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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623832/a-review-on-in-situ-phytoremediation-of-mine-tailings
#1
REVIEW
Li Wang, Bin Ji, Yuehua Hu, Runqing Liu, Wei Sun
Mine tailings are detrimental to natural plant growth due to their physicochemical characteristics, such as high pH, high salinity, low water retention capacity, high heavy metal concentrations, and deficiencies in soil organic matter and fertility. Thus, the remediation of mine tailings has become a key issue in environmental science and engineering. Phytoremediation, an in situ cost-effective technology, is emerging as the most promising remediation method for mine tailings by introducing tolerant plant species...
June 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611464/relict-high-andean-ecosystems-challenge-our-concepts-of-naturalness-and-human-impact
#2
Steven P Sylvester, Felix Heitkamp, Mitsy D P V Sylvester, Hermann F Jungkunst, Harrie J M Sipman, Johanna M Toivonen, Carlos A Gonzales Inca, Juan C Ospina, Michael Kessler
What would current ecosystems be like without the impact of mankind? This question, which is critical for ecosystem management, has long remained unanswered due to a lack of present-day data from truly undisturbed ecosystems. Using mountaineering techniques, we accessed pristine relict ecosystems in the Peruvian Andes to provide this baseline data and compared it with the surrounding accessible and disturbed landscape. We show that natural ecosystems and human impact in the high Andes are radically different from preconceived ideas...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601018/geospatial-evaluation-of-lead-bioaccessibility-and-distribution-for-site-specific-prediction-of-threshold-limits
#3
Jennifer A Bower, Sydney Lister, Garrett Hazebrouck, Nicolas Perdrial
Recent work identified the need for site-specific Pb bioaccessibility evaluation and scaled contaminant modeling. Pb heterogeneity has made bioaccessibility characterization difficult, and complicated distribution models. Using field testing, bioaccessibility measurement, Integrated Exposure Uptake and Biokinetic (IEUBK) modeling, and geospatial techniques, we propose a framework for conducting applied risk-based, multiscale assessment. This framework was tested and implemented in Burlington, VT, an area of old housing stock and high Pb burden (up to 15 000 mg kg(-1)) derived primarily from paint...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600571/micro-scale-heterogeneity-of-soil-phosphorus-depends-on-soil-substrate-and-depth
#4
Florian Werner, Carsten W Mueller, Jürgen Thieme, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Camille Rivard, Carmen Höschen, Jörg Prietzel
Soils comprise various heterogeneously distributed pools of lithogenic, free organic, occluded, adsorbed, and precipitated phosphorus (P) forms, which differ depending on soil forming factors. Small-scale heterogeneity of element distributions recently has received increased attention in soil science due to its influence on soil functions and soil fertility. We investigated the micro-scale distribution of total P and different specific P binding forms in aggregates taken from a high-P clay-rich soil and a low-P sandy soil by combining advanced spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques to introduce new insights on P accessibility and availability in soils...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596410/genome-sequences-for-streptomyces-spp-isolated-from-disease-suppressive-soils-and-long-term-ecological-research-sites
#5
Stephen C Heinsch, Lindsey Otto-Hanson, Szu-Yi Hsu, Linda Kinkel, Michael J Smanski
We report here the high-quality genome sequences of three Streptomyces spp. isolated as part of a long-term study of microbial soil ecology. Streptomyces sp. strain GS93-23 was isolated from naturally disease-suppressive soil (DSS) in Grand Rapids, MN, and Streptomyces sp. strains S3-4 and 3211-3 were isolated from experimental plots in the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve (CCESR).
June 8, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591179/a-systematic-review-of-elephant-impact-across-africa
#6
Robert A R Guldemond, Andrew Purdon, Rudi J van Aarde
Contradictory findings among scientific studies that address a particular issue may impede the conversion of science to management implementation. A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to generate a single outcome may overcome this problem. The contentious topic of the impact that a megaherbivore such as the savanna elephant have for other species and their environment can benefit from such an approach. After some 68 years, 367 peer-reviewed papers covered the topic and 51 of these papers provided sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585590/isolation-of-potentially-pathogenic-fungi-from-selected-pigeons-feeding-sites-in-karachi-a-new-dimension-to-health-hazard
#7
Sehar Afshan Naz, Muhammad Yaseen, Nusrat Jabeen, Maryam Shafique
OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of pathogenic fungal strains in areas where pigeons are present in a large number. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, from February 2015 to March2016, and comprised samples of soil contaminated with pigeons' excreta. The samples were collected from 20 different pigeon-feeding places in the city. These samples were processed for the isolation and identification of fungi by using standard conventional methods...
