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Soil Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091885/assessing-the-impact-of-preload-on-pyrite-rich-sediment-and-groundwater-quality
#1
Ohene Karikari-Yeboah, Jonas Addai-Mensah
Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062106/medical-geology-in-the-framework-of-the-sustainable-development-goals
#2
REVIEW
Jochen Bundschuh, Jyoti Prakash Maity, Shahbaz Mushtaq, Meththika Vithanage, Saman Seneweera, Jerusa Schneider, Prosun Bhattacharya, Nasreen Islam Khan, Ihsan Hamawand, Luiz R G Guilherme, Kathryn Reardon-Smith, Faruque Parvez, Nury Morales-Simfors, Sara Ghaze, Christa Pudmenzky, Louis Kouadio, Chien-Yen Chen
Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052398/multi-state-multi-stage-modeling-of-nest-success-suggests-interaction-between-weather-and-land-use
#3
Mark W Miller, David I Leech, James W Pearce-Higgins, Robert A Robinson
Many factors may affect daily nest survival. We present a novel multi-state, multi-stage model to estimate daily survival for each nest stage, daily hatching probability and probability that a failed nest died during a specific stage when stage of failure is unknown. The model does not require that hatching date be known. We used data from a large citizen science dataset to demonstrate the application of this approach, exploring the impact of laying dates, weather conditions, conserved soil moisture, soil carbon, habitat type and urbanization on failure rates of common blackbird (Turdus merula) nests...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027776/vegesafe-a-community-science-program-measuring-soil-metal-contamination-evaluating-risk-and-providing-advice-for-safe-gardening
#4
Marek Rouillon, Paul J Harvey, Louise J Kristensen, Steven G George, Mark P Taylor
The extent of metal contamination in Sydney residential garden soils was evaluated using data collected during a three-year Macquarie University community science program called VegeSafe. Despite knowledge of industrial and urban contamination amongst scientists, the general public remains under-informed about the potential risks of exposure from legacy contaminants in their home garden environment. The community was offered free soil metal screening, allowing access to soil samples for research purposes. Participants followed specific soil sampling instructions and posted samples to the University for analysis with a field portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometer...
December 24, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018984/application-of-the-weps-and-sweep-models-to-non-agricultural-disturbed-lands
#5
J Tatarko, S J van Donk, J C Ascough, D G Walker
Wind erosion not only affects agricultural productivity but also soil, air, and water quality. Dust and specifically particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM-10) has adverse effects on respiratory health and also reduces visibility along roadways, resulting in auto accidents. The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) was developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service to simulate wind erosion and provide for conservation planning on cultivated agricultural lands. A companion product, known as the Single-Event Wind Erosion Evaluation Program (SWEEP), has also been developed which consists of the stand-alone WEPS erosion submodel combined with a graphical interface to simulate soil loss from single (i...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008835/-microbiotes-and-metabolic-diseases-the-bases-for-therapeutic-strategies
#6
Rémy Burcelin, Simon Nicolas, Vincent Blasco-Baque
After more than one and a half century, i.e. since Louis Pasteur work on microbes, fermentation, and diseases, biological science has made a giant step in bacteria knowledge. Thanks to an ultra-powerful "microscope", i.e. ultra-fast DNA sequencing, scientists have been able to read and group within a catalog over the last decade, the gene code of bacteria, i.e. the metagenome at the surface of our epithelia. More recently, live bacteria within adipose tissue, defining a tissue microbiota, as well as bacterial fragments such as DNA within the liver, the brain and the blood have been identified...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000685/update-on-dietary-intake-of-perchlorate-and-iodine-from-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-s-total-diet-study-2008-2012
#7
Eileen Abt, Judith Spungen, Régis Pouillot, Margaret Gamalo-Siebers, Mark Wirtz
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS) monitors the US food supply for pesticide residues, industrial chemicals, radionuclides, nutrients, and toxic elements. Perchlorate and iodine intakes based on concentrations in TDS samples collected between 2008 and 2012 were estimated in order to update an earlier TDS dietary assessment. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket and missile fuel, is formed naturally in the atmosphere, and occurs naturally in some soils. Because of perchlorate's presence in soil, and in irrigation, processing, and source water, it is widely found in food...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992951/limits-on-carbon-sequestration-in-arid-blue-carbon-ecosystems
#8
Lisa M Schile, J Boone Kauffman, Stephen Crooks, James W Fourqurean, Jane Glavan, J Patrick Megonigal
Coastal ecosystems produce and sequester significant amounts of carbon ('blue carbon'), which has been well documented in humid and semi-humid regions of temperate and tropical climates but less so in arid regions where mangroves, marshes, and seagrasses exist near the limit of their tolerance for extreme temperature and salinity. To better understand these unique systems, we measured whole-ecosystem carbon stocks in 58 sites across the United Arab Emirates in natural and planted mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, microbial mats, and coastal sabkha (inter- and supratidal unvegetated salt flats)...
