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sympathetic denervation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212603/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-cardiac-oxidative-stress-and-local-activity-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-renin-angiotensin-system-in-acute-myocardial-infracted-dogs
#1
Qiaoli Feng, Chengzhi Lu, Li Wang, Lijun Song, Chao Li, Ravi Chandra Uppada
BACKGROUND: This study sought to evaluate the therapeutic effects of renal denervation (RDN) on acute myocardial infarction (MI) in canines and explore its possible mechanisms of action. METHODS: Eighteen healthy mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to either the control group, the MI group or the MI + RDN group. To assess cardiac function, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESD) and fraction shortening (FS) were recorded...
February 17, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190561/correlation-between-the-high-frequency-content-of-the-qrs-on-murine-surface-electrocardiogram-and-the-sympathetic-nerves-density-in-left-ventricle-after-myocardial-infarction-experimental-study
#2
Golriz Sedaghat, Ryan T Gardner, Muammar M Kabir, Elyar Ghafoori, Beth A Habecker, Larisa G Tereshchenko
Denervated post-infarct scar is arrhythmogenic. Our aim was to compare QRS frequency content in denervated and innervated left ventricular (LV) scar. In-vivo single lead ECG telemetry device was implanted in 17 heterozygous PTPσ (HET) and 7 lacking PTPσ (KO) transgenic mice. Myocardial infarction (MI) with reperfusion and sham surgery was performed. HET mice developed a denervated scar, whereas KO mice developed innervated scar. The power spectral density was used to assess the QRS frequency content. Denervated as compared to innervated post-MI scar was characterized by the higher relative contribution of 300-500Hz (14±1 vs...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188385/pure-autonomic-failure-without-synucleinopathy
#3
Risa Isonaka, Courtney Holmes, Glen A Cook, Patti Sullivan, Yehonatan Sharabi, David S Goldstein
Pure autonomic failure is a rare form of chronic autonomic failure manifesting with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and evidence of sympathetic noradrenergic denervation unaccompanied by signs of central neurodegeneration. It has been proposed that pure autonomic failure is a Lewy body disease characterized by intra-neuronal deposition of the protein alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neurites. A middle-aged man with previously diagnosed pure autonomic failure experienced a sudden, fatal cardiac arrest. He was autopsied, and tissues were harvested for neurochemical and immunofluorescence studies...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187460/effects-of-renal-denervation-on-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-remodeling
#4
Qian Liu, Jiyang Song, Dasheng Lu, Jie Geng, Zhixin Jiang, Kai Wang, Bin Zhang, Qijun Shan
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a rapidly progressive disorder, which leads to right heart failure and even death. Overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system accounts for the development and progression of PAH. The role of renal denervation (RDN) in different periods of PAH has not been fully elucidated. A single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) was used to induce pulmonary remodeling in male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40). After 24-hour of MCT administration, a subset of rats underwent RDN (RDN24h, n = 10); after 2-week of MCT injection, another ten rats received RDN treatment (RDN2w, n = 10) and the left 20 rats were divided to MCT group with sham RDN operation (MCT, n = 20)...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185233/sympathetic-drive-stimulating-diastolic-dysfunction
#5
EDITORIAL
Saad S Ahmad, Myron C Gerson
Diastolic heart failure accounts for half of the heart failure population and its pathophysiology remains an area of active research. The renin angiotensin and aldosterone axis has been the focus of clinical trials to treat patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, however with limited yield in terms of clinical success. Sympathetic activity has been considered a plausible cause for the molecular changes that lead to diastolic dysfunction. Based on this understanding the study by Gimelli et al uses MIBG to evaluate for association between diastolic dysfunction and sympathetic denervation...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181735/the-innervation-of-the-kidney-in-renal-injury-and-inflammation-a-cause-and-consequence-of-deranged-cardiovascular-control
#6
REVIEW
Mohammed H Abdulla, Edward J Johns
Extensive investigations have revealed that renal sympathetic nerves regulate renin secretion, tubular fluid reabsorption and renal haemodynamics which can impact on cardiovascular homoeostasis normally and in pathophysiological states. The significance of the renal afferent innervation and its role in determining the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is uncertain. The transduction pathways at the renal afferent nerves have been shown to require pro-inflammatory mediators and TRPV1 channels. Reno-renal reflexes have been described, both inhibitory and excitatory, demonstrating that a neural link exists between kidneys and may determine the distribution of excretory and haemodynamic function between the two kidneys...
February 9, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154583/renal-denervation-for-chronic-heart-failure-background-and-pathophysiological-rationale
#7
REVIEW
Michael Böhm, Sebastian Ewen, Felix Mahfoud
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and death in heart failure. Renal denervation has been shown to effectively reduce sympathetic overdrive in certain patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Pilot trials investigating renal denervation as a potential treatment approach for heart failure were initiated. Heart failure comorbidities like obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome and arrhythmias could also be targets for renal denervation, because these occurrences are also mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system...
