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Sitostanol ester

Neumara L S Hakalin, María Molina-Gutiérrez, Alicia Prieto, María Jesús Martínez
The esters of β-sitostanol and fatty acids are known for their effect as cholesterol-lowering agents. In this work, the efficiency of three lipases as biocatalysts of the esterification of β-sitostanol and C16 and C18 fatty acids was compared. The sterol esterase of Ophiostoma piceae (OPEr) yielded the highest esterification rates and was selected for further optimization of the reaction. The effects of four parameters (temperature, enzymatic dosage, acyl donor concentration, and reaction time) on ester synthesis were investigated and the process conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM)...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
María Molina-Gutiérrez, Neumara L S Hakalin, Leonor Rodríguez-Sanchez, Alicia Prieto, María Jesús Martínez
β-sitostanol esters, used as dietary complement for decreasing cholesterol absorption, have been synthesized at 28°C via direct esterification or transesterification catalyzed by the versatile lipase/sterol esterase from the ascomycete fungus O. piceae. Direct esterification was conducted in biphasic isooctane: water systems containing 10mM β-sitostanol and lauric or oleic acid as acyl donors, reaching 90% esterification in 3h with the recombinant enzyme. The use of molar excesses of the free fatty acids did not improve direct esterification rate, and the enzyme did not convert one of the two fatty acids preferentially when both were simultaneously available...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Stefan Wocheslander, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Birgit Scholz, Vera Lander, Karl-Heinz Engel
A mixture of phytosterols/-stanols, consisting of 75% β-sitosterol, 12% sitostanol, 10% campesterol, 2% campestanol, and 1% others, was esterified with linoleic acid. The resulting mixture of phytosteryl/-stanyl linoleates was subjected to thermal oxidation at 180 °C for 40 min. A silica solid-phase extraction was applied to separate a fraction containing the nonoxidized linoleates and nonpolar degradation products (heptanoates, octanoates) from polar oxidation products (oxo- and hydroxyalkanoates). In total, 15 sitosteryl, sitostanyl, and campesteryl esters, resulting from oxidation of the acyl chain, could be identified by GC-FID/MS...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Birgit Scholz, Nicole Menzel, Vera Lander, Karl-Heinz Engel
A method for the analysis of both individual phytosteryl and phytostanyl fatty acid esters in complex mixtures was established. The approach was based on a previously not described combination of three elements: (i) the formation of [M-FA+H](+) fragment ions via APCI (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization), (ii) a highly efficient UHPLC-based separation on a 1.7 μ C8 column, previously established for phytostanyl fatty acid esters, allowing the distinction of individual fatty acid esters sharing the same sterol/stanol nucleus and of isotope peaks of phytosteryl fatty acid esters and corresponding phytostanyl fatty acid esters based on these [M-FA+H](+) fragment ions, and (iii) the adjustment of the APCI conditions allowing the differential APCI-MS-SIM (single ion monitoring) detection of phytostanyl esters of linoleic and linolenic acid based on their distinct formation of a [M+H](+) ion...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Robert A Moreau
All fruits, vegetables, grains and other plant materials contain small amounts of plant sterols, which are essential for the function of the biological membranes in living cells. The average human consumption of plant sterols has been estimated to be about 150-350 mg/day and trace amounts of stanols (which are defined as saturated sterols such as sitostanol), but this number varies regionally and is higher for vegetarians. When consumed in the diet, plant sterols reduce the levels of serum cholesterol. In 1995 the first functional food product, Benecol spread (enriched in plant stanol fatty acid esters), was developed by Raisio and marketed, first in Finland and then globally...
May 2015: Journal of AOAC International
Els De Smet, Ronald P Mensink, Maurice Konings, Gemma Brufau, Albert K Groen, Rick Havinga, Marleen Schonewille, Anja Kerksiek, Dieter Lütjohann, Jogchum Plat
The kinetics of plant stanol uptake and routing in 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice were determined after a plant stanol ester gavage. In addition, acute changes in intestinal and hepatic gene expression were investigated. Mice were fed a plant sterol/stanol poor diet from weaning. At the age of 8 weeks, they received an oral gavage consisting of 0.25 mg cholesterol + 50 mg plant stanol esters dissolved in olive oil. Animals were euthanized at different time points. In a second comparable set-up, mesenteric lymph-cannulated versus sham-operated mice received the same oral gavage, which was now deuterium labeled...
