013; of these, three are new for science, described from upper soil and leaf litter in the primary evergreen lowland rainforest. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) parapassimpunctata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) passimpunctata Balogh & Mahunka, 1969, but differs from the latter by the presence of foveolate body surface, two pairs of porose areas Aa and minute interlamellar setae, and the absence of porose areas A3...
2016: Zootaxa
Alain Pierret, Jean-Luc Maeght, Corentin Clément, Jean-Pierre Montoroi, Christian Hartmann, Santimaitree Gonkhamdee
BACKGROUND: Deep roots are a common trait among a wide range of plant species and biomes, and are pivotal to the very existence of ecosystem services such as pedogenesis, groundwater and streamflow regulation, soil carbon sequestration and moisture content in the lower troposphere. Notwithstanding the growing realization of the functional significance of deep roots across disciplines such as soil science, agronomy, hydrology, ecophysiology or climatology, research efforts allocated to the study of deep roots remain incommensurate with those devoted to shallow roots...
July 6, 2016: Annals of Botany
Elia Scudiero, Scott M Lesch, Dennis L Corwin
Soil spatial variability has a profound influence on most agronomic and environmental processes at field and landscape scales, including site-specific management, vadose zone hydrology and transport, and soil quality. Mobile sensors are a practical means of mapping spatial variability because their measurements serve as a proxy for many soil properties, provided a sensor-soil calibration is conducted. A viable means of calibrating sensor measurements over soil properties is through linear regression modeling of sensor and target property data...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Andreas Schaeffer, Wulf Amelung, Henner Hollert, Matthias Kaestner, Ellen Kandeler, Jens Kruse, Anja Miltner, Richard Ottermanns, Holger Pagel, Stephan Peth, Christian Poll, Gerhard Rambold, Michael Schloter, Stefanie Schulz, Thilo Streck, Martina Roß-Nickoll
Soils are faced with man-made chemical stress factors, such as the input of organic or metal-containing pesticides, in combination with non-chemical stressors like soil compaction and natural disturbance like drought. Although multiple stress factors are typically co-occurring in soil ecosystems, research in soil sciences on this aspect is limited and focuses mostly on single structural or functional endpoints. A mechanistic understanding of the reaction of soils to multiple stressors is currently lacking. Based on a review of resilience theory, we introduce a new concept for research on the ability of polluted soil (xenobiotics or other chemical pollutants as one stressor) to resist further natural or anthropogenic stress and to retain its functions and structure...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
You-qi Wang, Yi-ru Bai, Jian-yu Wang
Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from eight different functional areas in Yinchuan city were collected. There were 10 samples respectively in each functional area. The urban soil heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr) pollution characteristics and sources in eight different functional areas were evaluated by mathematical statistics and geostatistical analysis method. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of heavy metals based on the geography information system (GIS) were plotted. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr were 74...
February 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
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