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Pediatric infectious disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791967/global-emergency-medicine-a-review-of-the-literature-from-2017
#1
Torben K Becker, Indi Trehan, Alison Schroth Hayward, Braden J Hexom, Sean M Kivlehan, Kevin M Lunney, Payal Modi, Maxwell Osei-Ampofo, Amelia Pousson, Daniel K Cho, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: The Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) conducts an annual search of peer-reviewed and gray literature relevant to global emergency medicine (EM) to identify, review, and disseminate the most important new research in this field to a global audience of academics and clinical practitioners. METHODS: This year, 17,722 articles written in three languages were identified by our electronic search. These articles were distributed among 20 reviewers for initial screening based on their relevance to the field of global EM...
May 23, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788443/pediatric-infectious-diseases-meets-the-future
#2
Janet R Gilsdorf, Paul Spearman, Janet A Englund, Tina Q Tan, Kristina A Bryant
Pediatric infectious diseases physicians are dedicated to the diagnosis, prevention, and management of infections in children. As such, we play large, and important, roles in the clinical care of children from birth to late adolescence and in infection prevention, antimicrobial stewardship, research pertaining to infections, public health, international and global health, and advocacy for children's health. Furthermore, we are critical to the education of future physicians (in general), pediatricians, and infectious diseases doctors...
May 19, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784250/update-on-pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
A Ruet
Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has distinctive features compared with adult-onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS), and warrants caution despite being a rare form of MS. POMS diagnostic criteria are somewhat different from those used in AOMS, with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis being a key differential diagnosis of MS in children. Other differential diagnoses that have to be ruled out before diagnosing MS include demyelinating syndromes, autoimmune and systemic pathologies, and infectious, genetic, metabolic and neoplastic diseases...
May 18, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782414/osteomyelitis-a-context-for-wound-management
#4
Mary E Groll, Timothy Woods, Richard Salcido
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide an overview of osteomyelitis. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:1. Distinguish the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis in children and adults.2. Identify practical considerations for diagnosis and evidence-based treatment of osteomyelitis...
June 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778284/-clinical-and-epidemiological-profile-of-pediatric-uveitis-course-of-inflammatory-uveitis-treated-with-anti-tnf-alpha
#5
D Osswald, A C Rameau, C Speeg-Schatz, J Terzic, A Sauer
INTRODUCTION: Uveitis is the leading cause of acquired childhood blindness with a prevalence of 30 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. There are multiple causes ; nevertheless, there is no standardized etiological assessment. The goal of our study is to define an epidemiological and clinical profile of uveitis diagnosed in a university hospital and their course when treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All cases of uveitis under 18 years old, from 1994 to 2016, were included...
May 16, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776891/chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-in-pediatrics-a-diagnostic-challenge
#6
N Roig-Abraham, M Méndez-Hernández, M Martínez-Morillo
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory disease that presents with aseptic bone inflammation and can be accompanied by multisystemic symptoms. We present the case of a 14-year-old male with a 2-week history of pain located at the tibial metaphysis and fever. X-ray revealed a lytic lesion in the tibial metaphysis. MRI revealed an intramedullary bone lesion with perilesional bone oedema. CT-guided biopsy discounted malignancy and microbiological cultures were negative. The patient's symptoms and fever worsened after the biopsy; therefore antibiotherapy was commenced for a suspected superinfection...
