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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189286/epidural-anesthesia-to-facilitate-organ-blood-flow-during-the-first-penile-transplantation-in-the-united-states-a-case-report
#1
Katarina J Ruscic, Grettel J Zamora-Berridi, Francis J McGovern, Curtis Cetrulo, Jonathan M Winograd, Kyle R Eberlin, Branko Bojovic, Dicken S Ko, T Anthony Anderson
Regional anesthesia has been used to help create local sympathectomy and improve blood flow in plastic surgery procedures involving tissue grafts and flaps. However, anesthetic techniques that reduce systemic vascular resistance must be used with caution in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Combined neuraxial and general anesthesia with careful titration of the local anesthetic dose can be a safe approach for patients with AS undergoing microvascular procedures. We present the anesthetic management of the first North American penile transplant, on an obese patient with moderate AS...
November 16, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135080/a-comparison-of-adherence-and-persistence-by-medication-class-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Andrew McGovern, Zayd Tippu, William Hinton, Neil Munro, Martin Whyte, Simon de Lusignan
Limited medication adherence and persistence are barriers to successful treatment in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, The Register of Controlled Trials, PsychINFO, and CINAHL for observational and interventional studies comparing medication adherence or persistence between two or more glucose lowering medications in people with T2D. Where several studies (n≥5) provided the same comparison a random effects meta-analysis was performed reporting mean difference (MD), odds ratio (OR), or hazard ratio (HR) depending on the pooled study outcomes...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117204/prevalence-of-binary-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-in-diarrhoeal-humans-in-the-absence-of-epidemic-ribotype-027
#3
Alan M McGovern, Grace O Androga, Daniel R Knight, Mark W Watson, Briony Elliott, Niki F Foster, Barbara J Chang, Thomas V Riley
Virulence of Clostridium difficile is primarily attributed to the large clostridial toxins A and B while the role of binary toxin (CDT) remains unclear. The prevalence of human strains of C. difficile possessing only CDT genes (A-B-CDT+) is generally low (< 5%), however, this genotype is commonly found in neonatal livestock both in Australia and elsewhere. Zoonotic transmission of C. difficile has been suggested previously. Most human diagnostic tests will not detect A-B-CDT+ strains of C. difficile because they focus on detection of toxin A and/or B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112734/memantine-prevents-acute-radiation-induced-toxicities-at-hippocampal-excitatory-synapses
#4
Joseph G Duman, Jeffrey Dinh, Wei Zhou, Henry Cham, Vasilis C Mavratsas, Matea Paveškovic, Shalaka Mulherkar, Susan L McGovern, Kimberley F Tolias, David R Grosshans
Background: Memantine has shown clinical utility in preventing radiation-induced cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms underlying its protective effects remain unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal glutamate signaling causes radiation-induced abnormalities in neuronal structure and that memantine prevents synaptic toxicity. Methods: Hippocampal cultures expressing eGFP were irradiated or sham-treated and their dendritic spine morphology assessed at acute (minutes) and later (days) times using high-resolution confocal microscopy...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095427/centrally-determined-standardization-of-flow-cytometry-methods-reduces-interlaboratory-variation-in-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#5
Liset Westera, Tanja van Viegen, Jenny Jeyarajah, Azar Azad, Janine Bilsborough, Gijs R van den Brink, Jonathan Cremer, Silvio Danese, Geert D'Haens, Lars Eckmann, William Faubion, Melissa Filice, Hannelie Korf, Dermot McGovern, Julian Panes, Azucena Salas, William J Sandborn, Mark S Silverberg, Michelle I Smith, Severine Vermeire, Stefania Vetrano, Lisa M Shackelton, Larry Stitt, Vipul Jairath, Barrett G Levesque, David M Spencer, Brian G Feagan, Niels Vande Casteele
OBJECTIVES: Flow cytometry (FC) aids in characterization of cellular and molecular factors involved in pathologic immune responses. Although FC has potential to facilitate early drug development in inflammatory bowel disease, interlaboratory variability limits its use in multicenter trials. Standardization of methods may address this limitation. We compared variability in FC-aided quantitation of T-cell responses across international laboratories using three analytical strategies. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from three healthy donors, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin at a central laboratory, fixed, frozen, and shipped to seven international laboratories...