December 19, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984802/microbial-soil-community-analyses-for-forensic-science-application-to-a-blind-test
#9
Sandrine Demanèche, Leif Schauser, Lorna Dawson, Laure Franqueville, Pascal Simonet
Soil complexity, heterogeneity and transferability make it valuable in forensic investigations to help obtain clues as to the origin of an unknown sample, or to compare samples from a suspect or object with samples collected at a crime scene. In a few countries, soil analysis is used in matters from site verification to estimates of time after death. However, up to date the application or use of soil information in criminal investigations has been limited. In particular, comparing bacterial communities in soil samples could be a useful tool for forensic science...
December 9, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979996/soil-dna-metabarcoding-and-high-throughput-sequencing-as-a-forensic-tool-considerations-potential-limitations-and-recommendations
#10
J M Young, J J Austin, L S Weyrich
Analysis of physical evidence is typically a deciding factor in forensic casework by establishing what transpired at a scene or who was involved. Forensic geoscience is an emerging multi-disciplinary science that can offer significant benefits to forensic investigations. Soil is a powerful, nearly 'ideal' contact trace evidence, as it is highly individualistic, easy to characterise, has a high transfer and retention probability, and is often overlooked in attempts to conceal evidence. However, many real-life cases encounter close proximity soil samples or soils with low inorganic content, which cannot be easily discriminated based on current physical and chemical analysis techniques...
February 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979381/differential-effect-of-mass-deworming-and-targeted-deworming-for-soil-transmitted-helminth-control-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Naomi E Clarke, Archie C A Clements, Suhail A Doi, Dongxu Wang, Suzy J Campbell, Darren Gray, Susana V Nery
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are a major global health issue, causing substantial morbidity in the world's poorest populations. Regular delivery of anthelmintic drugs is the mainstay for global soil-transmitted helminth control. Deworming campaigns are often targeted to school-aged children, who are at high risk of soil-transmitted-helminth-associated morbidity. However, findings from modelling studies suggest that deworming campaigns should be expanded community-wide for effective control of soil-transmitted helminth transmission...
December 12, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928044/microbes-in-the-anthropocene-spillover-of-agriculturally-selected-bacteria-and-their-impact-on-natural-ecosystems
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Bell, Jason M Tylianakis
Soil microbial communities are enormously diverse, with at least millions of species and trillions of genes unknown to science or poorly described. Soil microbial communities are key components of agriculture, for example, in provisioning nitrogen and protecting crops from pathogens, providing overall ecosystem services in excess of $1000bn per year. It is important to know how humans are affecting this hidden diversity. Much is known about the negative consequences of agricultural intensification on higher organisms, but almost nothing is known about how alterations to landscapes affect microbial diversity, distributions and processes...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924816/an-analysis-of-human-exposure-to-trace-elements-from-deliberate-soil-ingestion-and-associated-health-risks
#13
Veronica M Ngole-Jeme, Georges-Ive E Ekosse, Sandile P Songca
Fifty-seven samples of soils commonly ingested in South Africa, Swaziland, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and Togo were analyzed for the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) and their bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract. Bioaccessibility values were used to calculate daily intake, and hazard quotient of each trace element, and chronic hazard index (CHI) of each sample. Carcinogenic risk associated with As and Ni exposure were also calculated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891647/a-roadmap-for-improving-the-representation-of-photosynthesis-in-earth-system-models
#14
Alistair Rogers, Belinda E Medlyn, Jeffrey S Dukes, Gordon Bonan, Susanne von Caemmerer, Michael C Dietze, Jens Kattge, Andrew D B Leakey, Lina M Mercado, Ülo Niinemets, I Colin Prentice, Shawn P Serbin, Stephen Sitch, Danielle A Way, Sönke Zaehle
Accurate representation of photosynthesis in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) is essential for robust projections of global change. However, current representations vary markedly between TBMs, contributing uncertainty to projections of global carbon fluxes. Here we compared the representation of photosynthesis in seven TBMs by examining leaf and canopy level responses of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) to key environmental variables: light, temperature, CO2 concentration, vapor pressure deficit and soil water content...
January 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890403/isoelectric-points-and-points-of-zero-charge-of-metal-hydr-oxides-50years-after-parks-review
#15
REVIEW
Marek Kosmulski
The pH-dependent surface charging of metal (hydr)oxides is reviewed on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication by G.A. Parks: "Isoelectric points of solid oxides, solid hydroxides, and aqueous hydroxo complex systems" in Chemical Reviews. The point of zero charge (PZC) and isoelectric point (IEP) became standard parameters to characterize metal oxides in aqueous dispersions, and they define adsorption (surface excess) of ions, stability against coagulation, rheological properties of dispersions, etc...