June 2015: Lipids
Jogchum Plat, Tim Hendrikx, Veerle Bieghs, Mike L J Jeurissen, Sofie M A Walenbergh, Patrick J van Gorp, Els De Smet, Maurice Konings, Anita C E Vreugdenhil, Yasmin Dias Guichot, Sander S Rensen, Wim A Buurman, Jan Willem M Greve, Dieter Lütjohann, Ronald P Mensink, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
The inflammatory component of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can lead to irreversible liver damage. Therefore there is an urgent need to identify novel interventions to combat hepatic inflammation. In mice, omitting cholesterol from the diet reduced hepatic inflammation. Considering the effects of plant sterol/stanol esters on cholesterol metabolism, we hypothesized that plant sterol/stanol esters reduces hepatic inflammation. Indeed, adding plant sterol/stanol esters to a high-fat-diet reduced hepatic inflammation as indicated by immunohistochemical stainings and gene expression for inflammatory markers...
2014: PloS One
Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Jarosław Walkowiak, Paweł Zagrodzki, Bogna Grygiel-Górniak, Juliusz Przysławski
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of increased plant stanol ester intake on lipid profile and serum ratio of non-cholesterol sterols to cholesterol in obese women (50 years of age) with dyslipidemia. METHODS: 90 females were assigned into 2 treatment groups: For a period of 4 weeks, group 1 was receiving a yoghurt, enriched with 2 g of plant stanol ester (PS group), and group 2 was receiving a yoghurt drink without extra stanols. Anthropometric measurements included body height and weight...
2014: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
Laura Kells Cusack, Maria Luz Fernandez, Jeff S Volek
Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated...
November 2013: Advances in Nutrition
Anna Szakiel, Cezary Pączkowski, Satu Huttunen
Triterpenoid compounds found in free and ester forms in extracts of entire fruits and leaves and in fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) collected in Finland and Poland were identified and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID). The main bilberry triterpenoid profile consisted of α- and β-amyrin, α- and β-amyrenone, campesterol, cholesterol, citrostadienol (in berries), cycloartanol, erythrodiol, lupeol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, sitosterol, sitostanol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, uvaol, oleanolic and ursolic aldehydes, and oleanolic, ursolic, 2α-hydroxyoleanolic, and 2α-hydroxyursolic acids...
December 5, 2012: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Florence Brüll, Ronald P Mensink, Mandy F Steinbusch, Constanze Husche, Dieter Lütjohann, Geert-Jan Wesseling, Jogchum Plat
BACKGROUND: In vitro and animal studies have suggested that plant sterols and stanols increase cytokine production by T-helper-1 cells. This may be beneficial for patient groups characterized by a T-helper-2 dominant immune response, e.g. asthma patients. (1) to evaluate whether sitostanol induces a T-helper-1 shift in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from asthma patients, and (2) to unravel the role of regulatory T-cells in this respect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PBMCs from 10 asthma patients and 10 healthy subjects were isolated and incubated with 1...
2012: PloS One
H Gylling, M Hallikainen, P Simonen, H E Miettinen, M J Nissinen, T A Miettinen
PURPOSE: Chronic inhibition of cholesterol absorption with large doses of plant stanol esters (staest) alters profoundly cholesterol metabolism, but it is unknown how an acute inhibition with a large staest dose alters the postprandial serum and lipoprotein cholesterol precursor, plant sterol, and sitostanol contents. METHODS: Hypercholesterolemic subjects, randomly and double-blind divided into control (n = 18) and intervention groups (n = 20), consumed experimental diet without and with staest (plant stanols 8...
August 2012: European Journal of Nutrition
Mark M Ash, Jiliang Hang, Patrick H Dussault, Timothy P Carr
The dietary impact of specific phytosterols incorporated into phytosterol fatty acid esters has not been elucidated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that phytosterol esters containing different sterol moieties (sitosterol, sitostanol, or stigmasterol) but the same fatty acid moiety (stearic acid) produce different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian hamsters were fed sitosterol, sitostanol, and stigmasterol stearate esters (25 g/kg diet) in an atherogenic diet containing cholesterol (1.2 g/kg) and coconut oil (80 g/kg)...
