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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161037/biodegradation-of-carbon-nanotube-polymer-nanocomposites-using-a-monoculture
#1
David G Goodwin, Iruhany Boyer, Thomas Devahif, Cong Gao, Benjamin Frank, Xier Lu, Leo Kuwama, Tucker B Gordon, JingJing Wang, James F Ranville, Edward J Bouwer, D Howard Fairbrother
The biodegradation rates of carbon nanotube (CNT)/ polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) containing poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) were investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a microorganism commonly found in the environment. CNT/PCL nanocomposite mass loss profiles revealed that the rate of PCL matrix biodegradation decreased systematically as the CNT loading increased from 0.1 to 10% w/w. Addition of even a low CNT loading (< 1% w/w) caused the CNT/PCL biodegradation rate constant to decrease by more than 50%...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160779/outcome-of-intravitreal-aflibercept-for-refractory-pigment-epithelial-detachment-with-or-without-subretinal-fluid-and-secondary-to-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
Kiyoung Kim, Eung Suk Kim, Yonguk Kim, Ji Ho Yang, Seung-Young Yu, Hyung Woo Kwak
PURPOSE: To investigate the outcomes of intravitreal aflibercept in refractory pigment epithelial detachment (PED) with or without subretinal fluid (SRF) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series involved 40 patients with persistent vascularized PED previously treated with at least 3 injections of intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Intravitreal aflibercept was administered as 3 initial loading doses every 4 weeks, followed by pro re nata retreatment every 8 weeks over 48 weeks...
November 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160134/surfactant-protein-a-nanobody-conjugated-liposomes-loaded-with-methylprednisolone-increase-lung-targeting-specificity-and-therapeutic-effect-for-acute-lung-injury
#3
Nan Li, Dong Weng, Shan-Mei Wang, Yuan Zhang, Shan-Shan Chen, Zhao-Fang Yin, Jiali Zhai, Judy Scoble, Charlotte C Williams, Tao Chen, Hui Qiu, Qin Wu, Meng-Meng Zhao, Li-Qin Lu, Xavier Mulet, Hui-Ping Li
The advent of nanomedicine requires novel delivery vehicles to actively target their site of action. Here, we demonstrate the development of lung-targeting drug-loaded liposomes and their efficacy, specificity and safety. Our study focuses on glucocorticoids methylprednisolone (MPS), a commonly used drug to treat lung injuries. The steroidal molecule was loaded into functionalized nano-sterically stabilized unilamellar liposomes (NSSLs). Targeting functionality was performed through conjugation of surfactant protein A (SPANb) nanobodies to form MPS-NSSLs-SPANb...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159903/soluble-mhc-molecules-in-immune-regulation-highlighting-class-ii-antigens
#4
REVIEW
Katerina Bakela, Irene Athanassakis
The involvement of Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens in the development and regulation of immune response has been well defined over the years, starting from maturation, antigenic peptide loading, migration to the cell membrane for recognition by the T cell receptor and recycling for immune response cessation. During this intracellular trafficking, MHC antigens find a way to be excreted by the cells, since they can be found as soluble MHC class I (sMHCI) and class II (sMHCII) molecules in all body fluids...
November 21, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159350/mucopenetrating-micelles-with-a-peg-corona
#5
Essi M Taipaleenmäki, Sidsel A Mouritzen, Philipp S Schattling, Yan Zhang, Brigitte Städler
Crossing the intestinal mucus layer is a long-standing challenge for orally delivered nanoparticles carrying therapeutic cargo. We report the assembly of mucopenetrating cargo-loaded micelles using block copolymers consisting of either linear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or bottle-brush poly(oligo(ethylene glycol)methacrylate) (PEGb) as the hydrophilic block and poly(caprolactone) (PCL) or poly(cholesteryl methacrylate) (PCMA) as the hydrophobic extension. The micelles were shown to preserve their stability and retain ∼50% of their cargo in simulated gastric fluid...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156776/uchl1-expression-and-localization-on-testicular-development-and-spermatogenesis-of-chinese-giant-salamanders
#6
Yuanxian Wang, Liqing Wang, Huihui Gao, Yao Gao, Changming Yang, Hong Ji, Wuzi Dong
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), which is extensively expressed in vertebrates, is a deubiquitinating enzymes that inhibits the degradation of proteins by reversing ubiquitination modification. Herein, a 1087-bp sequence encoding UCHL1 was identified from the Chinese giant salamander (CGS; Andrias davidianus). The coding sequences (CDS) of UCHL1 encoded a putative poly peptide of 222 amino acids. The CGS UCHL1 isoforms were more related to their human and mouse counterparts. The phylogenic tree of vertebrate UCHL1 indicated that CGS UCHL1 has the closest relationship with human UCHL1 (up to 73...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156291/engineering-the-next-generation-tin-containing-%C3%AE-titanium-alloys-with-high-strength-and-low-modulus-for-orthopedic-applications
#7
Sumit Bahl, Suvam Das, Satyam Suwas, Kaushik Chatterjee
Metastable β Ti alloys are the new emerging class of biomaterial for load bearing orthopedic applications. However, these alloys in the single β phase microstructure have insufficient strength for use in load bearing applications. It is imperative to strengthen these alloys by carefully designed thermo-mechanical processing routes that typically involve aging treatment. In this investigation two newly designed Sn based β Ti alloys of composition Ti-32Nb-(2, 4) Sn are evaluated. The effects of Sn content on the mechanical properties and biological performance of these alloys processed through designed thermo-mechanical processing route are investigated...