June 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556942/the-elusive-ettringite-under-the-high-vacuum-sem-a-reflection-based-on-natural-samples-the-use-of-monte-carlo-modelling-of-eds-analyses-and-an-extension-to-the-ettringite-group-minerals
#8
Vincent Thiéry, Vincent Trincal, Catherine A Davy
Ettringite, Ca6 Al2 (SO4 )3 (OH)12 .26H2 O, or C6 AS¯3 H32 as it is known in cement chemistry notation, is a major phase of interest in cement science as an hydration product and in polluted soil treatment since its structure can accommodate with many hazardous cations. Beyond those anthropogenic features, ettringite is first of all a naturally occurring mineral (although rare). An example of its behaviour under the scanning electron microscope and during energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) qualitative analysis is presented, based on the study of natural ettringite crystals from the N'Chwaning mine in South Africa...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552171/advanced-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy-of-natural-organic-matter
#9
REVIEW
Jingdong Mao, Xiaoyan Cao, Dan C Olk, Wenying Chu, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr
Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially a systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their applications to the study of NOM. We discuss some basics of how to acquire high-quality and quantitative solid-state (13)C NMR spectra, and address some common technical mistakes that lead to unreliable spectra of NOM...
May 2017: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542984/applying-quantitative-molecular-tools-for-virus-transport-studies-opportunities-and-challenges
#10
Kelvin Wong, Marirosa Molina
Bacteriophages have been used in soil column studies for the last several decades as surrogates to study the fate and transport behavior of enteric viruses in groundwater. However, recent studies have shown that the transport behavior of bacteriophages and enteric viruses in porous media can be very different. The next generation of virus transport science must therefore provide more data on mobility of enteric viruses and the relationship between transport behaviors of enteric viruses and bacteriophages. To achieve this new paradigm, labor intensity devoted to enteric virus quantification method must be reduced...
May 23, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541559/hydraulic-redistribution-under-moderate-drought-among-english-oak-european-beech-and-norway-spruce-determined-by-deuterium-isotope-labeling-in-a-split-root-experiment
#11
Benjamin D Hafner, Martina Tomasella, Karl-Heinz Häberle, Marc Goebel, Rainer Matyssek, Thorsten E E Grams
Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water through plant roots is a crucial phenomenon improving the water balance of plants and ecosystems. It is mostly described under severe drought, and not yet studied under moderate drought. We tested the potential of HR under moderate drought, hypothesizing that (H1) tree species redistribute soil water in their roots even under moderate drought and that (H2) neighboring plants are supported with water provided by redistributing plants. Trees were planted in split-root systems with one individual (i...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535672/nanofertilizers-new-products-for-the-industry
#12
Christian O Dimkpa, Prem S Bindraban
Mineral fertilizers are key to food production, despite plant low nutrient uptake efficiencies and high losses. However, nanotechnology can both enhance crop productivity and reduce nutrient losses. This has raised interest in nano-scale and nano-enabled bulk fertilizers, hence the concept of nanofertilizers. Nevertheless, large-scale industrial production of nanofertilizers is yet to be realized. Here, we highlight the science-based evidence and outstanding concerns for motivating fertilizer industry production of nanofertilizers, including the notion of toxicity associated with nano-scale materials; scant nanofertilizer research with key crop nutrients; inadequacy of soil- or field-based studies with nanofertilizers; type of nanomaterials to produce as fertilizers; how to efficiently and effectively apply nanofertilizers at the field-scale; and the economics nanofertilizers...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484792/the-stay-green-trait-and-phytohormone-signaling-networks-in-plants-under-heat-stress
#13
REVIEW
Mostafa Abdelrahman, Magdi El-Sayed, Sudisha Jogaiah, David J Burritt, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The increasing demand for food and the heavy yield losses in primary crops due to global warming mean that there is an urgent need to improve food security. Therefore, understanding how plants respond to heat stress and its consequences, such as drought and increased soil salinity, has received much attention in plant science community. Plants exhibit stress tolerance, escape or avoidance via adaptation and acclimatization mechanisms. These mechanisms rely on a high degree of plasticity in their cellular metabolism, in which phytohormones play an important role...