July 2011: Nutrition Research
Xiaobo Lin, Lina Ma, Robert A Moreau, Richard E Ostlund
Phytosteryl glycosides occur in natural foods but little is known about their metabolism and bioactivity. Purified acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) were compared with phytosteryl esters (PSE) in mice. Animals on a phytosterol-free diet received ASG or PSE by gavage in purified soybean oil along with tracers cholesterol-d(7) and sitostanol-d(4). In a three-day fecal recovery study, ASG reduced cholesterol absorption efficiency by 45 ± 6% compared with 40 ± 6% observed with PSE. Four hours after gavage, plasma and liver cholesterol-d(7) levels were reduced 86% or more when ASG was present...
August 2011: Lipids
Andrew W Brown, Jiliang Hang, Patrick H Dussault, Timothy P Carr
Plant sterols and stanols (phytosterols) and their esters are nutraceuticals that lower LDL cholesterol, but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. We hypothesized that intact esters and simulated hydrolysis products of esters (phytosterols and fatty acids in equal ratios) would differentially affect the solubility of cholesterol in model bile mixed micelles in vitro. Sodium salts of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were sonicated with phosphatidylcholine and either sterol esters or combinations of sterols and fatty acids to determine the amount of cholesterol solubilized into micelles...
September 2010: Lipids
T A Miettinen, M Nissinen, M Lepäntalo, A Albäck, M Railo, P Vikatmaa, M Kaste, S Mustanoja, H Gylling
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is not known whether dietary intake of plant stanols or sterols changes the composition of arterial sterols. Therefore, we compared serum and carotid artery cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols after plant stanol (staest) or sterol (steest) ester feeding in endarterectomized patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Elderly statin-treated asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were randomized double-blind to consume staest (n=11) or steest (n=11) spread (2 g of stanol or sterol/day) for four weeks preoperatively...
March 2011: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Helena Gylling, Maarit Hallikainen, Markku J Nissinen, Piia Simonen, Tatu A Miettinen
BACKGROUND: Today, consumers meet abundant supply of functional foods with plant stanol increments for serum cholesterol lowering purposes. However, efficacy and safety of plant stanols intake beyond 4 g/day have remained unexplored. AIM OF THE STUDY: We evaluated the effects of very high daily intake of plant stanols (8.8 g/day) as esters on cholesterol metabolism, and serum levels of plant sterols and stanols. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel study of 49 hypercholesterolemic subjects (mean age 62 years, range 41-73) consumed a test diet without (control, n = 24), and with added plant stanol esters (staest, n = 25) over 10 weeks followed by 4 weeks on home diet...
March 2010: European Journal of Nutrition
Malene Schrøder, Christiane Fricke, Kirsten Pilegaard, Morten Poulsen, Ingmar Wester, Dieter Lütjohann, Alicja Mortensen
Rapeseed oil (RSO) is a novel source of plant sterols, containing the unique brassicasterol in concentrations higher than allowed for plant sterol blends in food products in the European Union. Effects of RSO sterols and stanols on aortic atherosclerosis were studied in cholesterol-fed heterozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic (Hh-WHHL) rabbits. Four groups (n 18 per group) received a cholesterol-added (2 g/kg) standard chow or this diet with added RSO stanol esters (17 g/kg), RSO stanol esters (34 g/kg) or RSO sterol esters (34 g/kg) for 18 weeks...
December 2009: British Journal of Nutrition
Don S Lin, Robert D Steiner, Louise S Merkens, Anuradha S Pappu, William E Connor
Cholesterol is esterified in mammals by two enzymes: LCAT (lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase) in plasma and ACAT(1) and ACAT(2) (acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferases) in the tissues. We hypothesized that the sterol structure may have significant effects on the outcome of esterification by these enzymes. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed sterol esters in plasma and tissues in patients having non-cholesterol sterols (sitosterolemia and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome). The esterification of a given sterol was defined as the sterol ester percentage of total sterols...
January 2010: Atherosclerosis
K Laitinen, E Isolauri, L Kaipiainen, H Gylling, T A Miettinen
Clinical safety of consuming plant stanol ester spreads during pregnancy and lactation, the impact on maternal and infant serum and breast-milk cholesterol and the ratios (micromol/mmol of cholesterol) of synthesis and absorption markers were evaluated. Pregnant women (n 21) were randomised to control and dietary intervention groups, the intervention including advice to follow a balanced diet and to consume spreads enriched with plant stanol esters. Participants were followed during and after pregnancy and their infants up to 1 year of age...
June 2009: British Journal of Nutrition
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