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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144387/neighborhood-prices-of-healthier-and-unhealthier-foods-and-associations-with-diet-quality-evidence-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#1
David M Kern, Amy H Auchnicloss, Mark F Stehr, Ana V Diez Roux, Latetia V Moore, Genevieve P Kanter, Lucy F Robinson
It is known that the price of food influences the purchasing and consumption decisions of individuals; however, little work has examined if the price of healthier food relative to unhealthier food in an individual's neighborhood is associated with overall dietary quality while using data from multiple regions in the United States. Cross-sectional person-level data came from The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (exam 5, 2010-2012 n = 2765); a food frequency questionnaire assessed diet. Supermarket food/beverage prices came from Information Resources Inc...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143981/high-plasma-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-high-risk-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-a-mendelian-randomisation-study-of-97849-individuals
#2
U C Winsløw, B G Nordestgaard, S Afzal
BACKGROUND: High plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) concentration has been associated observationally with high risk of non-melanoma skin cancer, while many studies suggest that vitamin D could have a protective effect on cancer. The true association between vitamin D and risk of skin cancer remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In this Mendelian randomisation study we tested the hypothesis that genetically high plasma 25(OH)D protects against non-melanoma skin cancer...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139650/metrically-adjusted-questionnaires-can-provide-more-information-for-scientists-an-example-from-the-tourism
#3
Joško Sindik, Maja Miljanović
The article deals with the issue of research methodology, illustrating the use of known research methods for new purposes. Questionnaires that originally do not have metric characteristics can be called »handy questionnaires«. In this article, the author is trying to consider the possibilities of their improved scientific usability, which can be primarily ensured by improving their metric characteristics, consequently using multivariate instead of univariate statistical methods. In order to establish the base for the application of multivariate statistical procedures, the main idea is to develop strategies to design measurement instruments from parts of the handy questionnaires...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138519/time-to-delivery-and-delivery-outcomes-comparing-three-methods-of-labor-induction-in-7551-nulliparous-women-a-population-based-cohort-study
#4
C Lindblad Wollmann, M Ahlberg, G Petersson, S Saltvedt, O Stephansson
OBJECTIVE: Determine time-to-delivery and mode-of-delivery in labor induction among women with unripe cervix. STUDY DESIGN: 7551 nulliparous women with singleton deliveries, ⩾37 weeks, Bishop Score ⩽6, induced with dinoprostone, misoprostol or transcervical single balloon catheter. Linear regression analysis was used to estimate mean time-to-delivery with β-estimates and 95% confidence intervals with adjustments. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds of cesarean delivery, instrumental vaginal delivery, maternal and neonatal outcomes...
November 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136007/perinatal-mortality-associated-with-induction-of-labour-versus-expectant-management-in-nulliparous-women-aged-35-years-or-over-an-english-national-cohort-study
#5
Hannah E Knight, David A Cromwell, Ipek Gurol-Urganci, Katie Harron, Jan H van der Meulen, Gordon C S Smith
BACKGROUND: A recent randomised controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that induction of labour at 39 weeks of gestational age has no short-term adverse effect on the mother or infant among nulliparous women aged ≥35 years. However, the trial was underpowered to address the effect of routine induction of labour on the risk of perinatal death. We aimed to determine the association between induction of labour at ≥39 weeks and the risk of perinatal mortality among nulliparous women aged ≥35 years...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135909/food-swamps-predict-obesity-rates-better-than-food-deserts-in-the-united-states
#6
Kristen Cooksey-Stowers, Marlene B Schwartz, Kelly D Brownell
This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135775/adjustment-for-variable-adherence-under-hierarchical-structure-instrumental-variable-modeling-through-compound-residual-inclusion
#7
Tyson H Holmes, Donna M Zulman, Clete A Kushida
BACKGROUND: Variable adherence to assigned conditions is common in randomized clinical trials. OBJECTIVES: A generalized modeling framework under longitudinal data structures is proposed for regression estimation of the causal effect of variable adherence on outcome, with emphasis upon adjustment for unobserved confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN: A nonlinear, nonparametric random-coefficients modeling approach is described. Estimates of local average treatment effects among compliers can be obtained simultaneously for all assigned conditions to which participants are randomly assigned within the trial...
