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Hannah R Wardill, Ysabella Z A Van Sebille, Matthew A Ciorba, Joanne M Bowen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strong preclinical data support prophylactic probiotics as an effective preventive strategy for diarrhoea secondary to anticancer therapies. To determine the composite evidence that this approach translates to the clinic, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of cancer therapy induced diarrhoea. RECENT FINDINGS: A three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant studies (1 June 2000-1 June 2017) investigating probiotic intervention for diarrhoea secondary to any cancer therapy (cytotoxic, targeted and immunotherapies)...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
May-Lill Johansen, Bente Ervik
BACKGROUND: Generalists such as general practitioners and district nurses have been the main actors in community palliative care in Norway. Specialised oncology nurses with postgraduate palliative training are increasingly becoming involved. There is little research on their contribution. This study explores how general practitioners (GPs) and oncology nurses (ONs) experience their collaboration in primary palliative care. METHODS: A qualitative focus group and interview study in rural Northern Norway, involving 52 health professionals...
March 7, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
L Franco-Trigo, J Tudball, D Fam, S I Benrimoj, D Sabater-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Collaboration between relevant stakeholders in health service planning enables service contextualization and facilitates its success and integration into practice. Although community pharmacy services (CPSs) aim to improve patients' health and quality of life, their integration in primary care is far from ideal. Key stakeholders for the development of a CPS intended at preventing cardiovascular disease were identified in a previous stakeholder analysis. Engaging these stakeholders to create a shared vision is the subsequent step to focus planning directions and lay sound foundations for future work...
February 21, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Hildegard Kolb, Austyn Snowden, Elaine Stevens
AIM: To identify effective treatments and risk factors associated with death rattle in adults at the end of life. BACKGROUND: The presence of noisy, pooled respiratory tract secretions is among the most common symptoms in dying patients around the world. It is unknown if 'death rattle' distresses patients, but it can distress relatives and clinicians. Treatments appear unsatisfactory, so prophylaxis would be ideal if possible. DESIGN: Quantitative systematic review and narrative summary following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Vagisha Sharma, Josh Eckels, Birgit Schilling, Christina Ludwig, Jacob D Jaffe, Michael J MacCoss, Brendan MacLean
To address the growing need for a centralized, community resource of published results processed with Skyline, and to provide reviewers and readers immediate visual access to the data behind published conclusions, we present Panorama Public (, a repository of Skyline documents supporting published results.  Panorama Public is built on Panorama, an open source data management system for mass spectrometry data processed with the Skyline targeted mass spectrometry environment...
February 27, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Shenghui Li, Jin Hua, Haifa Hong, Yanling Wang, Jun Zhang
Interpregnancy interval and maternal age are associated with birth outcomes. However, it is unknown regarding their long-term effects on child health. We aim to assess the associations between interpregnancy interval and offspring's body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) at age of 7 years and to examine the role of maternal age in the associations. A secondary analysis was performed among 2604 mother-infant pairs in the prospective National Collaborative Perinatal Project, in which the children were followed up until 7 yrs of age...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Michael Seid, George Dellal, Laura E Peterson, Lloyd Provost, Peter A Gloor, David Livingstone Fore, Peter A Margolis
BACKGROUND: Our health care system fails to deliver necessary results, and incremental system improvements will not deliver needed change. Learning health systems (LHSs) are seen as a means to accelerate outcomes, improve care delivery, and further clinical research; yet, few such systems exist. We describe the process of codesigning, with all relevant stakeholders, an approach for creating a collaborative chronic care network (C3N), a peer-produced networked LHS. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to report the methods used, with a diverse group of stakeholders, to translate the idea of a C3N to a set of actionable next steps...
February 22, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
(no author information available yet)
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), which provide a direct measure of a patient's health status or treatment preferences, represent a key component of the shift toward patient-centered health care. PROs can measure the state of a patient's disease-specific and overall health throughout the care continuum, enabling them to have a variety of uses for key health care stakeholders. Currently, PROs are used in drug development, aligning patient and clinician goals in care, quality-of-care measures, and coverage and reimbursement decisions...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
G Fätkenheuer, N Jung, W V Kern, U R Fölsch, B Salzberger
Infectious diseases have recently gained wide public interest. Emerging infections and rising rates of antibiotic resistance are determining this trend. Both challenges will need to be addressed in international and local collaborations between different specialties in medicine and basic science. Infectious diseases as a clinical specialty in this scenario is directly responsible for the care of patients with infectious diseases. Its involvement in the care of patients with complicated infections has proved to be highly effective...
February 19, 2018: Der Internist
George Rugare Chingarande, Keymanthri Moodley
BACKGROUND: Compensation for research related injuries is a subject that is increasingly gaining traction in developing countries which are burgeoning destinations of multi center research. However, the existence of disparate compensation rules violates the ethical principle of fairness. The current paper presents a comparison of the policies of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). METHODS: A systematic search of good clinical practice guidelines was conducted employing search strategies modeled in line with the recommendations of ADPTE Collaboration (2007)...
