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the male role in pregnancy loss

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082206/the-society-for-translational-medicine-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-sperm-dna-fragmentation-testing-in-male-infertility
#1
REVIEW
Ashok Agarwal, Chak-Lam Cho, Ahmad Majzoub, Sandro C Esteves
Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) testing has been emerging as a valuable tool for male fertility evaluation. While the essential role of sperm DNA integrity in human reproduction was extensively studied, the clinical indication of SDF testing is less clear. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations of clinical utility of the test supported by evidence. It is intended to serve as a reference for fertility specialists in identifying the circumstances in which SDF testing should be of greatest clinical value...
September 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069462/sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-chromium-accumulation-on-human-placental-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#2
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Robert J Taylor, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Joe A Arosh, Lixia Zeng, Subramaniam Pennathur, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the U.S and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. Environmental exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI) adversely affects pregnancy outcomes and subsequent health of two generations, resulting in higher pregnancy loss, spontaneous abortion and low birth rate. Pregnant women exposed to CrVI through occupational settings experience increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death...
October 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064543/effect-of-valproic-acid-administration-during-pregnancy-on-postnatal-development-of-cerebellar-cortex-and-the-possible-protective-role-of-folic-acid
#3
Saber I Shona, Ayman A Rizk, Abir O El Sadik, Hossam Y Emam, Eid N Ali
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA), one of the most important antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), is proved to be inevitable for epileptic pregnant women to limit the hazards of convulsions on the fetuses and mothers. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation was investigated to protect against several birth defects. However, its role against VPA cerebellar toxicity was not properly investigated. AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of folic acid against VPA cerebellar neurotoxicity...
October 24, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043699/multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-detecting-microdeletions-in-the-azoospermia-factor-region-of-y-chromosome-in-iranian-couples-with-non-obstructive-infertility-and-recurrent-pregnancy-loss
#4
Afsaneh Mojtabanezhad Shariatpanahi, Hassan Ahmadnia, Adam Torkamanzehi, Mahnaz Mansouri Torshizi, Mohammad Amin Kerachian
Background: Approximately 15% of couples are infertile with the male factor explaining approximately 50% of the cases. One of the main genetic factors playing a role in male infertility is Y chromosomal microdeletions within the proximal long arm of the Y chromosome (Yq11), named the azoospermia factor (AZF) region. Recent studies have shown there is a potential connection between deletions of the AZF region and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The aim of this study is to examine this association by characterizing AZF microdeletions in two infertile groups: in men with non-obstructive infertility and in men with wives displaying RPL...
January 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844822/diet-and-fertility-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Audrey J Gaskins, Jorge E Chavarro
The literature on the relationship between diet and human fertility has greatly expanded over the last decade, resulting in the identification of a few clear patterns. Intake of supplemental folic acid, particularly at doses higher than those recommended for the prevention of neural tube defects, has been consistently related to lower frequency of infertility, lower risk of pregnancy loss, and greater success in infertility treatment. On the other hand and despite promising evidence from animal models, vitamin D does not appear to exert an important role in human fertility in the absence of deficiency...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690949/role-of-sex-hormone-levels-and-psychological-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Salman Assad, Hamza H Khan, Haider Ghazanfar, Zarak H Khan, Salman Mansoor, Muhammad A Rahman, Ghulam H Khan, Bilal Zafar, Usman Tariq, Shuja A Malik
The aim of this review article is to assess the connection between psychological stress and sex hormones and their effect on the development of autoimmune diseases. Psychological stress describes what people feel when they are under mental, physical, or emotional pressure. We searched for online articles using MEDLINE®, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. Our research yielded a total of 165 articles out of which 30 articles were considered for further perusal. The articles were reviewed from February 2016 to February 2017...
June 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583021/relationships-matter-contraceptive-choices-among-hiv-positive-women-in-tanzania
#7
Tabitha Alexandria Njeri Nyanja, Charlotte Tulinius
Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania...
