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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671733/amygdala-ventral-striatum-circuit-activation-decreases-long-term-fear
#1
Susana S Correia, Anna G McGrath, Allison Lee, Ann M Graybiel, Ki A Goosens
In humans, activation of the ventral striatum, a region associated with reward processing, is associated with the extinction of fear, a goal in the treatment of fear-related disorders. This evidence suggests that extinction of aversive memories engages reward-related circuits, but a causal relationship between activity in a reward circuit and fear extinction has not been demonstrated. Here, we identify a basolateral amygdala (BLA)-ventral striatum (NAc) pathway that is activated by extinction training. Enhanced recruitment of this circuit during extinction learning, either by pairing reward with fear extinction training or by optogenetic stimulation of this circuit during fear extinction, reduces the return of fear that normally follows extinction training...
September 27, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647894/striosome-dendron-bouquets-highlight-a-unique-striatonigral-circuit-targeting-dopamine-containing-neurons
#2
Jill R Crittenden, Paul W Tillberg, Michael H Riad, Yasuyuki Shima, Charles R Gerfen, Jeffrey Curry, David E Housman, Sacha B Nelson, Edward S Boyden, Ann M Graybiel
The dopamine systems of the brain powerfully influence movement and motivation. We demonstrate that striatonigral fibers originating in striosomes form highly unusual bouquet-like arborizations that target bundles of ventrally extending dopamine-containing dendrites and clusters of their parent nigral cell bodies. Retrograde tracing showed that these clustered cell bodies in turn project to the striatum as part of the classic nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, these striosome-dendron formations, here termed "striosome-dendron bouquets," likely represent subsystems with the nigro-striato-nigral loop that are affected in human disorders including Parkinson's disease...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595386/foxp2-controls-synaptic-wiring-of-corticostriatal-circuits-and-vocal-communication-by-opposing-mef2c
#3
Yi-Chuan Chen, Hsiao-Ying Kuo, Ulrich Bornschein, Hiroshi Takahashi, Shih-Yun Chen, Kuan-Ming Lu, Hao-Yu Yang, Gui-May Chen, Jing-Ruei Lin, Yi-Hsin Lee, Yun-Chia Chou, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Cheng-Ting Chien, Wolfgang Enard, Wulf Hevers, Svante Pääbo, Ann M Graybiel, Fu-Chin Liu
Cortico-basal ganglia circuits are critical for speech and language and are implicated in autism spectrum disorder, in which language function can be severely affected. We demonstrate that in the mouse striatum, the gene Foxp2 negatively interacts with the synapse suppressor gene Mef2c. We present causal evidence that Mef2c inhibition by Foxp2 in neonatal mouse striatum controls synaptogenesis of corticostriatal inputs and vocalization in neonates. Mef2c suppresses corticostriatal synapse formation and striatal spinogenesis, but can itself be repressed by Foxp2 through direct DNA binding...
November 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222584/analysis-of-complex-neural-circuits-with-nonlinear-multidimensional-hidden-state-models
#4
Alexander Friedman, Joshua F Slocum, Danil Tyulmankov, Leif G Gibb, Alex Altshuler, Suthee Ruangwises, Qinru Shi, Sebastian E Toro Arana, Dirk W Beck, Jacquelyn E C Sholes, Ann M Graybiel
A universal need in understanding complex networks is the identification of individual information channels and their mutual interactions under different conditions. In neuroscience, our premier example, networks made up of billions of nodes dynamically interact to bring about thought and action. Granger causality is a powerful tool for identifying linear interactions, but handling nonlinear interactions remains an unmet challenge. We present a nonlinear multidimensional hidden state (NMHS) approach that achieves interaction strength analysis and decoding of networks with nonlinear interactions by including latent state variables for each node in the network...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069378/habit-formation
#5
Kyle S Smith, Ann M Graybiel
Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process...
March 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27026119/motion-sickness-and-resting-energy-expenditure-in-chinese-male-adults
#6
Jun-Qin Wang, Rui-Rui Qi, Lei-Lei Pan, Wei Zhou, Li-Li Zhang, Yi-Ling Cai
BACKGROUND: Motion sickness can influence energy homeostasis by enhancing thermolysis. This study tested the hypothesis that resting energy expenditure (REE), as the major component of thermogenesis, might also play a role during motion sickness. METHODS: The effect of seasickness on REE at sea was examined in 71 healthy Chinese male volunteers. Change in REE, heart rate variability (HRV), blood ghrelin levels, and leptin levels were observed across baseline, voyage, and recovery stages...