February 17, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Kathleen Melan, Frederic Amant, Jacqueline Veronique-Baudin, Clarisse Joachim, Eustase Janky
BACKGROUND: Fertility preservation (FP) is a major determinant of quality of life after cancer remission for women who may not have achieved their ideal family size. This article describes the FP services and strategy currently available, highlighting issues of oncofertility worldwide. For these patients in complex situations, health networks are essential to improve coordination of care, and the strengthening of this coordination is a major challenge to improve the performance of the health system...
February 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
Wanxin Wang, Lolita Penland, Ozgun Gokce, Derek Croote, Stephen R Quake
BACKGROUND: High-fidelity preservation strategies for primary tissues are in great demand in the single cell RNAseq community. A reliable method would greatly expand the scope of feasible multi-site collaborations and maximize the utilization of technical expertise. When choosing a method, standardizability and fidelity are important factors to consider due to the susceptibility of single-cell RNAseq analysis to technical noise. Existing approaches such as cryopreservation and chemical fixation are less than ideal for failing to satisfy either or both of these standards...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Aimee W Smith, Constance A Mara, Avani C Modi
INTRODUCTION: The aims of the current study were to identify patterns and predictors of adherence in adolescents with epilepsy over one year, as well as its impact on seizures and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Forty-eight adolescents with epilepsy (Mage =14.8+1.5, 69% female, 73% White: NonHispanic) and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing demographics, epilepsy knowledge, side effects, adherence barriers, family functioning, and HRQOL at quarterly clinic visits over one year...
March 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Martina Imbimbo, Jean-Michel Maury, Marina Garassino, Nicolas Girard
The management of patients with mesothelioma and thymic malignancy requires continuous multidisciplinary expertise at any step of the disease. A dramatic improvement in our knowledge has occurred in the last few years, through the development of databases, translational research programs, and clinical trials. Access to innovative strategies represents a major challenge, as there is a lack of funding for clinical research in rare cancers and their rarity precludes the design of robust clinical trials that could lead to specific approval of drugs...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Bev J Holmes, Stirling Bryan, Kendall Ho, Colleen McGavin
Canada is seeing increased interest in engaging patients in health research, recognizing the potential to improve its relevance and quality. The momentum is promising, but there may be a tendency to ignore the challenges inherent when lay people and professionals collaborate. We address some of these challenges as they relate to recruitment, training, and support for patients at the British Columbia (BC) Support for People and Patient-Oriented Research Unit, part of Canada's Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research...
January 1, 2018: Healthcare Management Forum
Ben Langmead, Abhinav Nellore
Next-generation sequencing has made major strides in the past decade. Studies based on large sequencing data sets are growing in number, and public archives for raw sequencing data have been doubling in size every 18 months. Leveraging these data requires researchers to use large-scale computational resources. Cloud computing, a model whereby users rent computers and storage from large data centres, is a solution that is gaining traction in genomics research. Here, we describe how cloud computing is used in genomics for research and large-scale collaborations, and argue that its elasticity, reproducibility and privacy features make it ideally suited for the large-scale reanalysis of publicly available archived data, including privacy-protected data...
January 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Steffi Matthyssen, Bert Van den Bogerd, Sorcha Ní Dhubhghaill, Carina Koppen, Nadia Zakaria
Corneal blindness is traditionally treated by transplantation of a donor cornea, or in severe cases by implantation of an artificial cornea or keratoprosthesis. Due to severe donor shortages and the risks of complications that come with artificial corneas, tissue engineering in ophthalmology has become more focused on regenerative strategies using biocompatible materials either with or without cells. The stroma makes up the bulk of the corneal thickness and mainly consists of a tightly interwoven network of collagen type I, making it notoriously difficult to recreate in a laboratory setting...
January 24, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Graham G Macdonald, Anne F Townsend, Paul Adam, Linda C Li, Sheila Kerr, Michael McDonald, Catherine L Backman
BACKGROUND: eHealth is a broad term referring to the application of information and communication technologies in the health sector, ranging from health records to telemedicine and multiple forms of health education and digital tools. By providing increased and anytime access to information, opportunities to exchange experiences with others, and self-management support, eHealth has been heralded as transformational. It has created a group of informed, engaged, and empowered patients as partners, equipped to take part in shared decision making and effectively self-manage chronic illness...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Cris M Sullivan
Domestic violence (DV) victim service programs have been increasingly expected by legislators and funders to demonstrate that they are making a significant difference in the lives of those using their services. Alongside this expectation, they are being asked to describe the Theory of Change guiding how they believe their practices lead to positive results for survivors and their children. Having a widely accepted conceptual model is not just potentially useful to funders and policy makers as they help shape policy and practice -- it can also help programs continually reflect upon and improve their work...
2018: Journal of Family Violence
Pamela N Bowman, Kim Slusser, Deborah Allen
Ideal bad news delivery requires skilled communication and team support. The literature has primarily focused on patient preferences, impact on care decisions, healthcare roles, and communication styles, without addressing systematic implementation. This article describes how an interdisciplinary team, led by advanced practice nurses, developed and implemented a collaborative practice model to deliver bad news on a unit that had struggled with inconsistencies. Using evidence-based practices, the authors explored current processes, role perceptions and expectations, and perceived barriers to developing the model, which is now the standard of care and an example of interprofessional team collaboration across the healthcare system...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
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