July 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529323/an-immunogenic-phenotype-in-paternal-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-at-embryo-implantation-elicits-later-fetal-loss-in-mice
#8
Lachlan M Moldenhauer, Kerrilyn R Diener, John D Hayball, Sarah A Robertson
Central to pregnancy success is a state of T cell tolerance to paternal antigens, which is initiated at conception. The role and regulation of specific phenotypes of CD8(+) T cells in mediating pregnancy tolerance is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the impact on pregnancy outcome of altering the cytokine environment during maternal CD8(+) T cell priming in early pregnancy. Transgenic Act-mOVA male mice were mated to C57BL/6 (B6) females to generate fetuses expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as a model paternal antigen...
September 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510779/modelling-foetal-exposure-to-maternal-smoking-using-hepatoblasts-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Baltasar Lucendo-Villarin, Panagiotis Filis, Madeleine J Swortwood, Marilyn A Huestis, Jose Meseguer-Ripolles, Kate Cameron, John P Iredale, Peter J O'Shaughnessy, Paul A Fowler, David C Hay
The liver is a dynamic organ which is both multifunctional and highly regenerative. A major role of the liver is to process both endo and xenobiotics. Cigarettes are an example of a legal and widely used drug which can cause major health problems for adults and constitute a particular risk to the foetus, if the mother smokes during pregnancy. Cigarette smoke contains a complex mixture of thousands of different xenobiotics, including nicotine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These affect foetal development in a sex-specific manner, inducing sex-dependant molecular responses in different organs...
May 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460003/evidence-for-cb2-receptor-involvement-in-lps-induced-reduction-of-camp-intracellular-levels-in-uterine-explants-from-pregnant-mice-pathophysiological-implications
#10
Ana Inés Salazar, Alejandro Carozzo, Fernando Correa, Carlos Davio, Ana María Franchi
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of the endocannabinoid system (eCS) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) effects on uterine explants from 7-day pregnant mice in a murine model of endotoxin-induced miscarriage? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found evidence for cannabinoid receptor type2 (CB2) involvement in LPS-induced increased prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α) synthesis and diminished cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) intracellular content in uterine explants from early pregnant mice...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410127/oxidative-stress-major-executioner-in-disease-pathology-role-in-sperm-dna-damage-and-preventive-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Shilpa Bisht, Rima Dada
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in a wide array of diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune diseases, complex lifestyle diseases and cancer. OS is caused by an imbalance in production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and antioxidant defenses in the cell which results in the damage of cellular components, inactivate essential metabolic enzymes and disrupt signal transduction pathways. OS induces peroxidative damage to the sperm plasma membrane, DNA fragmentation in sperm nuclear/mitochondrial genome and causes dysregulation in levels of mRNAs/transcripts...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397763/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-homeostasis-in-reproductive-physiology-and-pathology
#12
REVIEW
Elif Guzel, Sefa Arlier, Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Mehmet Selcuk Tabak, Tugba Ekiz, Nihan Semerci, Kellie Larsen, Frederick Schatz, Charles Joseph Lockwood, Umit Ali Kayisli
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376507/the-role-of-o-glcnacylation-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-of-offspring-of-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#13
Karolina E Zaborska, Gillian Edwards, Clare Austin, Mark Wareing
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which reduces vascular contractility, is dysfunctional in the male offspring of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), partially due to a reduced NO bioavailability. O-GlcNAcylation of eNOS decreases its activity, thus we investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the prenatal programming of PVAT dysfunction. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (10% fat) or an obesogenic HFD (45% fat) diet for 12 weeks prior to mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto the control diet and were killed at 12 and 24 weeks of age...
2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366410/introduction-obesity-and-reproduction
#14
David R Meldrum
Women bear the predominant burden of our obesogenic environment, with a higher incidence of obesity than men, more impact on their fertility and success with treatment, and significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this series, the causes, consequences, and solutions regarding the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms of the effect of obesity on the female and male, the epigenetic consequences of male obesity, the marked effects on perinatal outcomes, and the effects of weight loss before conception and during pregnancy are explored...