November 2, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890854/quantitative-comparison-of-the-spreading-and-invasion-of-radial-growth-phase-and-metastatic-melanoma-cells-in-a-three-dimensional-human-skin-equivalent-model
#6
Parvathi Haridas, Jacqui A McGovern, Sean D L McElwain, Matthew J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Standard two-dimensional (2D) cell migration assays do not provide information about vertical invasion processes, which are critical for melanoma progression. We provide information about three-dimensional (3D) melanoma cell migration, proliferation and invasion in a 3D melanoma skin equivalent (MSE) model. In particular, we pay careful attention to compare the structure of the tissues in the MSE with similarly-prepared 3D human skin equivalent (HSE) models. The HSE model is identically prepared to the MSE model except that melanoma cells are omitted...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817446/bevacizumab-as-an-effective-treatment-for-radiation-necrosis-after-radiotherapy-for-melanoma-brain-metastases
#7
Isabella C Glitza, Nandita Guha-Thakurta, Neil M D'Souza, Rodabe N Amaria, Susan L McGovern, Ganesh Rao, Jing Li
Radiation necrosis (RN) is a potential late complication of radiotherapy for intracranial malignancy, which is often associated with significant neurological morbidity. Prolonged treatment with high-dose corticosteroids or surgical resection has been the standard care for RN, but protracted steroid use can lead to significant side effects and surgical resection is not always feasible. The antivascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab induces clinical and radiographic improvements in RN, with overall good tolerance...
December 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759310/ultrastructure-and-pathology-of-prion-protein-amyloid-accumulation-and-cellular-damage-in-extraneural-tissues-of-scrapie-infected-transgenic-mice-expressing-anchorless-prion-protein
#8
Brent Race, Martin Jeffrey, Gillian McGovern, David Dorward, Bruce Chesebro
In most human and animal prion diseases the abnormal disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) is deposited as non-amyloid aggregates in CNS, spleen and lymphoid organs. In contrast, in humans and transgenic mice with PrP mutations which cause expression of PrP lacking a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor, most PrPSc is in the amyloid form. In transgenic mice expressing only anchorless PrP (tg anchorless), PrPSc is deposited not only in CNS and lymphoid tissues, but also in extraneural tissues including heart, brown fat, white fat, and colon...
July 4, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752233/upper-limb-lymphedema-in-breast-cancer-patients-in-the-era-of-z0011-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-and-breast-conservation
#9
N R Bhatt, M R Boland, R McGovern, A Lal, S Tormey, A J Lowery, B A Merrigan
INTRODUCTION: Surgical techniques in breast cancer (BCa) have seen a dramatic change recently with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The ACOSOG-Z0011 trial reported equivalence in outcomes for certain patients with SLN metastases treated with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or SLNB alone. Our aim was to investigate changes in lymphedema referral patterns in BCa patients over the last 3 years in a specialist unit and to elucidate effects of SLNB, BCS, and Z0011 trial publication on such patterns...
July 27, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712950/predictors-of-laparoscopic-simulation-performance-among-practicing-obstetrician-gynecologists
#10
Shyama Mathews, Michael Brodman, Debra D'Angelo, Scott Chudnoff, Peter McGovern, Tamara Kolev, Giti Bensinger, Santosh Mudiraj, Andreea Nemes, David Feldman, Patricia Kischak, Charles Ascher-Walsh
BACKGROUND: While simulation training has been established as an effective method for improving laparoscopic surgical performance in surgical residents, few studies have focused on its use for attending surgeons, particularly in obstetrics and gynecology. Surgical simulation may have a role in improving and maintaining proficiency in the operating room for practicing obstetrician gynecologists. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if parameters of performance for validated laparoscopic virtual simulation tasks correlate with surgical volume and characteristics of practicing obstetricians and gynecologists...
