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Pediatric infectious disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922908/vitamin-d-status-in-internationally-adopted-children-the-experience-in-northwest-italy
#1
Irene Raffaldi, Silvia Garazzino, Giuseppina Ballardini, Mauro Zaffaroni, Nicolino Grasso, Gianni Bona, Pier-Angelo Tovo, Andrea Guala
BACKGROUND: The majority of internationally adopted children, before adoption, might have experienced malnutrition, exposure to infectious diseases, environmental deprivation and neglect; they could also develop medical problems such as vitamin D deficiency. Scantly data are available about vitamin D status in internationally adopted children and, to our knowledge, no report exists on Italian adoptees. METHODS: We carried out a prospective multicenter study, involving three Pediatric Centers in Piedmont, Italy, in order to collect information about 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] profile in adoptees, shortly after their arrival in Italy...
September 15, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#2
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915796/correlates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-failure-in-child-household-contacts-with-infectious-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-settings-in-nairobi-kenya-a-cohort-study
#3
Florence Nafula Okwara, John Paul Oyore, Fred Nabwire Were, Samson Gwer
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. We conducted a study to elucidate correlates to IPT strategy failure in children below 5 years in high burden settings. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was done in informal settlings in Nairobi, where children under 5 years in household contact with recently diagnosed smear positive TB adults were enrolled...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914333/-acute-skin-infections-and-their-imitators-in-children-a-photo-quiz
#4
REVIEW
M Theiler, A Schwieger-Briel, L Weibel
BACKGROUND: Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. OBJECTIVES: To illustrate frequent pediatric skin infections and pitfalls in view of imitators and differential diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A photo quiz is presented with the discussion of a selection of acute pediatric skin infections in comparison to their infectious or noninfectious differential diagnoses...
September 15, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904571/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-as-an-additional-diagnostic-tool-in-children-with-acute-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#5
Voitenkov Vladislav Voitenkov, Klimkin Andrey, Skripchenko Natalia, Aksenova Anastasia
CONTEXT: The diagnosis of polyneuropathy may be challenging at the early stages of the disease. Despite electromyography (EMG) efficacy in the establishment of polyneuropathy diagnosis, in some cases, results are dubious and neurophysiologists may implement additional techniques to ensure that conduction is affected. AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate motor-evoked potential (MEP) characteristics in children with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904072/validation-of-a-novel-assay-to-distinguish-bacterial-and-viral-infections
#6
Isaac Srugo, Adi Klein, Michal Stein, Orit Golan-Shany, Nogah Kerem, Irina Chistyakov, Jacob Genizi, Oded Glazer, Liat Yaniv, Alina German, Dan Miron, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas, Ellen Bamberger, Kfir Oved, Tanya M Gottlieb, Roy Navon, Meital Paz, Liat Etshtein, Olga Boico, Gali Kronenfeld, Eran Eden, Robert Cohen, Helène Chappuy, François Angoulvant, Laurence Lacroix, Alain Gervaix
BACKGROUND: Reliably distinguishing bacterial from viral infections is often challenging, leading to antibiotic misuse. A novel assay that integrates measurements of blood-borne host-proteins (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, interferon γ-induced protein-10, and C-reactive protein [CRP]) was developed to assist in differentiation between bacterial and viral disease. METHODS: We performed double-blind, multicenter assay evaluation using serum remnants collected at 5 pediatric emergency departments and 2 wards from children ≥3 months to ≤18 years without (n = 68) and with (n = 529) suspicion of acute infection...
September 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903515/update-from-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices
#7
Sean T O'Leary, Yvonne A Maldonado, Carrie L Byington
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (C...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894730/specialty-grand-challenge-in-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#8
EDITORIAL
Philippe Lepage, Sophie Blumental
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884825/parental-versus-non-parental-directed-donation-an-11-year-experience-of-infectious-disease-testing-at-a-pediatric-tertiary-care-blood-donor-center
#9
Cyril Jacquot, Andrew Seo, Peter M Miller, Niara Lezama, Valli R Criss, Camilla Colvin, Naomi L C Luban, Edward C C Wong
BACKGROUND: Directed donation is associated with a higher prevalence of donations that are positive for infectious disease markers; however, little is known about the positive rates among parental-directed, non-parental-directed, and allogeneic donations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We reviewed blood-collection records from January 1997 through December 2008, including infectious disease results, among parental, non-parental, and community donations. Infectious disease rates were compared by Mann-Whitney U test...
September 8, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883971/vaccination-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-implications-for-protection-of-their-young-infants
#10
REVIEW
Ziyaad Dangor, Marta C Nunes, Gaurav Kwatra, Sanjay G Lala, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882583/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-in-hospitalized-young-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-southern-taiwan-according-to-major-pathogens
#11
Ning Chung, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Fen Shen, Fu-Chun Kuo, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Jung-Jung Mu, Fang-Tzy Wu, Li-Min Huang, Yi-Chuan Huang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsin Chi, Hsiao-Chuan Lin, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) can be caused by a wide array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. A prospective study to investigate the epidemiology and clinical presentation in young children hospitalized with AGE was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. METHODS: Patients aged less than 5 years who was hospitalized due to AGE in National Cheng Kung University Hospital were enrolled from July 2014 to June 2016. The demographic information, clinical features and laboratory data were collected by chart reviews, and stool samples were sent to Centers of Disease Control, Taiwan (Taiwan CDC) for a panel of pathogen identification consisting of two viruses, nine bacteria, and five parasites...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870977/recommendations-for-prevention-and-control-of-influenza-in-children-2017-2018
#12
(no author information available yet)
This statement updates the recommendations for routine use of the seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends annual seasonal influenza immunization for everyone 6 months and older, including children and adolescents. Highlights for the upcoming 2017-2018 season include the following:1. Annual universal influenza immunization is indicated with either a trivalent or quadrivalent (no preference) inactivated vaccine;2...
