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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352750/histomorphological-analysis-of-the-variability-of-the-human-skeleton-forensic-implications
#1
Marco Cummaudo, Annalisa Cappella, Miranda Biraghi, Caterina Raffone, Nicholas Màrquez-Grant, Cristina Cattaneo
One of the fundamental questions in forensic medicine and anthropology is whether or not a bone or bone fragment is human. Surprisingly at times for the extreme degradation of the bone (charred, old), DNA cannot be successfully performed and one must turn to other methods. Histological analysis at times can be proposed. However, the variability of a single human skeleton has never been tested. Forty-nine thin sections of long, flat, irregular and short bones were obtained from a well-preserved medieval adult human skeleton...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352599/-detection-of-chlamydia-abortus-in-bovine-reproductive-losses-in-the-province-of-la-pampa-argentina
#2
María Del C Rojas, Marcelo Fort, Simone Bettermann, Carolina Entrocassi, Sixto R Costamagna, Konrad Sachse, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin
Reproductive losses linked to an infectious etiology in bovine cattle are a major economic concern worldwide. In Argentina, more than 50% of abortion cases have unknown causes. Species belonging to Chlamydiaceae family are frequent etiologic agents of abortion around the world; however, there is yet no information on their prevalence in Argentina. The objective of this work was to identify Chlamydia spp., and particularly C. abortus in reproductive losses from bovine cattle in La Pampa, Argentina. Real time PCR targeting Chlamydiaceae-specific DNA fragments was performed on 251 samples obtained from bovine abortions and stillborns, and ArrayTube was used for species identification on positive samples...
January 16, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352167/srebp1c-mediates-the-effect-of-acetaldehyde-on-cidea-expression-in-alcoholic-fatty-liver-mice
#3
Qi He, Yan Diao, Tingting Zhao, Baoyu Hou, Linel Darrel Ngokana, Huan Liang, Junhui Nie, Peizhu Tan, Hui Huang, Yanze Li, Lin Qi, Yuanyuan Zhao, Ying Liu, Xu Gao, Lingyun Zhou
Cell death inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like A (Cidea) is a member of cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) protein. The initial function of CIDE is the promotion of cell death and DNA fragmentation in mammalian cells. Cidea was recently reported to play critical roles in the development of hepatic steatosis. The purpose of present study is to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intake on Cidea expression in the livers of mice with alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cidea expression was significantly increased in the liver of alcohol-induced fatty liver mice...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351565/sumo-targeting-of-a-stress-tolerant-ulp1-sumo-protease
#4
Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Jonathan L McMurry, Oliver Kerscher
SUMO proteases of the SENP/Ulp family are master regulators of both sumoylation and desumoylation and regulate SUMO homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. SUMO conjugates rapidly increase in response to cellular stress, including nutrient starvation, hypoxia, osmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and other proteotoxic stressors. Nevertheless, little is known about the regulation and targeting of SUMO proteases during stress. To this end we have undertaken a detailed comparison of the SUMO-binding activity of the budding yeast protein Ulp1 (ScUlp1) and its ortholog in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, KmUlp1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351298/construction-of-an-infectious-horsepox-virus-vaccine-from-chemically-synthesized-dna-fragments
#5
Ryan S Noyce, Seth Lederman, David H Evans
Edward Jenner and his contemporaries believed that his variolae vaccinae originated in horses and molecular analyses show that modern vaccinia virus (VACV) strains share common ancestry with horsepox virus (HPXV). Given concerns relating to the toxicity of modern VACV vaccines, we asked whether an HPXV-based vaccine might provide a superior alternative. Since HPXV may be extinct and the only specimen of HPXV that has been identified is unavailable for investigation, we explored whether HPXV could be obtained by large-scale gene synthesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351066/contamination-of-swimming-pools-and-hot-tubs-biofilms-with-acanthamoeba
#6
Behroz Mahdavi Poor, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Fatemeh Ghafarifar, Fariba Khoshzaban, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
The members of Acanthamoeba genus are ubiquitous amoeba which could be a pathogenic parasite. The amoeba is resistant to the common chlorine concentration that used for disinfecting the swimming pool water. Therefore, the pools can be suitable environments for the survival and multiplication of the amoeba. In this cross sectional study, 10 indoor recreational water centers from different regions of Tabriz city were selected and sampling was done from fixed and floating biofilms of the swimming pools and hot tubs...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350405/reactive-oxygen-species-induced-parthanatos-of-immunocytes-by-human-cytomegalovirus-associated-substance
#7
Jung Heon Kim, Jiyeon Kim, Jin Roh, Chan-Sik Park, Ju-Young Seoh, Eung-Soo Hwang
Previous studies examined various immune evasion strategies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to understand HCMV pathogenesis. Although the mechanism that underlies immunocyte destruction near HCMV-infected lesions has yet to be established, we show that substances produced by HCMV-infected cells induce death in several types of immunocytes, but not in fibroblasts or astrocytomas. These substances contain HCMV proteins and were termed HCMV-associated insoluble substance (HCMVAIS). We characterized this mechanism of cell death induced by HCMVAIS to understand the death of immunocytes near HCMV-infected lesions...
