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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327653/preparation-and-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-quercetin-loaded-mixed-micelles-for-oral-delivery
#1
Zhen Lu, Cuiping Bu, Weicheng Hu, Hui Zhang, Mengrui Liu, Meiqi Lu, Guangxi Zhai
Quercetin (QT) is a plant polyphenol with various pharmacological properties. However, the low water solubility limits its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, QT-loaded sodium taurocholate-Pluronic P123 (QT-loaded ST/P123) mixed micelles were developed and characterized, and the effect of the formulation on improving the water solubility of QT was investigated. QT-loaded ST/P123 mixed micelles were prepared by thin film hydration-direct dissolution and optimized by uniform design. The optimal formulation possessed high drug loading (12...
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327361/myocardial-injury-in-fetal-aortic-stenosis-insights-from-amniotic-fluid-analysis
#2
Kevin G Friedman, Lynn A Sleeper, Raina N Fichorova, Taylor Weilnau, Wayne Tworetzky, Louise E Wilkins-Haug
OBJECTIVE: Fetal aortic stenosis (AS) imposes pressure load on the developing left ventricle (LV) and leads to derangements in myocardial structure and function via mechanisms that are not well characterized. METHODS: We compared amniotic fluid NT-BNP and troponin levels in fetuses with AS prior to fetal valvuloplasty and controls. We estimated correlations between NT-BNP and fetal echo parameters and identify NT-BNP cutoff associated with biventricular outcome RESULTS: Median NT-BNP level was higher in fetal AS than controls (3858 vs 1737 pg/ml, p<0...
January 11, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323919/effects-of-aggregate-charge-and-subphase-ionic-strength-on-the-properties-of-spread-polyelectrolyte-surfactant-films-at-the-air-water-interface-under-static-and-dynamic-conditions
#3
Andrea Tummino, Jutta Toscano, Federica Sebastiani, Boris A Noskov, Imre Varga, Richard A Campbell
In this work we demonstrate the ability to tune the formation of extended structures in films of poly(sodium styrene sulfonate)/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide at the air/water interface through control over the charge/structure of aggregates as well as the ionic strength of the subphase. Our methodology to prepare loaded polyelectrolyte/surfactant films from self-assembled liquid crystalline aggregates exploits their fast dissociation and Marangoni spreading of material upon contact with an aqueous subphase...
January 11, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322335/mechanobiological-modeling-of-endochondral-ossification-an-experimental-and-computational-analysis
#4
J J Vaca-González, M Moncayo-Donoso, J M Guevara, Y Hata, S J Shefelbine, D A Garzón-Alvarado
Long bone formation starts early during embryonic development through a process known as endochondral ossification. This is a highly regulated mechanism that involves several mechanical and biochemical factors. Because long bone development is an extremely complex process, it is unclear how biochemical regulation is affected when dynamic loads are applied, and also how the combination of mechanical and biochemical factors affect the shape acquired by the bone during early development. In this study, we develop a mechanobiological model combining: (1) a reaction-diffusion system to describe the biochemical process and (2) a poroelastic model to determine the stresses and fluid flow due to loading...
January 10, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322140/development-of-antioxidant-gliadin-particle-stabilized-pickering-high-internal-phase-emulsions-hipes-as-oral-delivery-systems-and-the-in-vitro-digestion-fate
#5
F Z Zhou, T Zeng, S W Yin, C H Tang, D B Yuan, X Q Yang
In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the use of gliadin particles to structure algal oil (rich in DHA) and to exert chemical stability against lipid oxidation via the Pickering high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) strategy. The gliadin/chitosan colloid particles (GCCPs) were effectively adsorbed and anchored at the algal oil-water interface. Concomitantly, the particle-coated droplets as building blocks constructed a percolating 3D-network framework, endowing Pickering HIPEs with viscoelastic and self-supporting attributes...
January 11, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317753/influences-of-mesoporous-magnesium-calcium-silicate-on-mineralization-degradability-cell-responses-curcumin-release-from-macro-mesoporous-scaffolds-of-gliadin-based-biocomposites
#6
Sicheng Wang, Zhengrong Gu, Zhiwei Wang, Xiao Chen, Liehu Cao, Liang Cai, Quan Li, Jie Wei, Jung-Woog Shin, Jiacan Su
Macro-mesoporous scaffolds based on wheat gliadin (WG)/mesoporous magnesium calcium silicate (m-MCS) biocomposites (WMC) were developed for bone tissue regeneration. The increasing amount of m-MCS significantly improved the mesoporosity and water absorption of WMC scaffolds while slightly decreased their compressive strength. With the increase of m-MCS content, the degradability of WMC scaffolds was obviously enhanced, and the decrease of pH value could be slow down after soaking in Tris-HCl solution for different time...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316355/finite-element-models-of-flagella-with-sliding-radial-spokes-and-inter-doublet-links-exhibit-propagating-waves-under-steady-dynein-loading
#7
Tianchen Hu, Philip V Bayly
It remains unclear how flagella generate propulsive, oscillatory waveforms. While it is well known that dynein motors, in combination with passive cytoskeletal elements, drive the bending of the axoneme by applying shearing forces and bending moments to microtubule doublets, the origin of rhythmicity is still mysterious. Most conceptual models of flagellar oscillation involve dynein regulation or switching, so that dynein activity first on one side of the axoneme, then the other, drives bending. In contrast, a "viscoelastic flutter" mechanism has recently been proposed, based on a dynamic structural instability...