September 4, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861733/patterns-of-uveitis-in-children-at-the-apex-institute-for-eye-care-in-india-analysis-and-review-of-literature
#13
Brijesh Takkar, Pradeep Venkatesh, Nripen Gaur, Sat Pal Garg, Rajpal Vohra, Supriyo Ghose
AIM: To study patterns of uveitis in Indian children and compare with data sets published earlier in the literature. METHODS: Consecutive patients below 16 years of age presenting to the uvea clinic of a tertiary eye care center were included prospectively through the period of July 2009-August 2013. Children with retinal vasculitis, exogenous endophthalmitis and masquerade syndromes were excluded from analysis. Uveitis was classified as per the nomenclature system adopted by the International Uveitis Study Group...
August 31, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852682/the-intestinal-microbiome-in-infectious-diseases-the-clinical-relevance-of-a-rapidly-emerging-field
#14
REVIEW
Vanessa C Harris, Bastiaan W Haak, Michaël Boele van Hensbroek, Willem J Wiersinga
The field of infectious disease is undergoing a paradigm shift as the intestinal microbiome is becoming understood. The aim of this review is to inform infectious disease physicians of the potential relevance of the intestinal microbiome to their practice. We searched Medline using both index and text words relating to infectious diseases, microbiome, and probiotics. Relevant articles published up through 2017 were reviewed within Rayyan. The review illustrates pathophysiologic concepts linking the microbiome and infectious diseases; specifically, the intestinal microbiome's relevance to early immune development, the microbiome and enteric infections, the microbiome's relevance in compromised hosts, and antimicrobial resistance...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831857/paranasal-sinus-disease-in-children-with-headache
#15
Ronan J Vieira Neto, Karine C S Teixeira, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Maria Augusta Montenegro
BACKGROUND: Sinus headache is one of the most frequent misdiagnosis given to children with headache. The objective of this study is to evaluate the frequency of sinus disease in children with headache that do not fulfill the criteria for headache attributed to disorder of the nose or paranasal sinuses. METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted at the authors' pediatric neurology clinic. Data from children with headache was evaluated and compared with a disease control group composed of children without history of headache...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822429/-recommendation-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chinese-children-with-pertussis
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816966/causes-of-hematochezia-and-hemorrhagic-antibiotic-associated-colitis-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
Laura Stampfer, Andrea Deutschmann, Elisabeth Dür, Franz G Eitelberger, Theresia Fürpass, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Peter Heinz-Erian, Ingrid Heller, Kathrin Herzog, Barbara Hopfer, Reinhold Kerbl, Evelyn Klug, Robert Krause, Eva Leitner, Christoph Mache, Thomas Müller, Jasmin Pansy, Mirjam Pocivalnik, Eva Scheuba, Georg Schneditz, Gerolf Schweintzger, Edith Sterniczky, Ellen Zechner, Almuthe C Hauer, Christoph Högenauer, Karl Martin Hoffmann
Diseases causing hematochezia range from benign to potentially life-threatening. Systematic pediatric data on the causes of hematochezia are scarce. We studied the underlying causes and long-term outcome of hematochezia in children. We further investigated the relevance of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis in children, especially if caused by Klebsiella oxytoca.Infants, children, and adolescents with hematochezia were recruited prospectively. Patients were grouped according to age (<1 year, 1-5 years, 6-13 years, >14 years)...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813644/rotavirus-disease-course-among-immunocompromised-patients-5-year-observations-from-a-tertiary-care-medical-centre
#18
P Bruijning-Verhagen, M D Nipshagen, H de Graaf, M J M Bonten
Rotavirus (RV) is highly endemic inside and outside hospital-settings. Immunocompromised children and adults are at risk of complicated rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), but general rotavirus disease severity in this group remains poorly described and rotavirus testing is not routinely performed beyond infancy. We assessed rotavirus disease among immunocompromised hospitalized patients. METHODS: Rotavirus infections at a Dutch tertiary-care centre were identified from 5-year laboratory records...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808486/the-saudi-thoracic-society-guidelines-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-noncystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#19
Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Abdullah Alshimemeri, Abdullah Mobeireek, Amr S Albanna, Nehad N Al Shirawi, Siraj Wali, Khaled Alkattan, Abdulrahman A Alrajhi, Khalid Mobaireek, Hassan S Alorainy, Mohamed S Al-Hajjaj, Anne B Chang, Stefano Aliberti
This is the first guideline developed by the Saudi Thoracic Society for the diagnosis and management of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Local experts including pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, thoracic surgeons, respiratory therapists, and others from adult and pediatric departments provided the best practice evidence recommendations based on the available international and local literature. The main objective of this guideline is to utilize the current published evidence to develop recommendations about management of bronchiectasis suitable to our local health-care system and available resources...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806468/an-overview-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#20
Ysabella M Esteban, Jill L O de Jong, Melissa S Tesher
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lymphocytes and macrophages that results in hypercytokinemia. It is classically divided into two types: (1) primary or familial HLH and (2) secondary HLH. Familial HLH is generally an autosomal recessive condition, whereas secondary HLH is usually associated with infectious diseases, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (where it is more commonly known as macrophage activation syndrome), malignancy, immunosuppression, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, organ transplantation, HIV infection, and metabolic diseases...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
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