January 19, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349707/piperazine-clubbed-with-2-azetidinone-derivatives-suppresses-proliferation-migration-and-induces-apoptosis-in-human-cervical-cancer-hela-cells-through-oxidative-stress-mediated-intrinsic-mitochondrial-pathway
#8
Rashmin Khanam, Raj Kumar, Iram Iqbal Hejazi, Syed Shahabuddin, Ramovatar Meena, Vikrant Jayant, Prabhat Kumar, Abdul Roouf Bhat, Fareeda Athar
Piperazine scaffolds or 2-azetidinone pharmacophores have been reported to show anti-cancer activities and apoptosis induction in different types of cancer cells. However, the mechanistic studies involve in induction of apoptosis addressing these two moieties for human cervical cancer cells remain uncertain. The present study emphasizes on the anti-proliferating properties and mechanism involved in induction of apoptosis for these structurally related azoles derivatives in HeLa cancer cells. 1-Phenylpiperazine clubbed with 2-azetidione derivatives (5a-5h) were synthesized, characterized using various spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for their in-vitro anti-proliferative activities and induction of apoptosis...
January 18, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348673/quantification-of-massively-parallel-sequencing-libraries-a-comparative-study-of-eight-methods
#9
Christian Hussing, Marie-Louise Kampmann, Helle Smidt Mogensen, Claus Børsting, Niels Morling
Quantification of massively parallel sequencing libraries is important for acquisition of monoclonal beads or clusters prior to clonal amplification and to avoid large variations in library coverage when multiple samples are included in one sequencing analysis. No gold standard for quantification of libraries exists. We assessed eight methods of quantification of libraries by quantifying 54 amplicon, six capture, and six shotgun fragment libraries. Chemically synthesized double-stranded DNA was also quantified...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345262/copper-i-complexes-with-phosphine-derived-from-sparfloxacin-part-iii-multifaceted-cell-death-and-preliminary-study-of-liposomal-formulation-of-selected-copper-i-complexes
#10
A Kyzioł, A Cierniak, J Gubernator, A Markowski, M Jeżowska-Bojczuk, U K Komarnicka
The cytotoxic effect of iodide or thiocyanate copper(i) complexes (1-PSf, 2-PSf, 3-PSf, 4-PSf) with phosphine derived from sparfloxacin (HSf) and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) as diimine auxiliary ligands was proved in vitro on somatic (MRC-5) and neoplastic (MCF7) human cell lines. Differences in mode of action were investigated in-depth for the selected dmp and bq complexes (1-PSf, 3-PSf, respectively) by elucidation of the following: (i) the efficiency to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems (cyclic voltammetry); (ii) their impact on mitochondrial membrane potential; (iii) potency for the activation of caspases 3 and 9; (iv) influence on the degree of DNA degradation (comet assay)...