July 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459096/data-on-soil-p-h-of-barddhaman-district-india
#14
Sumanta Bid
P(H) (Puissance de Hydrogen) is an essential ingredient of soil that effects on fertility and productivity of dirt. Barddhaman district is a part of Lower Gangetic Plain fully covered by alluvial soil and popularly known as 'rice bowl of West Bengal' owing to its lofty production. This data article provides a block level data on soil P(H) that is essential for further investigation of the relationship among soil ph, plant growth, plant health and productivity. This data is valuable in the field of soil geography and soil science...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458609/antibiotic-resistance-and-the-biology-of-history
#15
Hannah Landecker
Beginning in the 1940s, mass production of antibiotics involved the industrial-scale growth of microorganisms to harvest their metabolic products. Unfortunately, the use of antibiotics selects for resistance at answering scale. The turn to the study of antibiotic resistance in microbiology and medicine is examined, focusing on the realization that individual therapies targeted at single pathogens in individual bodies are environmental events affecting bacterial evolution far beyond bodies. In turning to biological manifestations of antibiotic use, sciences fathom material outcomes of their own previous concepts...
December 2016: Body & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449842/critical-issues-in-the-historical-and-contemporary-development-of-forensic-anthropology-in-australia-an-international-comparison
#16
Xanthé Mallett, Martin P Evison
The aim of this brief critical qualitative analysis is to examine the development of forensic anthropology in Australia, at a time of significant change in the discipline. It will briefly summarise its historical establishment, making comparative reference to other regions-particularly the United Kingdom and United States, and the influence of the Bali Bombings of 2002, Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami of 2004 and Black Saturday Bushfires of 2009. The analysis goes on to consider key factors in research in forensic anthropology in the United States, and the development of standards and regulation in the US and UK...
March 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444473/contrasting-effects-of-engineered-carbon-nanotubes-on-plants-a-review
#17
Meththika Vithanage, Mihiri Seneviratne, Mahtab Ahmad, Binoy Sarkar, Yong Sik Ok
Rapid surge of interest for carbon nanotube (CNT) in the last decade has made it an imperative member of nanomaterial family. Because of the distinctive physicochemical properties, CNTs are widely used in a number of scientific applications including plant sciences. This review mainly describes the role of CNT in plant sciences. Contradictory effects of CNT on plants physiology are reported. CNT can act as plant growth inducer causing enhanced plant dry biomass and root/shoot lengths. At the same time, CNT can cause negative effects on plants by forming reactive oxygen species in plant tissues, consequently leading to cell death...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435812/scientometrics-on-public-health-research-in-iran-increase-of-area-studies-despite-embargoes-a-review-article
#18
REVIEW
Brice Poreau
BACKGROUND: Due to embargoes and sanctions from 1979 until 2015, impact on scientific research in Iran may be critical. Public health is the main example of this burning point. In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research in public health in Iran until 2014 with area studies as well as networks of countries involved. METHODS: We used bibliographic analyses using VOS viewer software for network analysis during the period 1975-2014. Two databases were used: Web of Science and PubMed...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426037/medicinal-plant-extracts-and-plant-derived-polyphenols-with-anthelmintic-activity-against-intestinal-nematodes
#19
REVIEW
V Spiegler, E Liebau, A Hensel
Covering: 2001 up to the end of 2016Polyphenols comprise a structurally diverse class of natural products. As the development of new anthelmintic drugs against soil-transmitted helminthiases is an urgent need and polyphenols are widely used in the treatment of nematode infections in traditional medicine and modern science, we summarize the state of knowledge in the period of mainly 2001 up to the end of 2016 on plant extracts with known polyphenolic composition and of defined polyphenols, mainly from the classes of condensed and hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoids...
June 7, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422534/in-situ-sampling-of-relative-dust-devil-particle-loads-and-their-vertical-grain-size-distributions
#20
Jan Raack, Dennis Reiss, Matthew R Balme, Kamal Taj-Eddine, Gian Gabriele Ori
During a field campaign in the Sahara Desert in southern Morocco, spring 2012, we sampled the vertical grain size distribution of two active dust devils that exhibited different dimensions and intensities. With these in situ samples of grains in the vortices, it was possible to derive detailed vertical grain size distributions and measurements of the lifted relative particle load. Measurements of the two dust devils show that the majority of all lifted particles were only lifted within the first meter (∼46...
April 19, 2017: Astrobiology
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