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the male role in pregnancy loss

Shilpa Bisht, Rima Dada
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in a wide array of diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune diseases, complex lifestyle diseases and cancer. OS is caused by an imbalance in production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and antioxidant defenses in the cell which results in the damage of cellular components, inactivate essential metabolic enzymes and disrupt signal transduction pathways. OS induces peroxidative damage to the sperm plasma membrane, DNA fragmentation in sperm nuclear/mitochondrial genome and causes dysregulation in levels of mRNAs/transcripts...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Elif Guzel, Sefa Arlier, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Mehmet Selcuk Tabak, Tugba Ekiz, Nihan Semerci, Kellie Larsen, Frederick Schatz, Charles Joseph Lockwood, Umit Ali Kayisli
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Karolina E Zaborska, Gillian Edwards, Clare Austin, Mark Wareing
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which reduces vascular contractility, is dysfunctional in the male offspring of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), partially due to a reduced NO bioavailability. O-GlcNAcylation of eNOS decreases its activity, thus we investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the prenatal programming of PVAT dysfunction. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (10% fat) or an obesogenic HFD (45% fat) diet for 12 weeks prior to mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto the control diet and were killed at 12 and 24 weeks of age...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
David R Meldrum
Women bear the predominant burden of our obesogenic environment, with a higher incidence of obesity than men, more impact on their fertility and success with treatment, and significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this series, the causes, consequences, and solutions regarding the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms of the effect of obesity on the female and male, the epigenetic consequences of male obesity, the marked effects on perinatal outcomes, and the effects of weight loss before conception and during pregnancy are explored...
April 2017: Fertility and Sterility
Sarah J Pugh, Enrique F Schisterman, Richard W Browne, Anne M Lynch, Sunni L Mumford, Neil J Perkins, Robert Silver, Lindsey Sjaarda, Joseph B Stanford, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Brian Wilcox, Katherine L Grantz
STUDY QUESTION: Are maternal preconception lipid levels associated with fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fecundability was reduced for all abnormal female lipid levels including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total triglyceride levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Subfecundity affects 7-15% of the population and lipid disorders are hypothesized to play a role since cholesterol acts as a substrate for the synthesis of steroid hormones...
May 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
Kai-Cheen Ang, Sushilnathan Kathirgamanathan, Ewe Seng Ch'ng, Yan-Yeow Lee, Anna-Liza Roslani, Bavanandan Naidu, Krishna Kumar, Ridzuan Abdullah, Siti-Nadiah Abdul Kadir, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Wan Zaidah Abdullah, Nadja Bogdanova, Peter Wieacker, Arseni Markoff, Thean-Hock Tang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a new predisposition factor, M2/ANXA5 (RPRGL3), in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients of Malay origin, since it was previously known that the prevalence of this condition is relatively high among the Malay population of Malaysia, where conventional hereditary thrombophilia factors have been generally ruled out. METHODS: A total of 232 women who had experienced ≥2 unexplained RPL and 141 available male partners were recruited, with 360 healthy Malay and 166 parous female controls...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Padmanabhan Rengasamy
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) remains one of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, childhood nephrotic syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is a potent immunosuppressive agent. It is commonly used in blood and bone marrow transplantation. With the growing trend among women postponing childbearing, the number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer is also increasing thus escalating the chances of exposure of the unborn child to antineoplastic drugs...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Lobke M Vaanholt, Jeffrey E Lane, Bethany Garner, John R Speakman
OBJECTIVE: An increased understanding of the factors influencing interindividual variation in calorie restriction (CR)-induced weight loss is necessary to combat the current obesity epidemic. This study investigated the partitioning of the phenotypic variation in CR-induced wight loss. METHODS: Two generations of male and female outbred MF1 mice raised by their biological mother or a foster mother were studied. Mice were exposed to 4 weeks of 30% CR when 6 months old...
October 2016: Obesity
David A Clark
Natural Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (nTregs) defined by expression of the Foxp3 marker generated in the thymus against self autoantigens prevent systemic autoimmune and inflammatory disease. A second population of Tregs induced by exogenous antigens in the periphery (iTregs) are currently thought to play a key role in preventing infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss (occult and clinically-evident), pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and premature birth in outbred matings where the father is histoincompatible with the mother...
August 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Julie S Rhee, Jessica L Saben, Allyson L Mayer, Maureen B Schulte, Zeenat Asghar, Claire Stephens, Maggie M-Y Chi, Kelle H Moley
STUDY QUESTION: What effect does diet-induced obesity have on endometrial stromal cell (ESC) decidualization? SUMMARY ANSWER: Diet-induced obesity impairs ESC decidualization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Decidualization is important for successful implantation and subsequent health of the pregnancy. Compared with normal-weight women, obese women have lower pregnancy rates (both spontaneous and by assisted reproductive technology), higher rates of early pregnancy loss and poorer oocyte quality...
June 2016: Human Reproduction
E O'Brien, P Myles, C Pritchard
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding is the best start an infant can receive. However, in many high-income countries breastfeeding rates are low and this may be a reflection of social norms which in turn may be influenced by the media. This study therefore explored the portrayal of infant feeding in women's general interest magazines. METHODS: The five top selling women's weekly magazines in Britain and Ireland for 2013 over a 4-month period were included. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content...
