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Soil Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151844/pym-a-new-affordable-image-based-method-using-a-raspberry-pi-to-phenotype-plant-leaf-area-in-a-wide-diversity-of-environments
#1
Benoît Valle, Thierry Simonneau, Romain Boulord, Francis Sourd, Thibault Frisson, Maxime Ryckewaert, Philippe Hamard, Nicolas Brichet, Myriam Dauzat, Angélique Christophe
Background: Plant science uses increasing amounts of phenotypic data to unravel the complex interactions between biological systems and their variable environments. Originally, phenotyping approaches were limited by manual, often destructive operations, causing large errors. Plant imaging emerged as a viable alternative allowing non-invasive and automated data acquisition. Several procedures based on image analysis were developed to monitor leaf growth as a major phenotyping target. However, in most proposals, a time-consuming parameterization of the analysis pipeline is required to handle variable conditions between images, particularly in the field due to unstable light and interferences with soil surface or weeds...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146250/revitalization-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-for-sustainable-development-in-agriculture
#2
REVIEW
Sushanto Gouda, Rout George Kerry, Gitishree Das, Spiros Paramithiotis, Han-Seung Shin, Jayanta Kumar Patra
The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141975/dietary-strategies-to-reduce-environmental-impact-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-base
#3
REVIEW
Bradley G Ridoutt, Gilly A Hendrie, Manny Noakes
The food system is a major source of environmental impact, and dietary change has been recommended as an important and necessary strategy to reduce this impact. However, assessing the environmental performance of diets is complex due to the many types of foods eaten and the diversity of agricultural production systems and local environmental settings. To assess the state of science and identify knowledge gaps, an integrative review of the broad topic of environment and diet was undertaken, with particular focus on the completeness of coverage of environmental concerns and the metrics used...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122672/influence-of-high-carbon-basal-fertiliser-on-the-structure-and-composition-of-a-soil-microbial-community-under-tobacco-cultivation
#4
Song-Tao Zhang, Xiao-Ning Song, Ning Li, Ke Zhang, Guo-Shun Liu, Xue-Dong Li, Zhi-Zhong Wang, Xiao-Bing He, Guo-Feng Wang, Hui-Fang Shao
Soil microorganisms play a crucial role in cycling soil nutrients and providing organic nutrients for plant growth and development. Fertilisation balances soil fertility and quality, and affects soil microbial communities. Fertilisation is a frontier subject in agricultural and environmental sciences. Here we showed that the application of high-carbon basal fertiliser treatment could improve the tobacco yield and quality when compared to chemical fertiliser, high-carbon basal fertiliser and mixed high-carbon chemical fertiliser...
November 7, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110234/soil-ecological-criteria-for-nickel-as-a-function-of-soil-properties
#5
XiaoQing Wang, DongPu Wei, YiBing Ma, Mike J McLaughlin
Scientific information for the chemistry and ecotoxicology of metals in soils has been obtained in the research conducted in recent years. However, the latest "science" obtained from this research has not yet been translated into "regulations" in China. In the present study, the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for Ni which denoted as soil ecological criteria for Ni were derived based on the effects of soil properties on bioavailability/ecotoxicity of Ni, incorporating the differences in species sensitivity as well as in laboratory and field conditions...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076390/novel-rna-polymerase-inhibitor-found-in-soil-extracts-provides-hope-for-future-antibacterial-drugs
#6
Richard H Ebright
Richard H Ebright talks to Rachel Coleby, Commissioning Editor: Ebright is at Rutgers University (New Brunswick, NJ, USA), where he performs research on the structure, mechanism, and regulation of bacterial transcription and on antibacterial drug discovery targeting bacterial transcription. He has received research awards, including the Searle Scholar Award, the Walter J Johnson Prize, the Schering-Plough Award of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the Waksman Award of the Theobold Smith Society, the MERIT Award of the National Institutes of Health, and membership in the American Academy of Arts and Science...