January 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143710/hepatic-and-renal-mechanisms-underlying-the-osmopressor-response
#8
Tu H Mai, Emily M Garland, André Diedrich, David Robertson
Increased blood pressure (BP) is observed in patients with impaired baroreflexes after water drinking. The stimulus for this effect is low blood osmolality, and it has been termed the osmopressor response (OPR). The BP increase is associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a requirement for transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels. However, the mechanisms underlying the OPR are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that hypotonicity is sensed in the portal area to initiate the OPR...
January 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128201/disruption-of-cardiac-cholinergic-neurons-enhances-susceptibility-to-ventricular-arrhythmias
#9
Christiane Jungen, Katharina Scherschel, Christian Eickholt, Pawel Kuklik, Niklas Klatt, Nadja Bork, Tim Salzbrunn, Fares Alken, Stephan Angendohr, Christiane Klene, Janos Mester, Nikolaj Klöcker, Marieke W Veldkamp, Udo Schumacher, Stephan Willems, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Christian Meyer
The parasympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Catheter ablation, a minimally invasive procedure deactivating abnormal firing cardiac tissue, is increasingly becoming the therapy of choice for atrial fibrillation. This is inevitably associated with the obliteration of cardiac cholinergic neurons. However, the impact on ventricular electrophysiology is unclear. Here we show that cardiac cholinergic neurons modulate ventricular electrophysiology. Mechanical disruption or pharmacological blockade of parasympathetic innervation shortens ventricular refractory periods, increases the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and decreases ventricular cAMP levels in murine hearts...
January 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126465/the-role-of-renal-sympathetic-nerves-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#10
REVIEW
Elisabeth Lambert, Markus Schlaich
Decreased blood flow supply to the kidneys known as renal ischemia/reperfusion is a common occurrence during various clinical and surgical settings. This remains highly concerning as it is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The kidneys have a rich supply of efferent and afferent sympathetic nerves playing a crucial physiological role in regulation of renal function. Studies in animal models of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury have indicated that very early during an ischemic event, the sympathetic nerves are activated and in concert with decreased nitric oxide availability, increased angiotensin II and several other molecules results in renal damage...
January 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106665/effects-of-multielectrode-renal-denervation-on-elevated-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-insulin-resistance-in-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Costas Tsioufis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Alexandros Kasiakogias, Theodore Kalos, Ioannis Liatakis, Evagelia Koutra, Levki Nikolopoulou, Athanasios Kordalis, Rita Omega Ella, Elizabeth Oi-Yan Lau, Guido Grassi, Vasilios Papademetriou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on sympathetic nerve activity and insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Seventeen patients fulfilled at least four of five criteria for metabolic syndrome and under stable use of at least two antihypertensive drugs were randomized in 3 : 1 ratio to RDN (n = 13, 12 men, age: 58 ± 7 years) and control groups (n = 4, three men, age: 60 ± 5 years) and followed up for 3 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106018/cardioneuroablation-in-the-treatment-of-neurally-mediated-reflex-syncope-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#12
Tolga Aksu, Tümer Erdem Güler, Serdar Bozyel, Kazım Serhan Özcan, Kıvanç Yalın, Ferit Onur Mutluer
OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between parasympathetic and sympathetic tone is a main cause of neurally mediated reflex syncope (NMRS). These patients may be very symptomatic and the condition may require cardiac pacemaker implantation. Cardioneuroablation (CNA) is a relatively novel technique based on radiofrequency ablation of vagal ganglia that can be used in treatment of NMRS. The aim of this analysis was to compare potential role of CNA in patients with NMRS. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement, literature search was conducted using the keywords "cardioneuroablation," "vagal denervation," "reflex syncope," "vagal ablation," and "ganglionic plexi ablation...