March 21, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Shun Zhang, Qiang Niu, Hui Gao, Rulin Ma, Rongrong Lei, Cheng Zhang, Tao Xia, Pei Li, Chunyan Xu, Chao Wang, Jingwen Chen, Lixing Dong, Qian Zhao, Aiguo Wang
Fluoride, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is known to impair testicular functions and fertility; however the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we used a rat model to mimic human exposure and sought to investigate the roles of apoptosis and autophagy in testicular toxicity of fluoride. Sprague-Dawley rats were developmentally exposed to 25, 50, or 100 mg/L sodium fluoride (NaF) via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to post-puberty, and then the testes of offspring were excised on postnatal day 56...
May 2016: Environmental Pollution
M Zhang, H-T Fan, Q-S Zhang, X-Y Wang, X Yang, W-J Tian, R-W Li
Chromosomal abnormality is the most common genetic cause of male infertility, particularly in cases of azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Chromosomal rearrangement may interrupt an important gene or exert position effects. The functionality of genes at specific breakpoints, perhaps with a specific role in spermatogenesis, may be altered by such rearrangements. Structural chromosome abnormalities are furthermore known to increase the risk of pregnancy loss. In this study, we aimed to assess chromosomal defects in infertile men from Jilin Province, China, by genetic screening and to evaluate the relationship between structural chromosome abnormalities and male infertility...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Gihan M Bareh, Ethan Jacoby, Peter Binkley, Tien-Cheng Arthur Chang, Robert S Schenken, Randal D Robinson
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sperm DNA integrity in normozoospermic male partners plays a role in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. PATIENT(S): Group I: 26 male partners of women with unexplained RPL. Group II: 31 normozoospermic males with proven fertility. INTERVENTION(S): Semen samples were collected by masturbation after 48-72 hours of abstinence...
February 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Shubhra Agarwal, Arjit Agarwal, Anuradha Khanna, Kiran Singh
CONTEXT: In majority of couples experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), etiology is still unknown. Two genetic factors have been suggested to underlie miscarriage in a subset of patients, namely skewed X chromosome inactivation in females and Y chromosome microdeletions in their partners. In males, microdeletions of the Y chromosome are known to cause spermatogenetic failure and male infertility. AIMS: The aim of the study was to find out the role of Y chromosome microdeletion in male partners of couples experiencing RPL...
July 2015: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
Richard Bronson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Emily K Marko, Samantha D Buery-Joyner, Michael J Sheridan, Kelsey Nieves, Alfred N Khoury, John L Dalrymple
OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether a novel structured curriculum could significantly improve medical student performance in early pregnancy loss counseling. BACKGROUND: Medical students receive limited exposure to early pregnancy loss counseling through real-life observation of this important skill. METHODS: A pre-post control group design was used to examine early pregnancy loss counseling performance among medical students from two medical schools doing their obstetrics and gynecology rotations at the same community hospital...
October 2015: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mariana A Woudwyk, Carolina N Zanuzzi, Fabián Nishida, Eduardo J Gimeno, Pedro Soto, Cristina E Monteavaro, Claudio G Barbeito
Bovine tritrichomonosis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoon Tritrichomonas foetus and characterised by embryonic-death and abortion. During pregnancy, the processes of cell proliferation and death play a crucial role for blastocyst implantation and the subsequent maintenance of early pregnancy, and their misbalance may lead to the abortion. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether cell proliferation and death may be altered during tritrichomonosis. For this purpose, we used pregnant BALB/c mice as an alternative experimental animal model that has successfully reproduced the infection...
September 2015: Experimental Parasitology
Belina Carranza-Mamane, Jon Havelock, Robert Hemmings, Anthony Cheung, Sony Sierra, Belina Carranza-Mamane, Allison Case, Cathie Dwyer, James Graham, Jon Havelock, Robert Hemmings, Kimberly Liu, Ward Murdock, Tannys Vause, Benjamin Wong, Margaret Burnett
OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations regarding the best management of fibroids in couples who present with infertility. Usual and novel treatment options for fibroids will be reviewed with emphasis on their applicability in women who wish to conceive. OPTIONS: Management of fibroids in women wishing to conceive first involves documentation of the presence of the fibroid and determination of likelihood of the fibroid impacting on the ability to conceive. Treatment of fibroids in this instance is primarily surgical, but must be weighed against the evidence of surgical management improving clinical outcomes, and risks specific to surgical management and approach...
March 2015: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Steven T Cox, Raquel Laza-Briviesca, Hayley Pearson, Bernat Soria, Daniel Gibson, Susana Gomez, J Alejandro Madrigal, Aurore Saudemont
NK cells play a key role in innate elimination of virally infected or neoplastic cells but they can be circumvented by immunoevasive mechanisms enabling viral spread or tumor progression. Engagement of the NKG2D activating receptor with soluble forms of its ligand is one such mechanism of inducing NK cell hyporesponsiveness. Interestingly, this immunoevasive strategy among others is described at the maternal-fetal interface where tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is required to allow successful human pregnancy...
August 2015: European Journal of Immunology
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