May 15, 2018: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776870/historical-bibliometric-analysis-of-the-top-cited-articles-on-vesicoureteral-reflux-1950-2016-and-incorporation-of-a-novel-impact-index
#7
N Fernandez, A Puerto, A Azuero, F O'Kelly, J Hannick, M Rickard, A Kirsch, A Caldamone, M Koyle
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been one of the defining conditions unique to pediatric urology since its inception. The clinical implications of this disease process depend on intrinsic patient factors such as age, genetics, epigenetics, voiding habits, anatomic anomalies, and extrinsic factors such as the pathogenicity of infectious agents. Knowledge about its natural history, the implications of conservative and surgical management, and their associated outcomes have evolved dramatically over time...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771638/the-first-report-evaluating-the-post-exposure-rabies-prophylaxis-in-children-exposed-to-animals-in-the-lublin-province-eastern-poland-in-2010-2016-a-retrospective-study
#8
Joanna Krzowska-Firych, Ewelina Mazurek, Barbara Hasiec, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Rabies continues to be one of the most important viral diseases and remains a significant threat to public health across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined that most rabies cases occur in children. Dog bites on humans are a major public-health problem. Poland has not achieved rabies free status yet. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in humans can effectively prevent death after exposure to a potentially infected animal. THE AIM: The main objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of PEP among children exposed to animals, who had attended consultations at the Department of Infectious Diseases for Children in the Jan Boży Hospital in Lublin...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770997/gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel-for-pediatric-relapsed-refractory-sarcomas
#9
Jonathan L Metts, Adina L Alazraki, Dana Clark, Ernest K Amankwah, Karen J Wasilewski-Masker, Bradley A George, Thomas A Olson, Thomas Cash
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory sarcomas have poor outcomes and need novel therapies that provide disease control while maintaining an acceptable quality of life. The activity and toxicity of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in combination has not been reported in pediatrics. PROCEDURE: We reviewed the records of fifteen relapsed/refractory patients and one treatment-naïve patient who received gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel at our institution...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769027/immune-monitoring-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-the-prospective-chilsfree-cohort-study
#10
Imeke Goldschmidt, André Karch, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Frauke Mutschler, Norman Junge, Eva Doreen Pfister, Tamara Möhring, Lorenzo d'Antiga, Patrick McKiernan, Deirdre Kelly, Dominique Debray, Valérie McLin, Joanna Pawlowska, Loreto Hierro, Kerstin Daemen, Jana Keil, Christine Falk, Ulrich Baumann
BACKGROUND: Although trough levels of immunosuppressive drugs are largely used to monitor immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation, there is still no established tool that allows for a validated assessment of functional degree of immunosuppression or the identification of clinically relevant over- or under-immunosuppression, depending on graft homeostasis. Reliable non-invasive markers to predict biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) do not exist. Literature data suggest that longitudinal measurements of immune markers might be predictive of BPAR, but data in children are scarce...
May 16, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768293/seasonality-of-common-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#11
Susan C Lipsett, Michael C Monuteaux, Andrew M Fine
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Traditional sources cite seasonal patterns for common infectious diseases, often based on microbiologic data, but little is known about cyclical trends in clinically diagnosed infectious conditions in the emergency department (ED). We leveraged the publicly available Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database to measure the seasonality of the most common pediatric infectious diseases diagnosed in US EDs. METHODS: We searched the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database to identify infectious diagnoses comprising at least 1% of all diagnosis codes ascribed to patients 21 years and younger in US EDs from 2009 to 2013...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754884/circulating-salivary-mirna-hsa-mir-221-as-clinically-validated-diagnostic-marker-for-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-pediatric-patients
#12
Nyo Min, Previtha Dawn Sakthi Vale, Anng Anng Wong, Natalie Woon Hui Tan, Chia Yin Chong, Chih-Jung Chen, Robert Y L Wang, Justin Jang Hann Chu
Enhancements in the diagnostic capabilities using host biomarkers are currently much needed where sensitivity and specificity issues plague the diagnosis of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in pediatrics clinical samples. We investigated miRNome profiles of HFMD saliva samples against healthy children and developed miRNA-based diagnosis models. Our 6-miRNA scoring model predicted HFMD with an overall accuracy of 85.11% in the training set and 92.86% in the blinded test set of Singapore cohort. Blinded evaluation of the model in Taiwan HFMD cases resulted in 77...