November 11, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155218/the-collective-influence-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-with-physiological-fluid-shear-stress-on-osteoblasts
#8
Yan Li, Jiafeng Yuan, Qianwen Wang, Lijie Sun, Yunying Sha, Yanxiang Li, Lizhong Wang, Zhonghua Wang, Yonggang Ma, Hui Cao
1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 (OH)2 D3) and mechanical stimuli in physiological environment contributes greatly to osteoporosis pathogenesis. Wide investigations have been conducted on how 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and mechanical stimuli separately impact osteoblasts. This study reports the collective influences of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and flow shear stress (FSS) on biological functions of osteoblasts. 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 were prepared in various kinds of concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 nmmol/L), while physiological fluid shear stress (12 dynes/cm(2)) was produced by using a parallel-plate fluid flow system...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155154/poly-l-lactic-acid-nanofibers-containing-cissus-quadrangularis-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-in-vitro
#9
K Parvathi, Amit G Krishnan, A Anitha, R Jayakumar, Manitha B Nair
Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) is known as "bone setter" because of its ability to enhance fracture healing. Polymers incorporated with CQ at lower concentration have shown to enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. However, for the healing of clinically relevant critical sized bone defects, large amount of CQ would be required. Based on this perception, a herbal fibrous sheet containing high weight percentage of CQ [20,40 and 60wt/wt% in poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA)] was fabricated through electrospinning...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152304/in-situ-protein-templated-porous-protein-hydroxylapatite-nanocomposite-microspheres-for-ph-dependent-sustained-anticancer-drug-release
#10
Yajun Shuai, Shuxu Yang, Chenlin Li, Liangjun Zhu, Chuanbin Mao, Mingying Yang
Silk sericin, a water-soluble glue-like protein, is extensively used as a biomaterial due to its biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, biodegradability, and adequate resource. In addition, hydroxyapatite-based drug carriers are functionally efficient for drug or gene delivery due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility and easy metabolism in vivo. Herein, for the first time, this study used sericin, from a wild silkworm called Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi), as a template to nucleate hydroxylapatite (HAp) nano-needles and form porous sericin-HAp nanocomposite microspheres as an anticancer drug carrier...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150953/new-algorithm-for-simulation-of-proteoglycan-loss-and-collagen-degeneration-in-the-knee-joint-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative
#11
Mika E Mononen, Petri Tanska, Hanna Isaksson, Rami K Korhonen
Osteoarthritis is a harmful joint disease but prediction of disease progression is problematic. Currently, there is only one modeling framework which can be applied to predict the progression of knee osteoarthritis but it only considers degenerative changes in the collagen fibril network. Here, we have developed the framework further by considering all of the major tissue changes (proteoglycan content, fluid flow and collagen fibril network) occurring in osteoarthritis. While excessive levels of tissue stresses controlled degeneration of the collagen fibril network, excessive levels of tissue strains controlled the decrease in proteoglycan content and the increase in permeability...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150799/a-hybrid-approach-based-on-logistic-classification-and-iterative-contrast-enhancement-algorithm-for-hyperintense-multiple-sclerosis-lesion-segmentation
#12
Antonio Carlos da Silva Senra Filho
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease with increasing importance in recent years, in which the T2 weighted with fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI imaging technique has been addressed for the hyperintense MS lesion assessment. Many automatic lesion segmentation approaches have been proposed in the literature in order to assist health professionals. In this study, a new hybrid lesion segmentation approach based on logistic classification (LC) and the iterative contrast enhancement (ICE) method is proposed (LC+ICE)...
November 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150301/is-subchondral-bone-cyst-formation-in-non-load-bearing-region-of-osteoarthritic-knee-a-vascular-problem
#13
Pok Man Boris Chan, Chunyi Wen, Wai Ching Yang, Chunhoi Yan, KwongYuen Chiu
Subchondral bone cyst is common in the progressive knee osteoarthritis yet its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In addition to the existing theories such as synovial fluid influx and mechanical contusion, we identified the potential link between vascular pathology and osteoarthritic bone pathologies including cystic lesion formation, particularly in the non-load-bearing region. This new hypothesis for SBC formation in non-load-bearing region for knee, which cannot be explained by the existing theories, will provide us a new angle to understand the pathomechanism and pathophysiology of subchondral bone disturbance in osteoarthritis in addition to the classical biomechanical overloading theories...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148834/respiratory-phagocytes-are-implicated-in-enhanced-colibacillosis-in-chickens-co-infected-with-influenza-virus-h9n2-and-esherichia-coli
#14
J Wang, Y Li, Y Yin
1. The aim of this study was to determine the most likely time interval after infection with influenza virus H9N2 for co-infection with Escherichia coli to cause colibacillosis, the importance of lung load of E. coli and the involvement of respiratory phagocytes. 2. Specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated intranasally with 10(6) EID50 of influenza virus or uninfected. After specified time intervals, 10(7) CFU E. coli or phosphate-buffered saline was inoculated. The presence of lesions, the number of respiratory phagocytes in the respiratory lavage fluid and the E...