April 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740533/habit-formation-coincides-with-shifts-in-reinforcement-representations-in-the-sensorimotor-striatum
#7
Kyle S Smith, Ann M Graybiel
Evaluating outcomes of behavior is a central function of the striatum. In circuits engaging the dorsomedial striatum, sensitivity to goal value is accentuated during learning, whereas outcome sensitivity is thought to be minimal in the dorsolateral striatum and its habit-related corticostriatal circuits. However, a distinct population of projection neurons in the dorsolateral striatum exhibits selective sensitivity to rewards. Here, we evaluated the outcome-related signaling in such neurons as rats performed an instructional T-maze task for two rewards...
March 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26675822/neurobiology-of-rodent-self-grooming-and-its-value-for-translational-neuroscience
#8
REVIEW
Allan V Kalueff, Adam Michael Stewart, Cai Song, Kent C Berridge, Ann M Graybiel, John C Fentress
Self-grooming is a complex innate behaviour with an evolutionarily conserved sequencing pattern and is one of the most frequently performed behavioural activities in rodents. In this Review, we discuss the neurobiology of rodent self-grooming, and we highlight studies of rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders--including models of autism spectrum disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder--that have assessed self-grooming phenotypes. We suggest that rodent self-grooming may be a useful measure of repetitive behaviour in such models, and therefore of value to translational psychiatry...
January 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26460033/bursts-of-beta-oscillation-differentiate-postperformance-activity-in-the-striatum-and-motor-cortex-of-monkeys-performing-movement-tasks
#9
Joseph Feingold, Daniel J Gibson, Brian DePasquale, Ann M Graybiel
Studies of neural oscillations in the beta band (13-30 Hz) have demonstrated modulations in beta-band power associated with sensory and motor events on time scales of 1 s or more, and have shown that these are exaggerated in Parkinson's disease. However, even early reports of beta activity noted extremely fleeting episodes of beta-band oscillation lasting <150 ms. Because the interpretation of possible functions for beta-band oscillations depends strongly on the time scale over which they occur, and because of these oscillations' potential importance in Parkinson's disease and related disorders, we analyzed in detail the distributions of duration and power for beta-band activity in a large dataset recorded in the striatum and motor-premotor cortex of macaque monkeys performing reaching tasks...
November 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26308981/optogenetics-10-years-after-chr2-in-neurons-views-from-the-community
#10
REVIEW
Antoine Adamantidis, Silvia Arber, Jaideep S Bains, Ernst Bamberg, Antonello Bonci, György Buzsáki, Jessica A Cardin, Rui M Costa, Yang Dan, Yukiko Goda, Ann M Graybiel, Michael Häusser, Peter Hegemann, John R Huguenard, Thomas R Insel, Patricia H Janak, Daniel Johnston, Sheena A Josselyn, Christof Koch, Anatol C Kreitzer, Christian Lüscher, Robert C Malenka, Gero Miesenböck, Georg Nagel, Botond Roska, Mark J Schnitzer, Krishna V Shenoy, Ivan Soltesz, Scott M Sternson, Richard W Tsien, Roger Y Tsien, Gina G Turrigiano, Kay M Tye, Rachel I Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26291166/habit-learning-by-naive-macaques-is-marked-by-response-sharpening-of-striatal-neurons-representing-the-cost-and-outcome-of-acquired-action-sequences
#11
Theresa M Desrochers, Ken-ichi Amemori, Ann M Graybiel
Over a century of scientific work has focused on defining the factors motivating behavioral learning. Observations in animals and humans trained on a wide range of tasks support reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms as accounting for the learning. Still unknown, however, are the signals that drive learning in naive, untrained subjects. Here, we capitalized on a sequential saccade task in which macaque monkeys acquired repetitive scanning sequences without instruction. We found that spike activity in the caudate nucleus after each trial corresponded to an integrated cost-benefit signal that was highly correlated with the degree of naturalistic untutored learning by the monkeys...
August 19, 2015: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26238359/the-striatum-where-skills-and-habits-meet
#12
REVIEW
Ann M Graybiel, Scott T Grafton
After more than a century of work concentrating on the motor functions of the basal ganglia, new ideas have emerged, suggesting that the basal ganglia also have major functions in relation to learning habits and acquiring motor skills. We review the evidence supporting the role of the striatum in optimizing behavior by refining action selection and in shaping habits and skills as a modulator of motor repertoires. These findings challenge the notion that striatal learning processes are limited to the motor domain...
August 2015: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26092895/a-conversation-with-ann-graybiel
#13
Ann Graybiel, Karen Carniol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26027737/a-corticostriatal-path-targeting-striosomes-controls-decision-making-under-conflict
#14
Alexander Friedman, Daigo Homma, Leif G Gibb, Ken-Ichi Amemori, Samuel J Rubin, Adam S Hood, Michael H Riad, Ann M Graybiel
A striking neurochemical form of compartmentalization has been found in the striatum of humans and other species, dividing it into striosomes and matrix. The function of this organization has been unclear, but the anatomical connections of striosomes indicate their relation to emotion-related brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex. We capitalized on this fact by combining pathway-specific optogenetics and electrophysiology in behaving rats to search for selective functions of striosomes. We demonstrate that a medial prefronto-striosomal circuit is selectively active in and causally necessary for cost-benefit decision-making under approach-avoidance conflict conditions known to evoke anxiety in humans...