November 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658209/fine-mapping-inflammatory-bowel-disease-loci-to-single-variant-resolution
#11
Hailiang Huang, Ming Fang, Luke Jostins, Maša Umićević Mirkov, Gabrielle Boucher, Carl A Anderson, Vibeke Andersen, Isabelle Cleynen, Adrian Cortes, François Crins, Mauro D'Amato, Valérie Deffontaine, Julia Dmitrieva, Elisa Docampo, Mahmoud Elansary, Kyle Kai-How Farh, Andre Franke, Ann-Stephan Gori, Philippe Goyette, Jonas Halfvarson, Talin Haritunians, Jo Knight, Ian C Lawrance, Charlie W Lees, Edouard Louis, Rob Mariman, Theo Meuwissen, Myriam Mni, Yukihide Momozawa, Miles Parkes, Sarah L Spain, Emilie Théâtre, Gosia Trynka, Jack Satsangi, Suzanne van Sommeren, Severine Vermeire, Ramnik J Xavier, Rinse K Weersma, Richard H Duerr, Christopher G Mathew, John D Rioux, Dermot P B McGovern, Judy H Cho, Michel Georges, Mark J Daly, Jeffrey C Barrett
Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified 200 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci, but few have been conclusively resolved to specific functional variants. Here we report fine-mapping of 94 inflammatory bowel disease loci using high-density genotyping in 67,852 individuals. We pinpoint 18 associations to a single causal variant with greater than 95% certainty, and an additional 27 associations to a single variant with greater than 50% certainty...
July 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623880/associations-between-anhedonia-and-marijuana-use-escalation-across-mid-adolescence
#12
Adam M Leventhal, Junhan Cho, Matthew D Stone, Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Chih-Ping Chou, Steven Y Sussman, Nathaniel R Riggs, Jennifer B Unger, Janet Audrain-McGovern, David R Strong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anhedonia-a transdiagnostic psychopathological trait indicative of inability to experience pleasure-could lead to and result from adolescent marijuana use, yet this notion has not been tested. This study aimed to estimate the association of: (1) anhedonia at age 14 with rate of change in marijuana use over an 18-month follow-up, and (2) marijuana use at age 14 with rate of change in anhedonia over follow-up. Secondary aims were to test whether gender, baseline marijuana use history and peer marijuana use moderated these associations...
December 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537543/molecular-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-tanzania
#13
Joseph C Forbi, Michael Dillon, Michael A Purdy, Bakary S Drammeh, Alexandra Tejada-Strop, Daniel McGovern, Guo-Liang Xia, Yulin Lin, Lilia M Ganova-Raeva, David S Campo, Hong Thai, Gilberto Vaughan, Dunstan Haule, Regina P Kutaga, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Saleem Kamili, Yury E Khudyakov
Despite the significant public health problems associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa, many countries in this region do not have systematic HBV surveillance or genetic information on HBV circulating locally. Here, we report on the genetic characterization of 772 HBV strains from Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-gene sequences showed prevalence of HBV genotype A (HBV/A, n=671, 86.9 %), followed by genotypes D (HBV/D, n=95, 12.3 %) and E (HBV/E, n=6, 0.8 %). All HBV/A sequences were further classified into subtype A1, while the HBV/D sequences were assigned to a new cluster...
May 25, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536655/supporting-looked-after-children-and-care-leavers-in-decreasing-drugs-and-alcohol-solid-protocol-for-a-pilot-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial-of-interventions-to-decrease-risky-substance-use-drugs-and-alcohol-and-improve-mental-health-of-looked-after
#14
Hayley Alderson, Ruth McGovern, Rebecca Brown, Denise Howel, Frauke Becker, Louise Carr, Alex Copello, Tony Fouweather, Eileen Kaner, Paul McArdle, Elaine McColl, Janet Shucksmith, Alison Steele, Luke Vale, Raghu Lingam
BACKGROUND: Looked after children (LAC) and care leavers are young people who have been placed under the legal care of local authorities, in many instances due to a history of abuse and/or neglect. These young people have a significantly increased risk of substance use and mental disorder compared to their peers. The aim of the SOLID study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a definitive three-arm multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) that compares the effectiveness of two interventions that aim to reduce risky drug and alcohol use and improve mental health among LAC aged 12 to 20 years with usual care...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512190/hematopoietic-origin-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-and-erdheim-chester-disease-in-adults
#15
Paul Milne, Venetia Bigley, Chris M Bacon, Antoine Néel, Naomi McGovern, Simon Bomken, Muzlifah Haniffa, Eli L Diamond, Benjamin H Durham, Johannes Visser, David Hunt, Harsha Gunawardena, Mac Macheta, Kenneth L McClain, Carl Allen, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Matthew Collin
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) are rare histiocytic disorders induced by somatic mutation of MAPK pathway genes. BRAFV600E mutation is the most common mutation in both conditions and also occurs in the hematopoietic neoplasm hairy cell leukemia (HCL). It is not known if adult LCH or ECD arises from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), nor which potential blood borne precursors lead to the formation of histiocytic lesions. In this study, BRAFV600E allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to map the neoplastic clone in 20 adults with LCH, ECD, and HCL...