December 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104100/pathophysiologic-mechanisms-in-heart-failure-role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#13
Steve Antoine, Gaurang Vaidya, Haider Imam, Daniel Villarreal
The syndrome of heart failure involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms and is associated with extremely high-morbidity, mortality and economic costs. This growing global epidemic has diverse etiologies and is fundamentally characterized by dyshomeostasis between heart and kidneys, leading to development and progression of the cardiorenal syndrome. Excessive and sustained sympathoexcitation has emerged as a single prominent factor involved in the structural and functional dysfunction of multiple organ systems during this disease...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089459/effect-of-renal-denervation-on-kidney-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Dagmara Hering, Petra Marusic, Jacqueline Duval, Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head, Kate M Denton, Sally Burrows, Antony S Walton, Murray D Esler, Markus P Schlaich
AIMS: Renal denervation (RDN) can reduce blood pressure (BP) and slow the decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to one year. Whether this effect is maintained beyond 12months and whether the magnitude of BP reduction affects estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined eGFR in 46 CKD patients (baseline eGFR ≤60mL/min/1.73m(2)) on a yearly basis from 60months before to 3, 6, 12 and 24months after RDN...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052866/renal-denervation-in-male-rats-with-heart-failure-improves-ventricular-sympathetic-nerve-innervation-and-function
#15
Maximilian Ichabod Pinkham, Michael T Loftus, Satya Amirapu, Sarah-Jane Guild, Gina Quill, William R Woodward, Beth A Habecker, Carolyn J Barrett
Heart failure is characterized by the loss of sympathetic innervation to the ventricles, contributing to impaired cardiac function and arrhythmogenesis. We hypothesized that renal denervation (RDx) would reverse this loss. Male Wistar rats underwent myocardial infarction (MI) or sham surgery and progressed into heart failure for four weeks before receiving bilateral RDx or sham RDx. After a further three weeks, left ventricular (LV) function was assessed and ventricular sympathetic nerve fibre density determined via histology...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044984/serial-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-angiography-follow-up-of-renal-artery-dimensions-following-treatment-by-four-different-renal-denervation-systems
#16
Laurens van Zandvoort, Matthijs van Kranenburg, Antonios Karanasos, Nicolas Van Mieghem, Mohammed Ouhlous, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Ron van Domburg, Joost Daemen
AIMS: Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is being studied as a therapeutic option for patients with therapy resistant hypertension. It remains unclear if the procedure affects the renal arteries in such a way that luminal narrowing might occur at the mid- to longer-term. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort of 27 patients referred for RDN, quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was used to assess 52 vessels at baseline, 6-, and 12 months post treatment with one out of four different devices...
January 3, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030955/reno-cerebral-reflex-activates-the-renin-angiotensin-system-promoting-oxidative-stress-and-renal-damage-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Wei Cao, Aiqing Li, Jiawen Li, Chunyi Wu, Shuang Cui, Zhanmei Zhou, Youhua Liu, Christopher S Wilcox, Fan Fan Hou
AIMS: A kidney-brain interaction has been described in acute kidney injury, but the mechanisms are uncertain. Since we recently described a reno-cerebral reflex, we tested the hypothesis that renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) activates a sympathetic reflex that interlinks the renal and cerebral renin-angiotensin axis to promote oxidative stress and progression of the injury. RESULTS: Bilateral ischemia-reperfusion activated the intrarenal and cerebral, but not the circulating, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), increased sympathetic activity in the kidney and the cerebral sympathetic regulatory regions, and induced brain inflammation and kidney injury...
January 31, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028761/relationships-between-left-ventricular-sympathetic-innervation-and-diastolic-dysfunction-the-role-of-myocardial-innervation-perfusion-mismatch
#18
Alessia Gimelli, Riccardo Liga, Francesco Avogliero, Michele Coceani, Paolo Marzullo
BACKGROUND: A possible relationship between cardiac sympathetic denervation and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction has been suggested. However, an evaluation of the interactions between myocardial adrenergic tone and LV perfusion and diastolic function is lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-two patients underwent (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin/(123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) cardiac Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) imaging. The summed rest score (SRS) and summed (123)I-MIBG score (SS-MIBG) were computed as measures of regional perfusion and innervation heterogeneities...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024555/innovative-approaches-to-arrhythmic-storm-the-growing-role-of-interventional-procedures
#19
REVIEW
Lena Rivard, Jason Andrade
Arrhythmic or electrical storm (AES) is a clinical condition characterized by 3 or more sustained ventricular arrhythmia episodes leading to appropriate device therapy in a 24-hour period and is associated with very high mortality. The clinical presentation is dramatic, and the management remains challenging. Although pharmacologic treatment and sedation are still part of the initial treatment, newer approaches that include ablation (endocardial, epicardial, or alternative procedures), sympathetic blockade (pharmacologic or by interventional sympathetic denervation), and mechanical hemodynamic support are used increasingly in this setting...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012188/video-assisted-thoracoscopic-left-cardiac-sympathetic-denervation-in-patients-with-hereditary-ventricular-arrhythmias
#20
Se Yong Jang, Yongkeun Cho, Nam Kyun Kim, Chang-Yeon Kim, Jihyun Sohn, Jae-Hyung Roh, Myung Hwan Bae, Jang Hoon Lee, Dong Heon Yang, Hun Sik Park, Shung Chull Chae, Tak-Hyuk Oh, Gun Jik Kim
BACKGROUND: Left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD) has been underutilized in patients with hereditary ventricular arrhythmia syndromes such as congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) LCSD in such patients. METHODS: Fifteen patients (4 men, 24.6 ± 10.5 years old) who underwent VATS-LCSD between November 2010 and January 2015 for hereditary ventricular arrhythmia syndromes at Kyungpook National University Hospital were enrolled in this study...
December 24, 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
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