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Soil Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891647/a-roadmap-for-improving-the-representation-of-photosynthesis-in-earth-system-models
#1
Alistair Rogers, Belinda E Medlyn, Jeffrey S Dukes, Gordon Bonan, Susanne von Caemmerer, Michael C Dietze, Jens Kattge, Andrew D B Leakey, Lina M Mercado, Ülo Niinemets, I Colin Prentice, Shawn P Serbin, Stephen Sitch, Danielle A Way, Sönke Zaehle
Accurate representation of photosynthesis in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) is essential for robust projections of global change. However, current representations vary markedly between TBMs, contributing uncertainty to projections of global carbon fluxes. Here we compared the representation of photosynthesis in seven TBMs by examining leaf and canopy level responses of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) to key environmental variables: light, temperature, CO2 concentration, vapor pressure deficit and soil water content...
January 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890403/isoelectric-points-and-points-of-zero-charge-of-metal-hydr-oxides-50years-after-parks-review
#2
REVIEW
Marek Kosmulski
The pH-dependent surface charging of metal (hydr)oxides is reviewed on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication by G.A. Parks: "Isoelectric points of solid oxides, solid hydroxides, and aqueous hydroxo complex systems" in Chemical Reviews. The point of zero charge (PZC) and isoelectric point (IEP) became standard parameters to characterize metal oxides in aqueous dispersions, and they define adsorption (surface excess) of ions, stability against coagulation, rheological properties of dispersions, etc...
November 5, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881142/ethnoagroforestry-integration-of-biocultural-diversity-for-food-sovereignty-in-mexico
#3
Ana Isabel Moreno-Calles, Alejandro Casas, Alexis Daniela Rivero-Romero, Yessica Angélica Romero-Bautista, Selene Rangel-Landa, Roberto Alexander Fisher-Ortíz, Fernando Alvarado-Ramos, Mariana Vallejo-Ramos, Dídac Santos-Fita
BACKGROUND: Documenting the spectrum of ecosystem management, the roles of forestry and agricultural biodiversity, TEK, and human culture for food sovereignty, are all priority challenges for contemporary science and society. Ethnoagroforestry is a research approach that provides a theoretical framework integrating socio-ecological disciplines and TEK. We analyze in this study general types of Agroforestry Systems of México, in which peasants, small agriculturalist, and indigenous people are the main drivers of AFS and planning of landscape diversity use...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870054/a-plant-growth-form-dataset-for-the-new-world
#4
K Engemann, B Sandel, B Boyle, B J Enquist, P M Jørgensen, J Kattge, B J McGill, N Morueta-Holme, R K Peet, N J Spencer, C Violle, S K Wiser, J-C Svenning
This dataset provides growth form classifications for 67,413 vascular plant species from North, Central, and South America. The data used to determine growth form were compiled from five major integrated sources and two original publications: the Botanical Information and Ecology Network (BIEN), the Plant Trait Database (TRY), the SALVIAS database, the USDA PLANTS database, Missouri Botanical Garden's Tropicos database, Wright (2010), and Boyle (1996). We defined nine plant growth forms based on woodiness (woody or non-woody), shoot structure (self-supporting or not self-supporting), and root traits (rooted in soil, not rooted in soil, parasitic or aquatic): Epiphyte, Liana, Vine, Herb, Shrub, Tree, Parasite, or Aquatic...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867310/the-north-wyke-farm-platform-effect-of-temperate-grassland-farming-systems-on-soil-moisture-contents-runoff-and-associated-water-quality-dynamics
#5
R J Orr, P J Murray, C J Eyles, M S A Blackwell, L M Cardenas, A L Collins, J A J Dungait, K W T Goulding, B A Griffith, S J Gurr, P Harris, J M B Hawkins, T H Misselbrook, C Rawlings, A Shepherd, H Sint, T Takahashi, K N Tozer, A P Whitmore, L Wu, M R F Lee
: The North Wyke Farm Platform was established as a United Kingdom national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences. Its remit is to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices for beef and sheep production in lowland grasslands. A system based on permanent pasture was implemented on three 21-ha farmlets to obtain baseline data on hydrology, nutrient cycling and productivity for 2 years...
