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Soil Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329288/soil-transmitted-helminth-infection-loss-of-education-and-cognitive-impairment-in-school-aged-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Noel Pabalan, Eloisa Singian, Lani Tabangay, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Michael J Boivin, Amara E Ezeamama
BACKGROUND: Evidence of an adverse influence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections on cognitive function and educational loss is equivocal. Prior meta-analyses have focused on randomized controlled trials only and have not sufficiently explored the potential for disparate influence of STH infection by cognitive domain. We re-examine the hypothesis that STH infection is associated with cognitive deficit and educational loss using data from all primary epidemiologic studies published between 1992 and 2016...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321444/agricultural-aspects-of-radiocontamination-induced-by-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-a-survey-of-studies-by-the-univ-of-tokyo-agricultural-dept-2011-2016
#2
Tomoko M Nakanishi
Immediately after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, a team of 40-50 researchers at the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo began to analyze the behavior of radioactive materials in the fallout regions. The fallout has remained in situ and become strongly adsorbed within the soil over time. 137Cs was found to bind strongly to the fine clay, weathered biotite, and organic matter in the soil; therefore, it has not mobilized from mountainous regions, even after heavy rainfall...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286470/nanopore-dna-sequencing-for-metagenomic-soil-analysis
#3
P J Cummings, J Olszewicz, K M Obom
This article describes the steps for construction of a DNA library from soil, preparation and use of the nanopore flow cell, and analysis of the DNA sequences identified using computer software. Nanopore DNA sequencing is a flexible technique that allows for rapid microbial genome sequencing to identify bacterial and viral species, to characterize bacterial strains, and to detect genetic mutations that confer resistance to antibiotics. The advantages of nanopore sequencing (NS) for life sciences include its low complexity, reduced cost, and rapid real-time sequencing of purified genomic DNA, PCR amplicons, cDNA samples, or RNA...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284918/telemedicine-in-cardiology-perspectives-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#4
REVIEW
Nabil Naser, Salih Tandir, Edin Begic
Introduction: Aim of article was to present perspectives of telemedicine in the field of cardiology in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Material and methods: Article has descriptive character and present review of literature. Results: Information technology can have the application in the education of students, starting from basic medical sciences up to clinical subjects. Information technologies are used for ECG analysis, 24h ECG Holter monitoring, which detects different rhythm disorders...
December 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261338/caenorhabditis-elegans-a-convenient-in-vivo-model-for-assessing-the-impact-of-food-bioactive-components-on-obesity-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Peiyi Shen, Yiren Yue, Jolene Zheng, Yeonhwa Park
Caenorhabditis elegans is a small free-living nematode that lives in temperate soil environments. It has been widely employed as an animal model in research involving obesity, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, because of its various advantages, such as small size, large number of progeny production, completely sequenced genome, and short life span, over traditional animal models of vertebrates. These benefits contribute to an ideal research model organism. In this review, we provide an introduction to C...
December 20, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245148/hydrological-and-pollution-processes-in-mining-area-of-fenhe-river-basin-in-china
#6
Yonggang Yang, Zhilong Meng, Wentao Jiao
The hydrological and pollution processes are an important science problem for aquatic ecosystem. In this study, the samples of river water, reservoir water, shallow groundwater, deep groundwater, and precipitation in mining area are collected and analyzed. δD and δ18O are used to identify hydrological process. δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- are used to identify the sources and pollution process of NO3-. The results show that the various water bodies in Fenhe River Basin are slightly alkaline water. The ions in the water mainly come from rock weathering...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241940/plant-soil-feedback-bridging-natural-and-agricultural-sciences
#7
REVIEW
Pierre Mariotte, Zia Mehrabi, T Martijn Bezemer, Gerlinde B De Deyn, Andrew Kulmatiski, Barbara Drigo, G F Ciska Veen, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Paul Kardol
In agricultural and natural systems researchers have demonstrated large effects of plant-soil feedback (PSF) on plant growth. However, the concepts and approaches used in these two types of systems have developed, for the most part, independently. Here, we present a conceptual framework that integrates knowledge and approaches from these two contrasting systems. We use this integrated framework to demonstrate (i) how knowledge from complex natural systems can be used to increase agricultural resource-use efficiency and productivity and (ii) how research in agricultural systems can be used to test hypotheses and approaches developed in natural systems...