January 5, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313693/poloxamer-407-tpgs-mixed-micelles-as-promising-carriers-for-cyclosporine-ocular-delivery
#8
Maria Aurora Grimaudo, Silvia Pescina, Cristina Padula, Patrizia Santi, Angel Concheiro, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Sara Nicoli
Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressant agent approved for the treatment of dry eye disease and used off-label for other ocular pathologies. Its formulation and ocular bioavailability is a real challenge due to the large molecular weight (1.2 kDa), high lipophilicity and low water solubility. The aim of the work was to develop an aqueous micellar formulation for an efficient cyclosporine delivery to the ocular tissues, using a water soluble derivative of vitamin E (TPGS: d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) and a poloxamer (poloxamer 407) as excipients...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311241/cessation-from-smoking-improves-innate-host-defense-and-clearance-of-experimentally-inoculated-nasal-s-aureus
#9
Amy L Cole, Mary Schmidt-Owens, Ashley C Beavis, Christine F Chong, Patrick M Tarwater, James Schaus, Michael G Deichen, Alexander M Cole
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) nasal carriage is transient in most humans and usually benign, but dissemination of SA to extranasal sites causes the majority of clinical infections, and SA is a major cause of serious infections in the U.S. A better understanding of innate nasal decolonization mechanisms is urgently needed, as are relevant models for studying SA clearance. Here, we screened a population of healthy smokers for nasal SA carriage, and compared participants' abilities to clear experimentally applied nasal SA before and after completion of a smoking cessation program...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310905/role-of-airway-glucose-in-bacterial-infections-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Patrick Mallia, Jessica Webber, Simren K Gill, Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria Adelaide Calderazzo, Lydia Finney, Eteri Bakhsoliani, Hugo Farne, Aran Singanayagam, Joseph Footitt, Richard Hewitt, Tatiana Kebadze, Julia Aniscenko, Vijay Padmanaban, Philip L Molyneaux, Ian M Adcock, Peter J Barnes, Kazihuro Ito, Sarah L Elkin, Onn Min Kon, William O Cookson, Miriam F Moffat, Sebastian L Johnston, John S Tregoning
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infection, which contributes to disease progression and mortality, but mechanisms of increased susceptibility to infection remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether glucose concentrations were increased in airway samples (nasal lavage fluid, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) from patients with stable COPD and to determine the effects of viral infection on sputum glucose concentrations and how airway glucose concentrations relate to bacterial infection...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310223/portable-vibration-assisted-filtration-device-for-on-site-isolation-of-blood-cells-or-pathogenic-bacteria-from-whole-human-blood
#11
Yong Tae Kim, Kyun Joo Park, Seyl Kim, Soon Ae Kim, Seok Jae Lee, Do Hyun Kim, Tae Jae Lee, Kyoung G Lee
Isolation of specific cells from whole blood is important to monitor disease prognosis and diagnosis. In this study, a vibration-assisted filtration (VF) device has been developed for isolation and recovery of specific cells such as leukocytes and pathogenic bacteria from human whole blood. The VF device is composed of three layers which was fabricated using injection molding with cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) pellets consisting of: a top layer with coin-type vibration motor (Ф = 10mm), a middle plate with a 1μm or 3μm-pore filter membrane to separate of Staphylococcus aureus (S...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306728/a-phospholipid-polymer-graft-layer-affords-high-resistance-for-wear-and-oxidation-under-load-bearing-conditions
#12
Masayuki Kyomoto, Toru Moro, Shihori Yamane, Kenichi Watanabe, Masami Hashimoto, Sakae Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishihara
Manipulating the surface and substrate of cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) is an essential approach for obtaining life-long orthopedic bearings. We therefore proposed a bearing material comprised of an antioxidative substrate generated by vitamin E blending (HD-CLPE[VE]) with a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)-grafted surface, and investigated its wear resistance and oxidative stability under accelerated aging and load bearing conditions. Neither the hydration nor friction kinetics of the molecular network structure of the PMPC-grafted surface or the HD-CLPE(VE) substrate were influenced by accelerated aging but rather exhibited high stability even under high oxidation conditions...