June 4, 2015: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25831512/a-multistage-mathematical-approach-to-automated-clustering-of-high-dimensional-noisy-data
#15
Alexander Friedman, Michael D Keselman, Leif G Gibb, Ann M Graybiel
A critical problem faced in many scientific fields is the adequate separation of data derived from individual sources. Often, such datasets require analysis of multiple features in a highly multidimensional space, with overlap of features and sources. The datasets generated by simultaneous recording from hundreds of neurons emitting phasic action potentials have produced the challenge of separating the recorded signals into independent data subsets (clusters) corresponding to individual signal-generating neurons...
April 7, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25653353/motivation-and-affective-judgments-differentially-recruit-neurons-in-the-primate-dorsolateral-prefrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#16
Ken-ichi Amemori, Satoko Amemori, Ann M Graybiel
The judgment of whether to accept or to reject an offer is determined by positive and negative affect related to the offer, but affect also induces motivational responses. Rewarding and aversive cues influence the firing rates of many neurons in primate prefrontal and cingulate neocortical regions, but it still is unclear whether neurons in these regions are related to affective judgment or to motivation. To address this issue, we recorded simultaneously the neuronal spike activities of single units in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of macaque monkeys as they performed approach-avoidance (Ap-Av) and approach-approach (Ap-Ap) decision-making tasks that can behaviorally dissociate affective judgment and motivation...
February 4, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25521072/dynamic-ordering-of-early-generated-striatal-cells-destined-to-form-the-striosomal-compartment-of-the-striatum
#17
Helen Newman, Fu-Chin Liu, Ann M Graybiel
The mature striatum is divided into a labyrinthine system of striosomes embedded in a surrounding matrix compartment. We pulse-labeled striosomal cells (S cells) and matrix cells (M cells) in cats with (3) H-thymidine and followed their distributions during fetal and postnatal development. We identified three maturational phases in S-cell distributions. The early phase (sampled at embryonic day [E]27-E35 following E24-E28 (3) H-thymidine) was characterized by a transient medial accumulation of synchronously generated S cells within the caudate nucleus adjoining the ganglionic eminence, potentially a waiting compartment...
April 15, 2015: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25448381/a-non-invasive-head-holding-device-for-chronic-neural-recordings-in-awake-behaving-monkeys
#18
Satoko Amemori, Ken-Ichi Amemori, Margaret L Cantor, Ann M Graybiel
BACKGROUND: We have developed a novel head-holding device for behaving non-human primates that affords stability suitable for reliable chronic electrophysiological recording experiments. The device is completely non-invasive, and thus avoids the risk of infection and other complications that can occur with the use of conventional, surgically implanted head-fixation devices. NEW METHOD: The device consists of a novel non-invasive head mold and bar clamp holder, and is customized to the shape of each monkey's head...
January 30, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25244801/-a-randomized-controlled-trial-acclimatization-training-on-the-prevention-of-motion-sickness-in-hot-humid-environment
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lei Zhang, Jun-Feng Mao, Xiao-Nong Wu, Ying-Chun Bao
OBJECTIVE: Incidence and severity of motion sickness (MS) in hot-humid environment are extremely high. We tried to know the effect of two-stage training for reducing incidence and severity of ms. METHODS: Sixty male subjects were divided into experimental group and control group randomly. Subjects in experimental group received: (2) adaptation training including sitting, walking and running in hot lab. After adaptation confirmation based on subjective feeling, rectal temperature, heart rate, blood Pressure, sweat rates and sweat salt concentration, we tested both groups by Coriolis acceleration revolving chair test and recorded Graybiel's score and grading of severity to evaluate whether adaptation training was useful; (2) Anti-dizzy training 3m later of deacclimatization contained revolving chair training for 10 times...
May 2014: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25241072/striatal-circuits-habits-and-implications-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Eric Burguière, Patricia Monteiro, Luc Mallet, Guoping Feng, Ann M Graybiel
Increasing evidence implicates abnormalities in corticostriatal circuits in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OC-spectrum disorders. Parallels between the emergence of repetitive, compulsive behaviors and the acquisition of automated behaviors suggest that the expression of compulsions could in part involve loss of control of such habitual behaviors. The view that striatal circuit dysfunction is involved in OC-spectrum disorders is strengthened by imaging and other evidence in humans, by discovery of genes related to OCD syndromes, and by functional studies in animal models of these disorders...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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