December 11, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238507/kinetic-parameters-and-nitrate-nitrite-changes-in-bioremediation-of-toxic-pentaerythritol-tetranitrate-petn-contaminated-soil
#8
Mohsen Sadani, Mohammad Amin Karami, Fahimeh Teimouri, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Seyed Mahdi Moosavi, Bahare Dehdashti
Background: Cleanup of areas contaminated by explosives is a public health concern. Some explosives can be carcinogenic in humans. Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), a powerful explosive with very low water solubility, can be easily transported to ground waters. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the removal efficiencies of PETN from soil by bioremediation, and obtain kinetic parameters of biological process. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Environmental Health Engineering Lab (Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran) in 2015-2016...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227946/cross-disciplinary-links-in-environmental-systems-science-current-state-and-claimed-needs-identified-in-a-meta-review-of-process-models
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Ayllón, Volker Grimm, Sabine Attinger, Michael Hauhs, Clemens Simmer, Harry Vereecken, Gunnar Lischeid
Terrestrial environmental systems are characterised by numerous feedback links between their different compartments. However, scientific research is organized into disciplines that focus on processes within the respective compartments rather than on interdisciplinary links. Major feedback mechanisms between compartments might therefore have been systematically overlooked so far. Without identifying these gaps, initiatives on future comprehensive environmental monitoring schemes and experimental platforms might fail...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209341/the-challenge-of-improving-soil-fertility-in-yam-cropping-systems-of-west-africa
#10
REVIEW
Emmanuel Frossard, Beatrice A Aighewi, Sévérin Aké, Dominique Barjolle, Philipp Baumann, Thomas Bernet, Daouda Dao, Lucien N Diby, Anne Floquet, Valérie K Hgaza, Léa J Ilboudo, Delwende I Kiba, Roch L Mongbo, Hassan B Nacro, Gian L Nicolay, Esther Oka, Yabile F Ouattara, Nestor Pouya, Ravinda L Senanayake, Johan Six, Orokya I Traoré
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a tuber crop grown for food security, income generation, and traditional medicine. This crop has a high cultural value for some of the groups growing it. Most of the production comes from West Africa where the increased demand has been covered by enlarging cultivated surfaces while the mean yield remained around 10 t tuber ha-1. In West Africa, yam is traditionally cultivated without input as the first crop after a long-term fallow as it is considered to require a high soil fertility...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208904/author-correction-developing-a-molecular-picture-of-soil-organic-matter-mineral-interactions-by-quantifying-organo-mineral-binding
#11
C J Newcomb, N P Qafoku, J W Grate, V L Bailey, J J De Yoreo
In the original version of this Article, the Acknowledgements section omitted the Department of Energy-funded Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory in which the XRD measurements were performed. This error has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195207/spatial-diversification-of-agroecosystems-to-enhance-biological-control-and-other-regulating-services-an-agroecological-perspective
#12
Séverin Hatt, Fanny Boeraeve, Sidonie Artru, Marc Dufrêne, Frédéric Francis
Spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats in farming systems is promising for enhancing natural regulation of insect pests. Nevertheless, results from recent syntheses show variable effects. One explanation is that the abundance and diversity of pests and natural enemies are affected by the composition, design and management of crop and non-crop habitats. Moreover, interactions between both local and landscape elements and practices carried out at different spatial scales may affect the regulation of insect pests...
November 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187938/review-of-toxoplasmosis-in-morocco-seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-toxoplasma-infection-among-pregnant-women-and-hiv-infected-patients
#13
REVIEW
Majda Laboudi
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by a protozoal parasite: Toxoplasma gondii. This infection can cause severe illness when the organism is contracted congenitally or when it is reactivated in immunosuppressed people. In this paper we review for the first time prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii among pregnant women and HIV-infected adults in Morocco. A systematic review methodology was used to consult three databases: Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar dated until 2015, regarding prevalence data and risk factors of infection among pregnant women and people living with HIV...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178059/functional-land-management-bridging-the-think-do-gap-using-a-multi-stakeholder-science-policy-interface
#14
Lilian O'Sullivan, David Wall, Rachel Creamer, Francesca Bampa, Rogier P O Schulte
Functional Land Management (FLM) is proposed as an integrator for sustainability policies and assesses the functional capacity of the soil and land to deliver primary productivity, water purification and regulation, carbon cycling and storage, habitat for biodiversity and recycling of nutrients. This paper presents the catchment challenge as a method to bridge the gap between science, stakeholders and policy for the effective management of soils to deliver these functions. Two challenges were completed by a wide range of stakeholders focused around a physical catchment model-(1) to design an optimised catchment based on soil function targets, (2) identify gaps to implementation of the proposed design...