December 30, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304428/approach-towards-the-porous-fibrous-structure-of-the-periodontal-ligament-using-micro-computerized-tomography-and-finite-element-analysis
#13
J Ortún-Terrazas, J Cegoñino, U Santana-Penín, U Santana-Mora, A Pérez Del Palomar
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a porous and fibrous soft tissue situated around the tooth, which plays a key role in the transmission of loads from the tooth to the alveolar bone of the mandible. Although several studies have tried to characterize its mechanical properties, the behaviour of this tissue is not clear yet. In this study, a new simulation methodology based on a material model which considers the contribution of porous and fibrous structure with different material model formulations depending on the effort direction is proposed...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301433/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-polymer-microneedles-for-controlled-transdermal-drug-delivery
#14
Bo Zhi Chen, Mohammad Ashfaq, Xiao Peng Zhang, Jia Nan Zhang, Xin Dong Guo
Microneedles (MNs) system for transdermal drug delivery has the potential to improve therapeutic efficacy, proving an approach that is more convenient and acceptable than traditional medication systems. The present study systematically researched dissolving polymer MNs fabricated from various common FDA-approved biocompatible materials, including gelatin, chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Upon application of MN patches to the porcine cadaver skin, the MNs effectively perforated the skin and delivered drugs to subcutaneous tissue on contact with the interstitial fluid...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300896/a-competitive-alphascreen-assay-for-detection-of-hyaluronan
#15
Xiayun Huang, Tannin A Schmidt, Claire Shortt, Shivani Arora, Akira Asari, Thorsten Kirsch, Mary K Cowman
A method for specific quantification of hyaluronan (HA) concentration using AlphaScreen® (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay) technology is described. Two types of hydrogel-coated and chromophore-loaded latex nanobeads are employed. The proximity of the beads in solution is detected by excitation of the donor bead leading to the production of singlet oxygen, and chemiluminescence from the acceptor bead upon exposure to singlet oxygen. In the HA assay, the donor bead is modified with streptavidin, and binds biotin-labeled HA...
December 29, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297830/successful-treatment-of-a-clinical-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-infection-the-dynamics-of-viral-load-genotype-analysis-and-treatment-with-acyclovir
#16
Supaphen Sripiboon, Taweepoke Angkawanish, Khajohnpat Boonprasert, Petthisak Sombutputorn, Warangkhana Langkaphin, William Ditcham, Kristin Warren
This article describes the treatment of clinical elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) infection in a male Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus; approximately 3 yr old), the dynamics of viral load during the active infection, and genetic analysis of the virus. Treatment included injectable acyclovir (12 mg/kg iv, bid), antibiotic, vitamin, and fluids. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the viral levels in blood, which decreased continuously after initiation of intravenous acyclovir...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297442/the-significance-of-cytomegalovirus-in-children-with-pneumonia-admitted-for-mechanical-ventilation
#17
P M Jeena, K Govender, R Parboosing, M Adhikari
BACKGROUND: The pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children with pneumonia is not clear. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We describe the outcome of children on mechanical ventilation with 'probable' CMV-related pneumonitis (CMV DNA polymerase chain reaction [PCR] positive as well as clinical and imaging features of CMV on ganciclovir) and children with pneumonia and CMV infection (CMV DNA PCR-positive without clinical and imaging features of CMV and not on ganciclovir therapy) at a paediatric intensive care unit in South Africa between 2011 and 2013...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290499/in-vitro-simulation-of-fretting-corrosion-in-hip-implant-modular-junctions-the-influence-of-ph
#18
Dmitry Royhman, Megha Patel, Joshua J Jacobs, Markus A Wimmer, Nadim J Hallab, Mathew T Mathew
BACKGROUND: The fretting-corrosion behavior of mixed metal contacts is affected by various mechanical and electrochemical parameters. Crevice conditions at the junction and patient-specific pathologies can affect the pH of the prosthetic environment. The main objective of this study is to understand the effect of pH variation at the stem/head junction of the hip implant under fretting corrosion exposure. We hypothesized that pH will have a significant influence on the fretting-corrosion behavior hip implant modular junctions...
December 28, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289208/an-optical-method-for-measuring-exhaust-gas-pressure-from-an-internal-combustion-engine-at-high-speed
#19
Felix C P Leach, Martin H Davy, Dmitrij Siskin, Ralf Pechstedt, David Richardson
Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289110/coupled-finite-element-boundary-element-formulation-for-scattering-from-axially-symmetric-objects-in-three-dimensions
#20
Ahmad T Abawi, Petr Krysl
The fluid-structure interaction technique provides a paradigm for solving scattering from elastic structures embedded in an environment characterized by a Green's function, by a combination of finite and boundary element methods. In this technique, the finite element method is used to discretize the equations of motion for the structure and the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral with the appropriate Green's function is used to produce the discrete pressure field in the exterior medium. The two systems of equations are coupled at the surface of the structure by imposing the continuity of pressure and normal particle velocity...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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