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Sarrabeth Stone, Anne Camille La Flamme
Macrophages can be activated into several distinct activation states. One of these states, type II activation, has a regulatory phenotype characterized by decreased IL-12 and increased IL-10, and has been shown to bias naïve CD4+ T cells to a Th2 response. Microglia, the resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important contributors to neuroinflammation and, thus, we investigated if type II activated microglia could bias CD4+ T cell responses in a similar manner as type II activated macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Luis Hernandez, Shien Guo, Hector Toro-Diaz, Stuart Carroll, Syed Feisal Syed Farooq
AIMS: Peginterferon beta-1a 125 mcg administered subcutaneously every two weeks, a new disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), was approved in January 2015 by the Scottish Medicines Consortium. This study assesses long-term clinical and economic outcomes of peginterferon beta-1a compared with other self-injectable DMTs (interferon beta-1a [22 mcg, 30 mcg, and 44 mcg], interferon beta-1b, and glatiramer acetate 20 mg) in the treatment of RRMS, from the National Health Service and personal social services perspective in Scotland...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
Víctor R Campos-García, Carlos A López-Morales, Eleuterio Benites-Zaragoza, Armando Jiménez-Miranda, Carlos E Espinosa-de la Garza, Daniel Herrera-Fernández, Jesús Padilla-Calderón, Néstor O Pérez, Luis F Flores-Ortiz, E Medina-Rivero
Complex pharmaceuticals are in demand of competent analytical methods able to analyze charge heterogeneity as a critical quality attribute (CQA), in compliance with current regulatory expectations. A notorious example is glatiramer acetate (GA), a complex polypeptide mixture useful for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. This pharmaceutical challenges the current state of analytical technology in terms of the capacity to study their constituent species. Thus, a strong cation exchange methodology was designed under the lifecycle approach to support the establishment of GA identity, trough the evaluation of its chromatographic profile, which acts as a charge heterogeneity fingerprint...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Chiara Cordiglieri, Fulvio Baggi, Pia Bernasconi, Dimos Kapetis, Elisa Faggiani, Alessandra Consonni, Francesca Andreetta, Rita Frangiamore, Paolo Confalonieri, Carlo Antozzi, Renato Mantegazza
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease with neurodegenerative alterations, ultimately progressing to neurological handicap. Therapies are effective in counteracting inflammation but not neurodegeneration. Biomarkers predicting disease course or treatment response are lacking. We investigated whether altered gene and protein expression profiles were detectable in the peripheral blood of 78 relapsing remitting MS (RR-MS) patients treated by disease-modifying therapies. A discovery/validation study on RR-MS responsive to glatiramer acetate identified 8 differentially expressed genes: ITGA2B, ITGB3, CD177, IGJ, IL5RA, MMP8, P2RY12, and S100β...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Alessandra Bua, Melania Ruggeri, Stefania Zanetti, Paola Molicotti
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by damage to myelin and axons, over time leading to progressive neuronal degeneration and microglial activation. There is still no curative treatment, but during the last 20 years eight different therapies have become available including interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, natalizumab, fingolimod, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone and teriflunomide. Teriflunomide is an immunomodulatory drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on T cell activation in central nervous system of the patients with multiple sclerosis...
October 4, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Delgertsetseg Chuluundorj, Scott A Harding, David Abernethy, Anne Camille La Flamme
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the CNS, and monocytes contribute to MS-associated neuroinflammation. While classically-activated monocytes promote inflammation, type II-activated monocytes improve the course of MS. This study investigated type II activation of monocytes and their two main subsets, namely CD14(+) (CD14(++)CD16(-)subset) and CD16(+) monocytes (CD14(+)CD16(+)subset), by glatiramer acetate (GA) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-associated immune complexes (IC), both of which are known MS treatments...