January 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344636/analysis-of-the-prolonged-infusion-of-dfp-10917-a-deoxycytidine-analog-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-human-tumor-xenografts-in-vivo
#11
Kenzo Iizuka, Chun Zhang, Kokoro Eshima, Cheng Jin, Kiyoshi Eshima, Masakazu Fukushima
2'-C-cyano-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabino-pentofranocyl-cytosine (DFP-10917, CNDAC) is a 2'-deoxycytidine analog with antitumor activity against various tumor cells. However, a clinically available therapeutic regimen for this compound needs to be established and its functional mechanisms in relation to the dosing schedule need to be clarified. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor activity and toxicity of DFP-10917 by varying the dose and administration schedule in human solid tumor and leukemia xenografts in vivo...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344184/therapeutic-effects-of-adenovirus-mediated-cd-and-nis-expression-combined-with-na131i-5-fc-on-human-thyroid-cancer
#12
Meng-Hui Yuan, Long-Xiao Wei, Run-Suo Zhou, Hai-Feng Xu, Jun-Yan Wang, Qian-Rong Bai
Thyroid cancer is the most common type of malignant endocrine tumor diagnosed. Previous studies have indicated that gene therapy is the most promising and effective therapeutic method for thyroid cancer. Therefore, in the present study, Na131I/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) treatment was combined with cytosine deaminase (CD, encoded by the CDA gene) and sodium iodide symporter (NIS, encoded by the SLC5A5 gene) to act together as a therapeutic tool for thyroid cancer. The present study explored the combined cytotoxic effects of adenovirus-mediated CD and NIS under the control of the progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3) promoter (Ad-PEG-3-CD-NIS) with Na131I/5-FC against the human thyroid cancer TT cell line in vitro...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344158/construction-of-the-pot1-promoter-report-gene-vector-and-the-effect-and-underlying-mechanism-of-the-pot1-promoter-in-regulating-telomerase-and-telomere-length
#13
Liang Zeng, Yue-Li Wang, Fa Wang, Shi-Quan Cui, Liang Hu, Di-Nan Huang, Gan Hou
By using human genomic DNA as a template to clone protection of telomere 1 (POT1) promoter gene segments and construct the POT1 promoter luciferase report gene vector (pGL3-Control-POT1-promoter), the association between POT1, and the regulation of telomerase and telomere length was investigated. In the present study, two recombinant luciferase report gene vectors were constructed, which included different regions of the POT1 promoter. The plasmids were transformed into DH5α and the positive clones were obtained...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343810/mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-subsequent-activation-of-z-dna-binding-protein-1-links-oxidative-stress-to-inflammation-in-epithelial-cells
#14
Bartosz Szczesny, Michela Marcatti, Akbar Ahmad, Mauro Montalbano, Attila Brunyánszki, Sofia-Iris Bibli, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Csaba Szabo
This report identifies mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a target and active mediator that links low-level oxidative stress to inflammatory response in pulmonary epithelial cells. Extrusion of mtDNA into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid occurs as an early event in mice subjected to cigarette smoke injury, concomitantly with the depletion of mtDNA in the lung tissue. In cultured lung epithelial cells, prolonged, low-level oxidative stress damages the mtDNA, without any detectable damage to the nuclear DNA. In turn, cellular depletion of the mtDNA occurs, together with a transient remodeling of cellular bioenergetics and morphology - all without any detectable impairment in overall cell viability...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343314/cell-free-dna-the-role-in-pathophysiology-and-as-a-biomarker-in-kidney-diseases
#15
Peter Celec, Barbora Vlková, Lucia Lauková, Janka Bábíčková, Peter Boor
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is present in various body fluids and originates mostly from blood cells. In specific conditions, circulating cfDNA might be derived from tumours, donor organs after transplantation or from the foetus during pregnancy. The analysis of cfDNA is mainly used for genetic analyses of the source tissue -tumour, foetus or for the early detection of graft rejection. It might serve also as a nonspecific biomarker of tissue damage in critical care medicine. In kidney diseases, cfDNA increases during haemodialysis and indicates cell damage...