December 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134512/artery-compliance-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-results-from-a-case-control-study
#8
Lei Wang, Wenfeng Tan, Fang Wang, Youxuan Shen, Huanping Mei, Yanyan Wang, Yao Ke, Lei Gu, Qiang Wang, Miaojia Zhang
Atherosclerosis is one of the most common complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study is to evaluate differences in large artery compliance (C1) and small artery compliance (C2) between RA and controls and evaluating factors associated with reduced compliance in the RA population. The profiling of large and small arterial compliance was analyzed in 185 RA patients and 88 healthy controls using Cardiovascular Profiling Instrument. The correlations of arterial compliance and the relevant clinical data were determined in these subjects...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134165/an-innovate-robotic-endoscope-guidance-system-for-transnasal-sinus-and-skull-base-surgery-proof-of-concept
#9
D T Friedrich, F Sommer, M O Scheithauer, J Greve, T K Hoffmann, P J Schuler
Objective  Advanced transnasal sinus and skull base surgery remains a challenging discipline for head and neck surgeons. Restricted access and space for instrumentation can impede advanced interventions. Thus, we present the combination of an innovative robotic endoscope guidance system and a specific endoscope with adjustable viewing angle to facilitate transnasal surgery in a human cadaver model. Materials and Methods  The applicability of the robotic endoscope guidance system with custom foot pedal controller was tested for advanced transnasal surgery on a fresh frozen human cadaver head...
December 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131887/effect-of-an-intervention-to-promote-breastfeeding-on-asthma-lung-function-and-atopic-eczema-at-age-16-years-follow-up-of-the-probit-randomized-trial
#10
Carsten Flohr, A John Henderson, Michael S Kramer, Rita Patel, Jennifer Thompson, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Seungmi Yang, Konstantin Vilchuck, Natalia Bogdanovich, Mikhail Hameza, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken
Importance: Atopic diseases, including asthma and atopic eczema, are the most common chronic conditions of childhood. Objective: To investigate whether an intervention to promote prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding protects against asthma, atopic eczema, and low lung function in adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Follow-up of the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT), a cluster randomized trial in 30 Belarusian maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics; recruitment of 17 046 healthy term infants took place from June 15, 1996, to December 31, 1997...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131385/rural-community-birth-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-for-planned-community-births-among-rural-women-in-the-united-states-2004-2009
#11
Elizabeth Nethery, Wendy Gordon, Marit L Bovbjerg, Melissa Cheyney
BACKGROUND: Approximately 22% of women in the United States live in rural areas with limited access to obstetric care. Despite declines in hospital-based obstetric services in many rural communities, midwifery care at home and in free standing birth centers is available in many rural communities. This study examines maternal and neonatal outcomes among planned home and birth center births attended by midwives, comparing outcomes for rural and nonrural women. METHODS: Using the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2...
November 13, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130477/transcranial-doppler-and-lower-extremity-function-in-older-adults-einstein-aging-study
#12
Ali Ezzati, Tatjana Rundek, Joe Verghese, Carol A Derby
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) measures of mean blood flow velocity (MBFV) in the major cerebral arteries are associated with measures of lower extremity function in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community sample. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 70 and older (mean 79.5, 54% female) without dementia participating in the Einstein Aging Study (N = 200)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130263/public-health-spending-and-medicare-resource-use-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-u-s-communities
#13
Glen P Mays, Cezar B Mamaril
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether local expenditures for public health activities influence area-level medical spending for Medicare beneficiaries. DATA SOURCES AND SETTING: Six census surveys of the nation's 2,900 local public health agencies were conducted between 1993 and 2013, linked with contemporaneous information on population demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and area-level Medicare spending estimates from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION: Measures derive from agency survey data and aggregated Medicare claims...
December 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125429/graft-subsidence-as-a-predictor-of-revision-surgery-following-stand-alone-lateral-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#14
Zachary J Tempel, Michael M McDowell, David M Panczykowski, Gurpreet S Gandhoke, D Kojo Hamilton, David O Okonkwo, Adam S Kanter
OBJECTIVE Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a less invasive surgical option commonly used for a variety of spinal conditions, including in high-risk patient populations. LLIF is often performed as a stand-alone procedure, and may be complicated by graft subsidence, the clinical ramifications of which remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize further the sequelae of graft subsidence following stand-alone LLIF. METHODS A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted on consecutive patients who underwent stand-alone LLIF between July 2008 and June 2015; 297 patients (623 levels) met inclusion criteria...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125237/toenail-mineral-concentration-and-risk-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-results-from-the-golestan-cohort-study
#15
Maryam Hashemian, Gwen Murphy, Arash Etemadi, Hossein Poustchi, John D Brockman, Farin Kamangar, Akram Pourshams, Masoud Khoshnia, Abdolsamad Gharavi, Sanford M Dawsey, Paul J Brennan, Paolo Boffetta, Azita Hekmatdoost, Reza Malekzadeh, Christian C Abnet
Studies conducted in China linked selenium deficiency to higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but this has not been widely tested outside that selenium-deficient region. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between selenium and other mineral concentrations in toenails and risk of ESCC in a region with high incidence rates. In this nested case-control study, we identified 222 cases of ESCC from the Golestan Cohort Study, Iran, which has followed up 50,045 participants since enrollment (2004-2008)...