April 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333301/preconception-maternal-lipoprotein-levels-in-relation-to-fecundability
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sarah J Pugh, Enrique F Schisterman, Richard W Browne, Anne M Lynch, Sunni L Mumford, Neil J Perkins, Robert Silver, Lindsey Sjaarda, Joseph B Stanford, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Brian Wilcox, Katherine L Grantz
STUDY QUESTION: Are maternal preconception lipid levels associated with fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fecundability was reduced for all abnormal female lipid levels including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total triglyceride levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Subfecundity affects 7-15% of the population and lipid disorders are hypothesized to play a role since cholesterol acts as a substrate for the synthesis of steroid hormones...
May 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108842/genetic-analysis-of-the-m2-anxa5-haplotype-as-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-predisposition-in-the-malay-population
#16
Kai-Cheen Ang, Sushilnathan Kathirgamanathan, Ewe Seng Ch'ng, Yan-Yeow Lee, Anna-Liza Roslani, Bavanandan Naidu, Krishna Kumar, Ridzuan Abdullah, Siti-Nadiah Abdul Kadir, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Wan Zaidah Abdullah, Nadja Bogdanova, Peter Wieacker, Arseni Markoff, Thean-Hock Tang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a new predisposition factor, M2/ANXA5 (RPRGL3), in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients of Malay origin, since it was previously known that the prevalence of this condition is relatively high among the Malay population of Malaysia, where conventional hereditary thrombophilia factors have been generally ruled out. METHODS: A total of 232 women who had experienced ≥2 unexplained RPL and 141 available male partners were recruited, with 360 healthy Malay and 166 parous female controls...
April 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924730/congenital-malformations-attributed-to-prenatal-exposure-to-cyclophosphamide
#17
REVIEW
Padmanabhan Rengasamy
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) remains one of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, childhood nephrotic syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is a potent immunosuppressive agent. It is commonly used in blood and bone marrow transplantation. With the growing trend among women postponing childbearing, the number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer is also increasing thus escalating the chances of exposure of the unborn child to antineoplastic drugs...
2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527110/partitioning-the-variance-in-calorie-restriction-induced-weight-and-fat-loss-in-outbred-mice
#18
Lobke M Vaanholt, Jeffrey E Lane, Bethany Garner, John R Speakman
OBJECTIVE: An increased understanding of the factors influencing interindividual variation in calorie restriction (CR)-induced weight loss is necessary to combat the current obesity epidemic. This study investigated the partitioning of the phenotypic variation in CR-induced wight loss. METHODS: Two generations of male and female outbred MF1 mice raised by their biological mother or a foster mother were studied. Mice were exposed to 4 weeks of 30% CR when 6 months old...
October 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219894/the-importance-of-being-a-regulatory-t-cell-in-pregnancy
#19
REVIEW
David A Clark
Natural Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (nTregs) defined by expression of the Foxp3 marker generated in the thymus against self autoantigens prevent systemic autoimmune and inflammatory disease. A second population of Tregs induced by exogenous antigens in the periphery (iTregs) are currently thought to play a key role in preventing infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss (occult and clinically-evident), pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and premature birth in outbred matings where the father is histoincompatible with the mother...
August 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052498/diet-induced-obesity-impairs-endometrial-stromal-cell-decidualization-a-potential-role-for-impaired-autophagy
#20
Julie S Rhee, Jessica L Saben, Allyson L Mayer, Maureen B Schulte, Zeenat Asghar, Claire Stephens, Maggie M-Y Chi, Kelle H Moley
STUDY QUESTION: What effect does diet-induced obesity have on endometrial stromal cell (ESC) decidualization? SUMMARY ANSWER: Diet-induced obesity impairs ESC decidualization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Decidualization is important for successful implantation and subsequent health of the pregnancy. Compared with normal-weight women, obese women have lower pregnancy rates (both spontaneous and by assisted reproductive technology), higher rates of early pregnancy loss and poorer oocyte quality...
June 2016: Human Reproduction
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