May 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752177/prescription-drug-shortages-implications-for-ambulatory-pediatrics
#13
Katie A Donnelly, Mark S Zocchi, Tamara A Katy, Erin R Fox, John N van den Anker, Maryann E Mazer-Amirshahi
OBJECTIVE: To describe contemporary drug shortages affecting general ambulatory pediatrics. STUDY DESIGN: Data from January 2001 to December 2015 were obtained from the University of Utah Drug Information Service. Two pediatricians reviewed drug shortages and identified agents used in ambulatory pediatrics. Shortage data were analyzed by the type of drug, formulation, reason for shortage, duration, marketing status, if a pediatric friendly-formulation was available, or if it was a single-source product...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741721/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#14
Sean T O'Leary, David W Kimberlin, Yvonne A Maldonado
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, each of whom is appointed to a 4-year term. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. The ACIP met on October 25 and 26, 2017, to discuss herpes zoster vaccine, the child/adolescent and adult vaccination schedules, Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemiology and vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines, anthrax vaccines and disaster preparedness, hepatitis A outbreaks, influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage, vaccine safety, and considerations for a potential third dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine to combat ongoing mumps outbreaks...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739471/vitamin-d-in-pediatric-age-consensus-of-the-italian-pediatric-society-and-the-italian-society-of-preventive-and-social-pediatrics-jointly-with-the-italian-federation-of-pediatricians
#15
REVIEW
Giuseppe Saggese, Francesco Vierucci, Flavia Prodam, Fabio Cardinale, Irene Cetin, Elena Chiappini, Gian Luigi De' Angelis, Maddalena Massari, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Diego Peroni, Luigi Terracciano, Rino Agostiniani, Domenico Careddu, Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni, Gianni Bona, Giuseppe Di Mauro, Giovanni Corsello
Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in the regulation of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, particularly during pediatric age when nutritional rickets and impaired bone mass acquisition may occur.Besides its historical skeletal functions, in the last years it has been demonstrated that vitamin D directly or indirectly regulates up to 1250 genes, playing so-called extraskeletal actions. Indeed, recent data suggest a possible role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of several pathological conditions, including infectious, allergic and autoimmune diseases...
May 8, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730731/the-global-face-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-advocacy-and-research-groups
#16
REVIEW
Christine James, Amal Assa'ad
Although eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been described in the literature for a substantial period, its recognition as a disease entity on the global stage is still relatively new. It has become a major diagnosis of consideration by medical providers when both adult and pediatric patients present with dysphagia, food impaction, and gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms. In addition to the clinical work of specialists such as allergy-immunologists and gastroenterologists, the evolution of research organizations and advocacy groups focused on EoE have greatly assisted in bringing attention to, and raising awareness about, this disease...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719647/common-orbital-infections-state-of-the-art-part-i
#17
REVIEW
Shirin Hamed-Azzam, Islam AlHashash, Daniel Briscoe, Geoffrey E Rose, David H Verity
Infections of the orbit and periorbita are relatively frequent, and can cause significant local and systemic morbidity. Loss of vision occurs in more than 10% of patients, and systemic sequelae can include meningitis, intracranial abscess, and death. Numerous organisms infect the orbit, but the most common are bacteria. There are many methods through which orbital infections occur, with infection from the neighboring ethmoid sinuses the most likely cause for all age groups. Prompt management is essential in suspected orbital cellulitis, and involves urgent intravenous antibiotics, rehydration, and treatment of any co-existent underlying systemic disease, e...
April 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714556/juvenile-animal-testing-assessing-need-and-use-in-the-drug-product-label
#18
Paul Baldrick
BACKGROUND: Juvenile animal testing has become an established part of drug development to support safe clinical use in the human pediatric population and for eventual drug product label use. METHODS AND RESULTS: A review of European Paediatric Investigation Plan decisions showed that from 2007 to mid-2017, 229 drugs had juvenile animal work requested, almost exclusively incorporating general toxicology study designs, in rat (57.5%), dog (8%), mouse (4.5%), monkey (4%), pig (2%), sheep (1%), rabbit (1%), hamster (0...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698961/impact-of-serum-vancomycin-trough-levels-in-the-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-shunt-infections-caused-by-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#19
Ashley Gibson, Sheldon L Kaplan, Jesus G Vallejo
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a common cause of pediatric ventricular shunt infections. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends vancomycin serum troughs of 15-20 µg/mL when treating CoNS shunt infections in adult patients. We report a series of pediatric cases of CoNS shunt infections in which clinical cure was obtained with troughs < 15 µg/mL. These findings question the relevance of this recommendation in pediatric patients.
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696475/leukemoid-reaction-in-the-pediatric-population-etiologies-outcome-and-implications
#20
Assaf Hoofien, Havatzelet Yarden-Bilavski, Shai Ashkenazi, Gabriel Chodick, Gilat Livni
Leukemoid reaction (WBC > 30,000/μL) may indicate significant medical conditions, mostly infectious. Prompted by the lack of population-based data on the presentation, characteristics, and necessary workup in children with leukemoid reaction, we searched the database of a tertiary pediatric medical center for all children presented with at least one WBC count of ≥ 30,000/μL in 2009-2014. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were recorded. Children admitted with WBC < 30,000/μL served as controls...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
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