November 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146601/airway-microbiota-across-age-and-disease-spectrum-in-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Edith T Zemanick, Brandie D Wagner, Charles E Robertson, Richard C Ahrens, James F Chmiel, John P Clancy, Ronald L Gibson, William T Harris, Geoffrey Kurland, Theresa A Laguna, Susanna A McColley, Karen McCoy, George Retsch-Bogart, Kurtis T Sobush, Pamela L Zeitlin, Mark J Stevens, Frank J Accurso, Scott D Sagel, J Kirk Harris
Our objectives were to characterise the microbiota in cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and determine its relationship to inflammation and disease status.BALF from paediatric and adult CF patients and paediatric disease controls undergoing clinically indicated bronchoscopy was analysed for total bacterial load and for microbiota by 16S rDNA sequencing.We examined 191 BALF samples (146 CF and 45 disease controls) from 13 CF centres. In CF patients aged <2 years, nontraditional taxa (e...
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146542/development-of-a-mucoadhesive-delivery-system-for-control-release-of-doxepin-with-application-in-vaginal-pain-relief-associated-with-gynecological-surgery
#16
Roser Sanz, Beatriz Clares, Mireia Mallandrich, Joaquim Suñer-Carbó, María Jesús Montes, Ana C Calpena
The main purpose of this study was to develop a semisolid mucoadhesive formulation for the non-invasive vaginal administration of doxepin (DOX) for pain relief derived from the scarring process after surgery. An orafix(®) platform loading DOX was tested for adequate stability, rheology and vaginal mucoadhesion capacity. The formulation exhibited appropriate pH and was microbiologically stable. The rheological studies confirmed its pseudoplastic and thixotropic nature with prevalence of the elastic behavior component over the viscous one...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144428/resistance-of-magnesium-alloys-to-corrosion-fatigue-for-biodegradable-implant-applications-current-status-and-challenges
#17
REVIEW
R K Singh Raman, Shervin Eslami Harandi
Magnesium (Mg) alloys are attracting increasing interest as the most suitable metallic materials for construction of biodegradable and bio-absorbable temporary implants. However, Mg-alloys can suffer premature and catastrophic fracture under the synergy of cyclic loading and corrosion (i.e., corrosion fatigue (CF)). Though Mg alloys are reported to be susceptible to CF also in the corrosive human body fluid, there are very limited studies on this topic. Furthermore, the in vitro test parameters employed in these investigations have not properly simulated the actual conditions in the human body...
November 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143524/injectable-shear-thinning-caso4-fgf-18-incorporated-chitin-plga-hydrogels-enhances-bone-regeneration-in-mice-cranial-bone-defect-model
#18
Sivashanmugam Amirthalingam, Pornkawee Charoenlarp, Sankar Deepthi, ArunKumar Rajendran, Shantikumar V Nair, Sachiko Iseki, Rangasamy Jayakumar
For craniofacial bone regeneration, shear thinning injectable hydrogels are favoured over conventional scaffolds due to their improved defect margin adaptability, easier handling and ability to be injected manually into deeper tissues. The most accepted method, after autografting, is the use of recombinant human BMP-2; however, complications such as inter-individual variations, edema, and poor cost-efficiency in supraphysiological doses have been reported. The endogenous synthesis of BMP-2 is desirable, and a molecule which induces this is FGF-18 since it can up-regulate the BMP-2 expression and positively modulate other osteogenic genes...
November 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141534/characterization-methods-for-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-sln-and-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-nlc
#19
Velichka Andonova, Petya Peneva
BACKGROUND: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and the next generation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) seem to be a very promising alternative to other colloidal carriers such as liposomes, microemulsions, and polymeric nanoparticles. These combine the advantages of the cited nanocarriers and can improve the dissolution rate in biological fluids, increase the drug absorption, improve the tissue distribution in the target organ, enhance the drug bioavailability and ensure controlled drug release...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139075/investigation-of-the-effects-of-slow-release-fertilizer-and-struvite-in-biodegradation-in-filter-drains-and-potential-application-of-treated-water-in-irrigation-of-road-verges
#20
Stephen C Theophilus, Fredrick U Mbanaso, Ernest O Nnadi, Kingsley T Onyedeke
Filter drains are usually laid along the margins of highways. Highway runoffs are polluted with hydrocarbons and high levels of total dissolved solids. Therefore, effective pollution removal mechanism is necessary in order to avoid contamination of surrounding soils and groundwater. Biodegradation is amongst pollution removal mechanisms in filter drains, but it is a relatively slow process which is dependent on wide range of factors including the type of pollutant and availability of nutrients. This paper reports on a study conducted to investigate the impact of slow-release fertilizer and struvite in enhancement of biodegradation of hydrocarbon in filter drains...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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