July 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509699/penis-transplantation-first-us-experience
#16
Curtis L Cetrulo, Kai Li, Harry M Salinas, Matthew D Treiser, Ilse Schol, Glen W Barrisford, Francis J McGovern, Adam S Feldman, Michael T Grant, Cigdem Tanrikut, Jeffrey H Lee, Richard J Ehrlichman, Paul W Holzer, Garry M Choy, Raymond W Liu, Zhi Yang Ng, Alexandre G Lellouch, Josef M Kurtz, William G Austen, Jonathan M Winograd, Branko Bojovic, Kyle R Eberlin, Ivy A Rosales, Robert B Colvin, Dicken S C Ko
OBJECTIVE: We describe the first successful penis transplant in the United States in a patient with a history of subtotal penectomy for penile cancer. BACKGROUND: Penis transplantation represents a new paradigm in restoring anatomic appearance, urine conduit, and sexual function after genitourinary tissue loss. To date, only 2 penis transplants have been performed worldwide. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, extensive medical, surgical, and radiological evaluations of the patient were performed...
May 15, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480471/measuring-quality-of-healthcare-outcomes-in-type-2-diabetes-from-routine-data-a-seven-nation-survey-conducted-by-the-imia-primary-health-care-working-group
#17
W Hinton, H Liyanage, A McGovern, S-T Liaw, C Kuziemsky, N Munro, S de Lusignan
Background: The Institute of Medicine framework defines six dimensions of quality for healthcare systems: (1) safety, (2) effectiveness, (3) patient centeredness, (4) timeliness of care, (5) efficiency, and (6) equity. Large health datasets provide an opportunity to assess quality in these areas. Objective: To perform an international comparison of the measurability of the delivery of these aims, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from large datasets. Method: We conducted a survey to assess healthcare outcomes data quality of existing databases and disseminated this through professional networks...
August 2017: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440792/an-extra-uterine-system-to-physiologically-support-the-extreme-premature-lamb
#18
Emily A Partridge, Marcus G Davey, Matthew A Hornick, Patrick E McGovern, Ali Y Mejaddam, Jesse D Vrecenak, Carmen Mesas-Burgos, Aliza Olive, Robert C Caskey, Theodore R Weiland, Jiancheng Han, Alexander J Schupper, James T Connelly, Kevin C Dysart, Jack Rychik, Holly L Hedrick, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake
In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed 'amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437120/mindfulness-oriented-recovery-enhancement-for-internet-gaming-disorder-in-u-s-adults-a-stage-i-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Wen Li, Eric L Garland, Patricia McGovern, Jennifer E O'Brien, Christine Tronnier, Matthew O Howard
Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and associated adverse consequences. However, very few evidence-based interventions have been evaluated for IGD or problematic video gaming behaviors. This study evaluated Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) as a treatment for IGD. Thirty adults (Mage = 25.0, SD = 5.4) with IGD or problematic video gaming behaviors were randomized to 8 weeks of group-based MORE or 8 weeks of a support group (SG) control condition...
June 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379434/a-review-of-the-evidence-linking-child-stunting-to-economic-outcomes
#20
Mark E McGovern, Aditi Krishna, Victor M Aguayo, S V Subramanian
Background: To understand the full impact of stunting in childhood it is important to consider the long-run effects of undernutrition on the outcomes of adults who were affected in early life. Focusing on the costs of stunting provides a means of evaluating the economic case for investing in childhood nutrition. Methods: We review the literature on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood. At the national level, we also evaluate the evidence linking stunting to economic growth...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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