November 24, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151844/pym-a-new-affordable-image-based-method-using-a-raspberry-pi-to-phenotype-plant-leaf-area-in-a-wide-diversity-of-environments
#15
Benoît Valle, Thierry Simonneau, Romain Boulord, Francis Sourd, Thibault Frisson, Maxime Ryckewaert, Philippe Hamard, Nicolas Brichet, Myriam Dauzat, Angélique Christophe
Background: Plant science uses increasing amounts of phenotypic data to unravel the complex interactions between biological systems and their variable environments. Originally, phenotyping approaches were limited by manual, often destructive operations, causing large errors. Plant imaging emerged as a viable alternative allowing non-invasive and automated data acquisition. Several procedures based on image analysis were developed to monitor leaf growth as a major phenotyping target. However, in most proposals, a time-consuming parameterization of the analysis pipeline is required to handle variable conditions between images, particularly in the field due to unstable light and interferences with soil surface or weeds...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146250/revitalization-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-for-sustainable-development-in-agriculture
#16
REVIEW
Sushanto Gouda, Rout George Kerry, Gitishree Das, Spiros Paramithiotis, Han-Seung Shin, Jayanta Kumar Patra
The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141975/dietary-strategies-to-reduce-environmental-impact-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-base
#17
REVIEW
Bradley G Ridoutt, Gilly A Hendrie, Manny Noakes
The food system is a major source of environmental impact, and dietary change has been recommended as an important and necessary strategy to reduce this impact. However, assessing the environmental performance of diets is complex due to the many types of foods eaten and the diversity of agricultural production systems and local environmental settings. To assess the state of science and identify knowledge gaps, an integrative review of the broad topic of environment and diet was undertaken, with particular focus on the completeness of coverage of environmental concerns and the metrics used...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122672/influence-of-high-carbon-basal-fertiliser-on-the-structure-and-composition-of-a-soil-microbial-community-under-tobacco-cultivation
#18
Song-Tao Zhang, Xiao-Ning Song, Ning Li, Ke Zhang, Guo-Shun Liu, Xue-Dong Li, Zhi-Zhong Wang, Xiao-Bing He, Guo-Feng Wang, Hui-Fang Shao
Soil microorganisms play a crucial role in cycling soil nutrients and providing organic nutrients for plant growth and development. Fertilisation balances soil fertility and quality, and affects soil microbial communities. Fertilisation is a frontier subject in agricultural and environmental sciences. Here we showed that the application of high-carbon basal fertiliser treatment could improve the tobacco yield and quality when compared to chemical fertiliser, high-carbon basal fertiliser and mixed high-carbon chemical fertiliser...
November 7, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110234/soil-ecological-criteria-for-nickel-as-a-function-of-soil-properties
#19
XiaoQing Wang, DongPu Wei, YiBing Ma, Mike J McLaughlin
Scientific information for the chemistry and ecotoxicology of metals in soils has been obtained in the research conducted in recent years. However, the latest "science" obtained from this research has not yet been translated into "regulations" in China. In the present study, the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for Ni which denoted as soil ecological criteria for Ni were derived based on the effects of soil properties on bioavailability/ecotoxicity of Ni, incorporating the differences in species sensitivity as well as in laboratory and field conditions...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076390/novel-rna-polymerase-inhibitor-found-in-soil-extracts-provides-hope-for-future-antibacterial-drugs
#20
Richard H Ebright
Richard H Ebright talks to Rachel Coleby, Commissioning Editor: Ebright is at Rutgers University (New Brunswick, NJ, USA), where he performs research on the structure, mechanism, and regulation of bacterial transcription and on antibacterial drug discovery targeting bacterial transcription. He has received research awards, including the Searle Scholar Award, the Walter J Johnson Prize, the Schering-Plough Award of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the Waksman Award of the Theobold Smith Society, the MERIT Award of the National Institutes of Health, and membership in the American Academy of Arts and Science...
October 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
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