October 3, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
J Mallada, N Perez-Carmona, L Berenguer-Ruiz, R Sanchez-Perez, R Martin-Gonzalez, D Sola-Martinez, S Mola, J M Lopez-Arlandis, R Vela-Yebra, L Gabaldon-Torres, E Freire-Alvarez, A Garcia-Escriva, A P Sempere
INTRODUCTION: Post-authorisation studies are important to confirm whether the outcomes of clinical trials are reproduced in usual clinical practice. AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fingolimod in clinical practice in the province of Alicante. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective multi-centre study was conducted with remitting multiple sclerosis patients treated with fingolimod. Demographic, clinical and pharmacological data were collected...
September 5, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
A Oterino, D F Uria, J Pena, D Solar, J Villafani, P Oliva-Nacarino, R Suarez-Moro, V G Quintanilla
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fingolimod in routine clinical practice in the region of Asturias and Cantabria (Spain). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicentre study of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with fingolimod, in accordance with the product data sheet. Effectiveness was evaluated in patients with at least one year's treatment. The following were calculated: annualised relapse rate (ARR), the percentage of patients free from relapses and free from gadolinium-enhancing lesions, and those who improved/maintained their score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)...
September 5, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Stanley Cohan, Chiayi Chen, Elizabeth Baraban, Tamela Stuchiner, Lois Grote
BACKGROUND: Since the application of MRI scanning to the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis, it has been recognized that only a small fraction of lesions seen on MRI scans produce recognizable symptoms or neurological findings. Because new lesions may occur without clinical detection, the recommendation has been made that MRI scanning be performed on a routine scheduled basis, usually yearly, even in patients who are clinically stable. METHODS: A retrospective chart review study was conducted on MS patients who had MRI scans of the central nervous system between 2009 and 2012 at Providence Multiple Sclerosis Center...
2016: BMC Neurology
Emer Fogarty, Susanne Schmitz, Niall Tubridy, Cathal Walsh, Michael Barry
INTRODUCTION: Randomised studies have demonstrated efficacy of disease-modifying therapies in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However it is unclear how the magnitude of treatment efficacy varies across all currently available therapies. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the comparative efficacy of available therapies in reducing relapses and disability progression in RRMS. METHODS: A systematic review identified 28 randomised, placebo-controlled and direct comparative trials...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jasna Jancic, Blazo Nikolic, Nikola Ivancevic, Vesna Djuric, Ivan Zaletel, Dejan Stevanovic, Sasa Peric, John N van den Anker, Janko Samardzic
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS is increasingly recognized in the pediatric population, and it is usually diagnosed around 15 years of age. The exact etiology of MS is still not known, although autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors play important roles in its development, making it a multifactorial disease. The disease in children almost always presents in the relapsing-remittent form. The therapy involves treatment of relapses, and immunomodulatory and symptomatic treatment...
September 17, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
I N Abdurasulova, A V Matsulevich, E A Tarasova, I V Kudryavtsev, M K Serebrjakova, E I Ermolenko, G N Bisaga, V M Klimenko, A N Suvorov
The effect of probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain L-3 was studied in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Glatiramer acetate (GA) was used as control drug. E. faecium strain L-3 and GA both were able to reduce the severity of EAE in a similar fashion. Both approaches increased the proportion of EAE resistant rats and rats with mild disease, prolonged the inductive phase of EAE and reduced the disease duration. Study of the phenotypes of immune cells in blood revealed the differences in immunoregulatory pathways that mediate the protective action of probiotic or GA treatment of EAE...
September 16, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
Teresa Órpez-Zafra, Jose Pavía, Isaac Hurtado-Guerrero, Maria J Pinto-Medel, Jose Luis Rodriguez Bada, Patricia Urbaneja, Margarita Suardíaz, Luisa M Villar, Manuel Comabella, Xavier Montalban, Jose C Alvarez-Cermeño, Laura Leyva, Óscar Fernández, Begoña Oliver-Martos
BACKGROUND: The soluble isoform of the interferon-β (IFN-β) receptor (sIFNAR2) could modulate the activity of both endogenous and systemically administered IFN-β. Previously, we described lower serum sIFNAR2 levels in untreated multiple sclerosis (MS) than in healthy controls (HCs). OBJECTIVE: To assess sIFNAR2 levels in a new cohort of MS patients and HCs, as well as in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and with other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) and to assess its ability as a diagnostic biomarker...