October 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068355/corrigendum-water-science-and-technology-75-10-2237-2245-the-role-of-constructed-wetlands-for-biomass-production-within-the-water-soil-waste-nexus-c-t-avellan-et-al-doi-10-2166-wst-2017-106
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054651/measuring-soil-sustainability-via-soil-resilience
#8
Marie Ludwig, Paul Wilmes, Stefan Schrader
Soils are the nexus of water, energy and food, which illustrates the need for a holistic approach in sustainable soil management. The present study therefore aimed at identifying a bioindicator for the evaluation of soil management sustainability in a cross-disciplinary approach between soil science and multi-omics research. For this purpose we first discuss the remaining problems and challenges of evaluating sustainability and consequently suggest one measurable bioindicator for soil management sustainability...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054640/apportioning-source-of-erosion-induced-organic-matter-in-the-hilly-gully-region-of-loess-plateau-in-china-insight-from-lipid-biomarker-and-isotopic-signature-analysis
#9
Chun Liu, Zhongwu Li, Xiaofeng Chang, Xiaodong Nie, Lin Liu, Haibing Xiao, Danyang Wang, Hao Peng, Guangming Zeng
Understanding the dynamics of organic matter (OM) at global and local scales is one of the challenges in the environmental sciences and i.e. terrestrial biogeochemistry. The accurate identification of OM is an essential element to achieve this goal. In our study, a novel application for quantitatively apportioning sources of eroded sedimentary OM from an eco-geomorphologic perspective was shown successfully via a coupled molecular n-alkane biomarkers and stable isotopic signatures ((13)C and (15)N) along with elemental compositions (TOC and TN) using a Bayesian mixing model (SIAR)...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053679/measuring-the-effect-of-chemicals-on-the-growth-and-reproduction-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
So Young Lee, Kyungsu Kang
Toxicological evaluation is crucial for understanding the effects of chemicals on living organisms in basic and applied biological science fields. A non-mammalian soil round worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a valuable model organism for toxicology studies due to its convenience and lack of animal ethics issues compared with mammalian animal systems. In this protocol, a detailed procedure of toxicological evaluation of chemicals in C. elegans is described. A clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which targets human topoisomerase II and inhibits DNA replication of human cancer cells, was selected as a model testing chemical...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050665/uranium-bioreduction-and-biomineralization
#11
Rehemanjiang Wufuer, Yongyang Wei, Qinghua Lin, Huawei Wang, Wenjuan Song, Wen Liu, Daoyong Zhang, Xiangliang Pan, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Following the development of nuclear science and technology, uranium contamination has been an ever increasing concern worldwide because of its potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contaminated environments. Physical and chemical techniques for uranium pollution are expensive and challenging. An alternative to these technologies is microbially mediated uranium bioremediation in contaminated water and soil environments due to its reduced cost and environmental friendliness. To date, four basic mechanisms of uranium bioremediation-uranium bioreduction, biosorption, biomineralization, and bioaccumulation-have been established, of which uranium bioreduction and biomineralization have been studied extensively...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049962/evaluation-of-methods-for-managing-censored-results-when-calculating-the-geometric-mean
#12
Hannah G Mikkonen, Bradley O Clarke, Raghava Dasika, Christian J Wallis, Suzie M Reichman
Currently, there are conflicting views on the best statistical methods for managing censored environmental data. The method commonly applied by environmental science researchers and professionals is to substitute half the limit of reporting for derivation of summary statistics. This approach has been criticised by some researchers, raising questions around the interpretation of historical scientific data. This study evaluated four complete soil datasets, at three levels of simulated censorship, to test the accuracy of a range of censored data management methods for calculation of the geometric mean...