January 18, 2018: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342889/a-case-control-study-of-the-genetic-variability-in-reactive-oxygen-species-metabolizing-enzymes-in-melanoma-risk
#16
Tze-An Yuan, Vandy Yourk, Ali Farhat, Argyrios Ziogas, Frank L Meyskens, Hoda Anton-Culver, Feng Liu-Smith
Recent studies have shown that ultraviolet (UV)-induced chemiexcitation of melanin fragments leads to DNA damage; and chemiexcitation of melanin fragments requires reactive oxygen species (ROS), as ROS excite an electron in the melanin fragments. In addition, ROS also cause DNA damages on their own. We hypothesized that ROS producing and metabolizing enzymes were major contributors in UV-driven melanomas. In this case-control study of 349 participants, we genotyped 23 prioritized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases 1 and 4 (NOX1 and NOX4, respectively), CYBA, RAC1, superoxide dismutases (SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3) and catalase (CAT), and analyzed their associated melanoma risk...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342280/epigenetic-differentiation-of-natural-populations-of-lilium-bosniacum-associated-with-contrasting-habitat-conditions
#17
V Zoldoš, I Biruš, E Muratovic, Z Šatovic, A Vojta, O Robin, F Pustahija, F Bogunic, V Vicic Bockor, S Siljak-Yakovlev
Epigenetic variation in natural populations with contrasting habitats might be an important element, in addition to the genetic variation, in plant adaptation to environmental stress. Here, we assessed genetic, epigenetic and cytogenetic structure of the three Lilium bosniacum populations growing on distinct habitats. One population was growing under habitual ecological conditions for this species and the other two were growing under stress associated with high altitude and serpentine soil. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses revealed that the three populations did not differentiate genetically, but were clearly separated in the three distinct clusters according to DNA methylation profiles...
January 12, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339976/detection-of-dioxin-induced-demethylation-of-mouse-cyp1a1-gene-promoter-by-a-new-labeling-method-for-short-dna-fragments-possessing-5-methylcytosine-at-the-end
#18
Hisaka Kurita, Toshiki Aiba, Toshiyuki Saito, Seiichiroh Ohsako
Environmental factors stimulate alteration of DNA methylation level. Investigation of the genome-wide DNA methylation status is important for environmental health studies. We here designed a genomic DNA amplification and labeling protocol using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HinP1 I. This method can specifically amplify genomic DNA fragments possessing methyl-CpG at the end. The fragments are a relatively short size and dominantly located on CpG-islands. By using the samples prepared by this method, a dioxin-induced change in the methylation level of the mouse Cyp1a1 promoter was successfully evaluated using oligonucleotide probes covalently bound onto a glass plate...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339024/nrf2-are-pathway-attenuates-oxidative-and-apoptotic-response-in-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes-by-activating-erk1-2-elk1-p70s6k-p90rsk-signaling-axis
#19
Nazir M Khan, Imran Ahmad, Tariq M Haqqi
Nrf2, a redox regulated transcription factor, has recently been shown to play a role in cartilage integrity but the mechanism remains largely unknown. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease in which focal degradation of cartilage occurs. Here, we studied whether Nrf2 exerts chondroprotective effects by suppressing the oxidative stress and apoptosis in IL-1β stimulated human OA chondrocytes. Expression of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1, NQO1 and SOD2 was significantly high in OA cartilage compared to normal cartilage and was also higher in damaged area compared to smooth area of OA cartilage of the same patient...
January 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338387/quantifying-the-effects-of-different-neutral-proteases-on-human-islet-integrity
#20
Heide Brandhorst, Paul R V Johnson, Olle Korsgren, Daniel Brandhorst
Efficient islet release from the pancreas requires the combination of collagenase, neutral protease (cNP), or thermolysin (TL). Recently, it has been shown that clostripain (CP) may also contribute to efficient islet release from the human pancreas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of these proteases on human islet integrity in a prospective approach. Islets were isolated from the pancreas of 10 brain-dead human organ donors. Purified islets were precultured for 3 to 4 d at 37 °C to ensure that preparations were cleared of predamaged islets, and only integral islets were subjected to 90 min of incubation at 37 °C in Hank's balanced salt solution supplemented with cNP, TL, or CP...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
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