September 9, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Sultan M Salahudheen, Muzibunnisa A Begam
Disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) such as interferon (IFN)-β and glatiramer acetate are often prescribed to slow disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, adverse pregnancy outcomes have been reported with these medications. We report the rare occurrence of severe placental complications in a 30-year-old pregnant woman with MS who continued to take IFN-β during her first trimester. She presented at the Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, in 2013 with early-onset fetal growth restriction...
August 2016: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Christiane Reick, Gisa Ellrichmann, Teresa Tsai, De-Hyung Lee, Stefan Wiese, Ralf Gold, Carsten Saft, Ralf A Linker
Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a FDA-approved drug which is licensed for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and which may exert neuroprotective effects via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this study, we investigate effects of GA on BDNF expression especially in astrocytes in vitro and in vivo in brains of R6/2 and YAC128 transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD) where a pathogenic role of astroglial cells has recently been shown. We show that GA increases the expression of functionally active BDNF in astrocyte culture and in astrocytes of GA treated HD mice...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
Le H Hua, Jeffrey A Cohen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medication prices are a major contributor to the high cost of care for multiple sclerosis (MS). The patents for some of the initial injectable therapies for relapsing MS recently expired, permitting development, regulatory approval, and marketing of generic alternatives with the potential for lower prices and cost savings to payers and patients. RECENT FINDINGS: A generic version of glatiramer acetate 20 mg administered by daily subcutaneous injection recently received regulatory approval in the United States...
August 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Angelo Ghezzi, Maria Pia Amato, Naila Makhani, Teri Shreiner, Jutta Gärtner, Silvia Tenembaum
Many disease-modifying therapies are currently available for adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) but none of them has been tested in pediatric MS in randomized placebo-controlled trials. At present, as suggested by observational studies and experts' guidelines, interferon-β and glatiramer acetate continue to be the standard first-line treatments for pediatric MS. Observational studies and some controlled unblinded trials have shown a positive effect of these meditations in reducing relapse rate and delaying disease progression, with an acceptable safety profile...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Tanuja Chitnis, Angelo Ghezzi, Barbara Bajer-Kornek, Alexey Boyko, Gavin Giovannoni, Daniela Pohl
Over the last 20 years, there have been significant advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) therapeutics, with regulatory approval for 13 therapies in adults by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration. However, there is only limited approval for interferon-β and glatiramer acetate use in children 12 years and older by the EMA. Availability of disease-modifying therapies to children and adolescents with MS is variable by region, and is extremely limited in some regions of the world...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Brenda Bertado-Cortés, Lyda Villamil-Osorio, Raúl Carrera-Pineda, Carlos Martínez-Cortés, José Guerrero-Cantera
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease whose physiopathogenesis shows a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Given that those factors have not been documented in our country, we describe the clinical and demographic characteristics from a sample of patients with MS. METHODS: We carried out an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and retrolective study in a Center for Demyelinating Diseases. We took the information from the clinical records of a sample of patients with multiple sclerosis, who arrived to the center from April 2014 to July 2015...
2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Yu Lu, Jiangmin Zhao, Qing Zhan
OBJECTIVES: Interferon-beta1alpha (IFN-β1α) is widely used to modify the course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However, many patients have relapses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a predictor of IFN-β1α treatment efficacy in patients with MS. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify eligible studies. Manual searches were also conducted. All eligible trials included MS patients who received IFN-β1α based on gadolinium-enhancing or active T2 MRI lesions for determination of relapse rates...
October 2016: Neurological Research
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