December 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881142/ethnoagroforestry-integration-of-biocultural-diversity-for-food-sovereignty-in-mexico
#16
Ana Isabel Moreno-Calles, Alejandro Casas, Alexis Daniela Rivero-Romero, Yessica Angélica Romero-Bautista, Selene Rangel-Landa, Roberto Alexander Fisher-Ortíz, Fernando Alvarado-Ramos, Mariana Vallejo-Ramos, Dídac Santos-Fita
BACKGROUND: Documenting the spectrum of ecosystem management, the roles of forestry and agricultural biodiversity, TEK, and human culture for food sovereignty, are all priority challenges for contemporary science and society. Ethnoagroforestry is a research approach that provides a theoretical framework integrating socio-ecological disciplines and TEK. We analyze in this study general types of Agroforestry Systems of México, in which peasants, small agriculturalist, and indigenous people are the main drivers of AFS and planning of landscape diversity use...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870054/a-plant-growth-form-dataset-for-the-new-world
#17
K Engemann, B Sandel, B Boyle, B J Enquist, P M Jørgensen, J Kattge, B J McGill, N Morueta-Holme, R K Peet, N J Spencer, C Violle, S K Wiser, J-C Svenning
This dataset provides growth form classifications for 67,413 vascular plant species from North, Central, and South America. The data used to determine growth form were compiled from five major integrated sources and two original publications: the Botanical Information and Ecology Network (BIEN), the Plant Trait Database (TRY), the SALVIAS database, the USDA PLANTS database, Missouri Botanical Garden's Tropicos database, Wright (2010), and Boyle (1996). We defined nine plant growth forms based on woodiness (woody or non-woody), shoot structure (self-supporting or not self-supporting), and root traits (rooted in soil, not rooted in soil, parasitic or aquatic): Epiphyte, Liana, Vine, Herb, Shrub, Tree, Parasite, or Aquatic...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867310/the-north-wyke-farm-platform-effect-of-temperate-grassland-farming-systems-on-soil-moisture-contents-runoff-and-associated-water-quality-dynamics
#18
R J Orr, P J Murray, C J Eyles, M S A Blackwell, L M Cardenas, A L Collins, J A J Dungait, K W T Goulding, B A Griffith, S J Gurr, P Harris, J M B Hawkins, T H Misselbrook, C Rawlings, A Shepherd, H Sint, T Takahashi, K N Tozer, A P Whitmore, L Wu, M R F Lee
: The North Wyke Farm Platform was established as a United Kingdom national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences. Its remit is to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices for beef and sheep production in lowland grasslands. A system based on permanent pasture was implemented on three 21-ha farmlets to obtain baseline data on hydrology, nutrient cycling and productivity for 2 years...
July 2016: European Journal of Soil Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805623/dermal-absorption-of-benzo-a-pyrene-into-human-skin-from-soil-effect-of-artificial-weathering-concentration-and-exposure-duration
#19
Trevor K Peckham, Jeffry H Shirai, Annette L Bunge, Yvette W Lowney, Michael V Ruby, John C Kissel
In vitro assessments of (14)C-benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) absorption through human epidermis were conducted with the sub-63-μm fraction of four test soils containing different amounts of organic and black carbon. Soils were artificially weathered for eight weeks and applied to epidermis at nominal BaP concentrations of 3 and 10 mg/kg for 8 or 24 h. Experiments were also conducted at 24 h with unweathered soils and with BaP deposited onto skin from acetone at a comparable chemical load. For the weathered soils, absorption was independent of the amount of organic or black carbon, the mass in the receptor fluid was proportional to exposure duration but independent of concentration, and the mass recovered in the skin after washing was proportional to concentration and independent of exposure time...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760848/five-new-species-of-the-obligate-mycoparasite-syncephalisi-zoopagales-zoopagomycotina-from-soil
#20
Gerald L Benny, Hsiao-Man Ho, Katy Lazarus, Matthew E Smith
More than 520 soil samples were surveyed for species of the mycoparasitic zygomycete genus Syncephalis using a culture-based approach. These fungi are relatively common in soil using the optimal conditions for growing both the host and parasite. Five species obtained in dual culture are unknown to science and are described here: (i) S. digitata with sporangiophores short, merosporangia separate at the apices, simple, 3-5 spored; (ii) S. floridana, which forms galls in the host and has sporangiophores up to 170 µm long with unbranched merosporangia that contain 2-4 spores; (iii) S...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
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