July 2016: European Journal of Soil Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805623/dermal-absorption-of-benzo-a-pyrene-into-human-skin-from-soil-effect-of-artificial-weathering-concentration-and-exposure-duration
#6
Trevor K Peckham, Jeffry H Shirai, Annette L Bunge, Yvette W Lowney, Michael V Ruby, John C Kissel
In vitro assessments of (14)C-benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) absorption through human epidermis were conducted with the sub-63-μm fraction of four test soils containing different amounts of organic and black carbon. Soils were artificially weathered for eight weeks and applied to epidermis at nominal BaP concentrations of 3 and 10 mg/kg for 8 or 24 h. Experiments were also conducted at 24 h with unweathered soils and with BaP deposited onto skin from acetone at a comparable chemical load. For the weathered soils, absorption was independent of the amount of organic or black carbon, the mass in the receptor fluid was proportional to exposure duration but independent of concentration, and the mass recovered in the skin after washing was proportional to concentration and independent of exposure time...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760848/five-new-species-of-the-obligate-mycoparasite-syncephalisi-zoopagales-zoopagomycotina-from-soil
#7
Gerald L Benny, Hsiao-Man Ho, Katy Lazarus, Matthew E Smith
More than 520 soil samples were surveyed for species of the mycoparasitic zygomycete genus Syncephalis using a culture-based approach. These fungi are relatively common in soil using the optimal conditions for growing both the host and parasite. Five species obtained in dual culture are unknown to science and are described here: (i) S. digitata with sporangiophores short, merosporangia separate at the apices, simple, 3-5 spored; (ii) S. floridana, which forms galls in the host and has sporangiophores up to 170 µm long with unbranched merosporangia that contain 2-4 spores; (iii) S...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752453/the-2015-annual-meeting-of-setac-german-language-branch-in-zurich-7-10-september-2015-ecotoxicology-and-environmental-chemistry-from-research-to-application
#8
Inge Werner, Annette Aldrich, Benjamin Becker, Dennis Becker, Markus Brinkmann, Michael Burkhardt, Norbert Caspers, Sophie Campiche, Nathalie Chèvre, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Beate I Escher, Fabian Fischer, Sabrina Giebner, Katharina Heye, Henner Hollert, Marion Junghans, Cornelia Kienle, Katja Knauer, Muris Korkaric, Veronika Märkl, Jane Muncke, Jörg Oehlmann, Georg Reifferscheid, Daniel Rensch, Andreas Schäffer, Sabrina Schiwy, Simon Schwarz, Helmut Segner, Eszter Simon, Rita Triebskorn, Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Thomas Wintgens, Markus Zennegg
This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, and Mesocosm GmbH (Germany)...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742090/mycology-in-palaeoecology-and-forensic-science
#9
Patricia E J Wiltshire
Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721815/overcoming-phosphorus-deficiency-in-west-african-pearl-millet-and-sorghum-production-systems-promising-options-for-crop-improvement
#10
Dorcus C Gemenet, Willmar L Leiser, Francesca Beggi, Ludger H Herrmann, Vincent Vadez, Henry F W Rattunde, Eva Weltzien, Charles T Hash, Andreas Buerkert, Bettina I G Haussmann
West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681873/derivation-of-ecological-criteria-for-copper-in-land-applied-biosolids-and-biosolid-amended-agricultural-soils
#11
Tao Lu, Jumei Li, Xiaoqing Wang, Yibing Ma, Erik Smolders, Nanwen Zhu
The difference in availability between soil metals added via biosolids and soluble salts was not taken into account in deriving the current land-applied biosolids standards. In the present study, a biosolids availability factor (BAF) approach was adopted to investigate the ecological thresholds for copper (Cu) in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. First, the soil property-specific values of HC5add (the added hazardous concentration for 5% of species) for Cu(2+) salt amended were collected with due attention to data for organisms and soils relevant to China...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664958/3d-deformation-field-in-growing-plant-roots-reveals-both-mechanical-and-biological-responses-to-axial-mechanical-forces
#12
François Bizet, A Glyn Bengough, Irène Hummel, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Lionel X Dupuy
Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651268/from-agricultural-use-of-sewage-sludge-to-nutrient-extraction-a-soil-science-outlook
#13
Holger Kirchmann, Gunnar Börjesson, Thomas Kätterer, Yariv Cohen
The composition of municipal wastewater and sewage sludge reflects the use and proliferation of elements and contaminants within society. In Sweden, official statistics show that concentrations of toxic metals in municipal sewage sludge have steadily decreased, by up to 90 %, since the 1970s, due to environmental programmes and statutory limits on metals in sludge and soil. Results from long-term field experiments show that reduced metal pollution during repeated sewage sludge application has reversed negative trends in soil biology...