November 10, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125073/erythrocyte-associated-amyloid-%C3%AE-as-potential-biomarker-to-diagnose-dementia
#16
Michele Lauriola, Giulia Paroni, Filomena Ciccone, Grazia D Onofrio, Leandro Cascavilla, Francesco Paris, Carolina Gravina, Maria Urbano, Davide Seripa, Antonio Greco
BACKGROUND: Although it is well known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the human brain, its pathogenic role has yet to be completely clarified. Aβ moves from the blood-brain barrier to the plasma and an increased Aβ production in brain could be associated with higher Aβ concentrations in blood. A recent study has evaluated Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 levels in human red blood cells (RBCs) with evidence of age-dependent higher Aβ concentration in RBCs...
November 10, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124043/activities-of-daily-living-measured-by-the-harvard-automated-phone-task-track-with-cognitive-decline-over-time-in-non-demented-elderly
#17
Gad A Marshall, Sarah L Aghjayan, Maria Dekhtyar, Joseph J Locascio, Kamal Jethwani, Rebecca E Amariglio, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Dorene M Rentz
Background: Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden to both patients and caregivers. Mild impairment in instrumental activities of daily living is often seen at the stage of mild cognitive impairment. The field of Alzheimer's disease is moving toward earlier diagnosis and intervention and more sensitive and ecologically valid assessments of instrumental or complex activities of daily living are needed. The Harvard Automated Phone Task, a novel performance-based activities of daily living instrument, has the potential to fill this gap...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121101/validation-of-a-light-scattering-pm2-5-sensor-monitor-based-on-the-long-term-gravimetric-measurements-in-field-tests
#18
Jingjin Shi, Fei'er Chen, Yunfei Cai, Shichen Fan, Jing Cai, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Yihan Lu, Zhuohui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Portable direct-reading instruments by light-scattering method are increasingly used in airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitoring. However, there are limited calibration studies on such instruments by applying the gravimetric method as reference method in field tests. METHODS: An 8-month sampling was performed and 96 pairs of PM2.5 data by both the gravimetric method and the simultaneous light-scattering real-time monitoring (QT-50) were obtained from July, 2015 to February, 2016 in Shanghai...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120251/validity-of-the-flemish-working-alliance-inventory-in-a-dutch-physiotherapy-setting-in-patients-with-shoulder-pain
#19
Yasmaine Karel, Marloes Thoomes-De Graaf, Gwendolijne Scholten-Peeters, Paulo Ferreira, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Bart W Koes, Arianne P Verhagen
BACKGROUND: Working alliance is the interaction between the patient and therapist. It is a crucial part of the physiotherapeutic process. One instrument to measure working alliance is available in Dutch/Flemish language and validated in psychotherapy setting. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to validate the Working Alliance Inventory Short-Form in a Dutch physiotherapy setting. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study in primary-care physiotherapy. METHOD: To validate the Dutch/Flemish version of the working alliance inventory short-form (WAV-12) a RASCH analysis was used...
November 9, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119336/bariatric-surgery-as-an-efficient-treatment-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-prospective-study-with-1-year-follow-up-bariscan-study
#20
Felix Nickel, Christian Tapking, Laura Benner, Janina Sollors, Adrian T Billeter, Hannes G Kenngott, Loay Bokhary, Mathias Schmid, Moritz von Frankenberg, Lars Fischer, Sebastian Mueller, Beat P Müller-Stich
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery gains attention as a potential treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to evaluate improvement of NAFLD after the two most common bariatric procedures with validated non-invasive instruments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: N = 100 patients scheduled for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were included. NAFLD was evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography and laboratory-based fibrosis scores...
November 9, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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