October 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045459/microbial-composition-analyses-by-16s-rrna-sequencing-a-proof-of-concept-approach-to-provenance-determination-of-archaeological-ochre
#13
Claire E Lenehan, Shanan S Tobe, Renee J Smith, Rachel S Popelka-Filcoff
Many archaeological science studies use the concept of "provenance", where the origins of cultural material can be determined through physical or chemical properties that relate back to the origins of the material. Recent studies using DNA profiling of bacteria have been used for the forensic determination of soils, towards determination of geographic origin. This manuscript presents a novel approach to the provenance of archaeological minerals and related materials through the use of 16S rRNA sequencing analysis of microbial DNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029764/application-of-isocs-system-in-the-laboratory-efficiency-calibration
#14
Dominik Grządziel, Krzysztof Kozak, Jadwiga Mazur, Mariusz Mroczek
ISOCS (In Situ Counting Object System) from Canberra is applied in laboratory for creating efficiency calibrations of good quality without using radioactive standards. Besides of typical sample containers used in laboratory, ISOSC system also allows modelling containers and objects of almost any shape and elemental composition. The study was based on gamma spectrometry with HPGe semiconductor detector with electronics and software spectrum analysis GENIE 2000 + ISOCS. Measuring set is equipped with portable shield system with set of collimators ISOCS Shield Systems Model ISOXSHLD from Canberra...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992498/assessing-bioavailability-of-complex-chemical-mixtures-in-contaminated-soils-progress-made-and-research-needs
#15
S Cipullo, G Prpich, P Campo, F Coulon
Understanding the distribution, behaviour and interactions of complex chemical mixtures is key for providing the evidence necessary to make informed decisions and implement robust remediation strategies. Much of the current risk assessment frameworks applied to manage land contamination are based on total contaminant concentrations and the exposure assessments embedded within them do not explicitly address the partitioning and bioavailability of chemical mixtures. These oversights may contribute to an overestimation of both the eco-toxicological effects of the fractions and the mobility of contaminants...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981192/networking-our-science-to-characterize-the-state-vulnerabilities-and-management-opportunities-of-soil-organic-matter
#16
Jennifer W Harden, Gustaf Hugelius, Anders Ahlström, Joseph C Blankinship, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Corey R Lawrence, Julie Loisel, Avni Malhotra, Robert B Jackson, Stephen Ogle, Claire Phillips, Rebecca Ryals, Katherine Todd-Brown, Rodrigo Vargas, Sintana E Vergara, M Francesca Cotrufo, Marco Keiluweit, Katherine A Heckman, Susan E Crow, Whendee L Silver, Marcia DeLonge, Lucas E Nave
Soil organic matter (SOM) supports the Earth's ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retains the largest pool of actively cycling carbon. Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance...
October 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976363/physical-root-soil-interactions
#17
Evelyne Kolb, Valérie Legue, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot
Plant root system development is highly modulated by the physical properties of the soil and especially by its mechanical resistance to penetration. The interplay between the mechanical stresses exerted by the soil and root growth is of particular interest for many communities, in agronomy and soil science as well as in biomechanics and plant morphogenesis. In contrast to shoots, roots apices must exert a growth pressure to penetrate strong soils and reorient their growth trajectory to cope with obstacles like stones or hardpans or to follow the tortuous paths of the soil porosity...
October 4, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961002/thermodynamic-investigation-of-the-effect-of-interface-curvature-on-the-solid-liquid-equilibrium-and-eutectic-point-of-binary-mixtures
#18
Fanghui Liu, Leila Zargarzadeh, Hyun-Joong Chung, Janet A W Elliott
Thermodynamic phase behavior is affected by curved interfaces in micro- and nanoscale systems. For example, capillary freezing point depression is associated with the pressure difference between the solid and liquid phases caused by interface curvature. In this study, the thermal, mechanical, and chemical equilibrium conditions are derived for binary solid-liquid equilibrium with a curved solid-liquid interface due to confinement in a capillary. This derivation shows the equivalence of the most general forms of the Gibbs-Thomson and Ostwald-Freundlich equations...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949519/pyrosequencing-reveals-soil-enzyme-activities-and-bacterial-communities-impacted-by-graphene-and-its-oxides
#19
Yan Rong, Yi Wang, Yina Guan, Jiangtao Ma, Zhiqiang Cai, Guanghua Yang, Xiyue Zhao
Graphene (GN) and graphene oxides (GOs) are novel carbon nanomaterial; they have been attracting much attention because of their excellent properties and are widely applied in many areas, including energy, electronics, biomedicine, environmental science, etc. With industrial production and consumption of GN/GO, they will inevitably enter the soil and water environments. GN/GO may directly cause certain harm to microorganisms and lead to ecological and environmental risks. GOs are GN derivatives with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups in their graphitic backbone...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947636/efficacy-of-recommended-drugs-against-soil-transmitted-helminths-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Wendelin Moser, Christian Schindler, Jennifer Keiser
Objective To evaluate efficacies of anthelmintic drugs against soil transmitted helminths in terms of cure rates and egg reduction rates.Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis.Data Sources PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and the World Health Organization library database from 1960 until 31 December 2016.Study selection Randomised controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of a single dose regimen of albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate against Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) and Trichuris trichiura...
September 25, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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