September 20, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603135/ultrahigh-dimensional-variable-selection-for-interpolation-of-point-referenced-spatial-data-a-digital-soil-mapping-case-study
#14
Benjamin R Fitzpatrick, David W Lamb, Kerrie Mengersen
Modern soil mapping is characterised by the need to interpolate point referenced (geostatistical) observations and the availability of large numbers of environmental characteristics for consideration as covariates to aid this interpolation. Modelling tasks of this nature also occur in other fields such as biogeography and environmental science. This analysis employs the Least Angle Regression (LAR) algorithm for fitting Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) penalized Multiple Linear Regressions models...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571342/chemical-sensitivity-of-the-sulfur-k-edge-x-ray-absorption-spectra-of-organic-disulfides
#15
Ingrid J Pickering, Monica Barney, Julien J H Cotelesage, Linda Vogt, M Jake Pushie, Andrew Nissan, Roger C Prince, Graham N George
Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy increasingly is used as a tool to provide speciation information about the sulfur chemical form in complex samples, with applications ranging from fossil fuels to soil science to health research. As part of an ongoing program of systematic investigations of the factors that affect the variability of sulfur K near-edge spectra, we have examined the X-ray absorption spectra of a series of organic symmetric disulfide compounds. We have used polarized sulfur K-edge spectra of single crystals of dibenzyl disulfide to confirm the assignments of the major transitions in the spectrum as 1s → (S-S)σ* and 1s → (S-C)σ*...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568575/the-formal-electronic-recycling-industry-challenges-and-opportunities-in-occupational-and-environmental-health-research
#16
Diana Maria Ceballos, Zhao Dong
BACKGROUND: E-waste includes electrical and electronic equipment discarded as waste without intent of reuse. Informal e-waste recycling, typically done in smaller, unorganized businesses, can expose workers and communities to serious chemical health hazards. It is unclear if formalization into larger, better-controlled electronics recycling (e-recycling) facilities solves environmental and occupational health problems. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on occupational and environmental health hazards of formal e-recycling facilities and discuss challenges and opportunities to strengthen research in this area...
October 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477915/correlation-analysis-of-the-natural-radionuclides-in-soil-and-indoor-radon-in-vojvodina-province-of-serbia
#17
S Forkapic, D Maletić, J Vasin, K Bikit, D Mrdja, I Bikit, V Udovičić, R Banjanac
The most dominant source of indoor radon is the underlying soil, so the enhanced levels of radon are usually expected in mountain regions and geology units with high radium and uranium content in surface soils. Laboratory for radioactivity and dose measurement, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad has rich databases of natural radionuclides concentrations in Vojvodina soil and also of indoor radon concentrations for the region of Vojvodina, Northern Province of Serbia. In this paper we present the results of correlative and multivariate analysis of these results and soil characteristics in order to estimate the geogenic radon potential...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471578/complete-genome-of-nitrosospira-briensis-c-128-an-ammonia-oxidizing-bacterium-from-agricultural-soil
#18
Marlen C Rice, Jeanette M Norton, Frederica Valois, Annette Bollmann, Peter J Bottomley, Martin G Klotz, Hendrikus J Laanbroek, Yuichi Suwa, Lisa Y Stein, Luis Sayavedra-Soto, Tanja Woyke, Nicole Shapiro, Lynne A Goodwin, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Nikos Kyrpides, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Victor Markowitz, Krishna Palaniappan, Natalia Ivanova, Dimitrios Stamatis, T B K Reddy, Chew Yee Ngan, Chris Daum
Nitrosospira briensis C-128 is an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from an acid agricultural soil. N. briensis C-128 was sequenced with PacBio RS technologies at the DOE-Joint Genome Institute through their Community Science Program (2010). The high-quality finished genome contains one chromosome of 3.21 Mb and no plasmids. We identified 3073 gene models, 3018 of which are protein coding. The two-way average nucleotide identity between the chromosomes of Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196 and Nitrosospira briensis C-128 was found to be 77...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461162/evaluation-of-potential-human-health-effects-associated-with-the-agricultural-uses-of-1-3-d-spatial-and-temporal-stochastic-risk-analysis
#19
Jeffrey H Driver, Paul S Price, Ian Van Wesenbeeck, John H Ross, Sean Gehen, Larry R Holden, Bryce Landenberger, Kerry Hastings, Zhongyu June Yan, Reza Rasoulpour
Dow AgroSciences (DAS) markets and sells 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), the active ingredient in Telone®, which is used as a pre-plant soil fumigant nematicide in economically important crops in California. 1,3-D has been regulated as a "probable human carcinogen" and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation limits use of 1,3-D based on human health risk assessments for bystanders. This paper presents a risk characterization for bystanders based on advances in the assessment of both exposure and hazard...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453164/consensus-report-of-the-2015-weinman-international-conference-on-mesothelioma
#20
Michele Carbone, Shreya Kanodia, Ann Chao, Aubrey Miller, Anil Wali, David Weissman, Alex Adjei, Francine Baumann, Paolo Boffetta, Brenda Buck, Marc de Perrot, A Umran Dogan, Steve Gavett, Alessandro Gualtieri, Raffit Hassan, Mary Hesdorffer, Fred R Hirsch, David Larson, Weimin Mao, Scott Masten, Harvey I Pass, Julian Peto, Enrico Pira, Ian Steele, Anne Tsao, Gavitt Alida Woodard, Haining Yang, Shakun Malik
On November 9 and 10, 2015, the International Conference on Mesothelioma in Populations Exposed to Naturally Occurring Asbestiform Fibers was held at the University of Hawaii Cancer Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The meeting was cosponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and the agenda was designed with significant input from staff at the U.S. National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. A multidisciplinary group of participants presented updates reflecting a range of disciplinary perspectives, including mineralogy, geology, epidemiology, toxicology, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, public health, and clinical oncology...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
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