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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108398/association-between-butyrylcholinesterase-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#1
António José Gabriel, Maria Rosário Almeida, Maria Helena Ribeiro, João Durães, Miguel Tábuas-Pereira, Ana Cristina Pinheiro, Rui Pascoal, Isabel Santana, Inês Baldeiras
The deficit of cholinergic activity is one of the main findings in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is related to the synthesis of acetylcholine, and the hydrolysing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Together with the Apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele (ApoE-ε4), the BuChE-K variant has been proposed to increase AD risk in certain populations. In addition, this polymorphism has been associated with a lower capacity to attenuate β-amyloid aggregation. In the present study we explored the interaction of the BuChE-K variant with its activity in CSF, conventional AD biomarkers and ApoE genotype...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100643/fluid-shear-stress-increases-transepithelial-transport-of-ca2-in-ciliated-distal-convoluted-and-connecting-tubule-cells
#2
Sami G Mohammed, Francisco J Arjona, Femke Latta, René J M Bindels, Ronald Roepman, Joost G J Hoenderop
In kidney, transcellular transport of Ca(2+) is mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 proteins in distal convoluted and connecting tubules (DCT and CNT, respectively). It is not yet understood how DCT/CNT cells can adapt to differences in tubular flow rate and, consequently, Ca(2+) load. This study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which DCT/CNT cells sense fluid dynamics to control transepithelial Ca(2+) reabsorption and whether their primary cilia play an active role in this process...
January 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099305/characterizing-the-propionibacterium-load-in-revision-shoulder-arthroplasty-a-study-of-137-culture-positive-cases
#3
Zahab S Ahsan, Jeremy S Somerson, Frederick A Matsen
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium is commonly recovered from explants or surrounding tissues in revision shoulder arthroplasty. Rather than attempting to differentiate a true infection from a false-positive result on the basis of the number of positive cultures, we characterized the amount of these bacteria in each specimen and shoulder. METHODS: The study included 137 revision shoulder arthroplasties from which a minimum of 4 specimens had been submitted for culture and at least 1 was positive for Propionibacterium...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097479/structural-and-cooperative-length-scales-in-polymer-gels
#4
Baudouin Géraud, Loren Jørgensen, Christophe Ybert, Hélène Delanoë-Ayari, Catherine Barentin
Understanding the relationship between the material structural details, the geometrical confining constraints, the local dynamical events and the global rheological response is at the core of present investigations on complex fluid properties. In the present article, this problem is addressed on a model yield stress fluid made of highly entangled polymer gels of Carbopol which follows at the macroscopic scale the well-known Herschel-Bulkley rheological law. First, performing local rheology measurements up to high shear rates ([Formula: see text] s(-1))and under confinement, we evidence unambiguously the breakdown of bulk rheology associated with cooperative processes under flow...
January 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095954/predicting-air-quality-at-first-ingress-into-vehicles-visiting-the-international-space-station
#5
Amelia A Romoser, Robert R Scully, Thomas F Limero, Vanessa De Vera, Patti F Cheng, Jennifer J Hand, John T James, Valerie E Ryder
INTRODUCTION: NASA regularly performs ground-based offgas tests (OGTs), which allow prediction of accumulated volatile pollutant concentrations at first entry on orbit, on whole modules and vehicles scheduled to connect to the International Space Station (ISS). These data guide crew safety operations and allow for estimation of ISS air revitalization systems impact from additional pollutant load. Since volatiles released from vehicle, module, and payload materials can affect crew health and performance, prediction of first ingress air quality is important...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095849/simulated-case-management-of-home-telemonitoring-to-assess-the-impact-of-different-alert-algorithms-on-work-load-and-clinical-decisions
#6
Illapha Cuba Gyllensten, Amanda Crundall-Goode, Ronald M Aarts, Kevin M Goode
BACKGROUND: Home telemonitoring (HTM) of chronic heart failure (HF) promises to improve care by timely indications when a patient's condition is worsening. Simple rules of sudden weight change have been demonstrated to generate many alerts with poor sensitivity. Trend alert algorithms and bio-impedance (a more sensitive marker of fluid change), should produce fewer false alerts and reduce workload. However, comparisons between such approaches on the decisions made and the time spent reviewing alerts has not been studied...
January 17, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093922/toll-like-receptors-and-their-soluble-forms-differ-in-the-knee-and-thumb-basal-osteoarthritic-joints
#7
Goncalo Barreto, Jerker Sandelin, Abdelhakim Salem, Dan C Nordström, Eero Waris
Background and purpose - Although the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is not well understood, chondrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses (triggered by the activation of innate immune receptors by damage-associated molecules) are thought to be involved. We examined the relationship between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and OA in cartilage from 2 joints differing in size and mechanical loading: the first carpometacarpal (CMC-I) and the knee. Patients and methods - Samples of human cartilage obtained from OA CMC-I and knee joints were immunostained for TLRs (1-9) and analyzed using histomorphometry and principal component analysis (PCA)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092384/emerging-investigator-series-a-14-year-depositional-ice-record-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-the-high-arctic
#8
John J MacInnis, Katherine French, Derek C G Muir, Christine Spencer, Alison Criscitiello, Amila O De Silva, Cora J Young
To improve understanding of long-range transport of perfluoroalkyl substances to the High Arctic, samples were collected from a snow pit on the Devon Ice Cap in spring 2008. Snow was analyzed for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). PFAAs were detected in all samples dated from 1993 to 2007. PFAA fluxes ranged from <1 to hundreds of ng per m(2) per year. Flux ratios of even-odd PFCA homologues were mostly between 0...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089353/cerebrospinal-fluid-mitochondrial-dna-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#9
Laura Cervera-Carles, Daniel Alcolea, Ainara Estanga, Mirian Ecay-Torres, Andrea Izagirre, Montserrat Clerigué, Maite García-Sebastián, Jorge Villanúa, Clàudia Escalas, Rafael Blesa, Pablo Martínez-Lage, Alberto Lleó, Juan Fortea, Jordi Clarimón
Low levels of cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have been identified and proposed as a novel biomarker for the disease. The lack of validation studies of previous results prompted us to replicate this finding in a comprehensive series of patients and controls. We applied droplet digital polymerase chain reaction in CSF specimens from 124 patients representing the AD spectrum and 140 neurologically healthy controls. The following preanalytical and analytical parameters were evaluated: the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on mtDNA, the linearity of mtDNA load across serial dilutions, and the mtDNA levels in the diagnostic groups...
December 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088924/microbiology-of-otitis-media-in-indigenous-australian-children-review
#10
J Jervis-Bardy, A S Carney, R Duguid, A J Leach
OBJECTIVES: To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088635/mucoadhesive-amorphous-solid-dispersions-for-sustained-release-of-poorly-water-soluble-drugs
#11
Justin S LaFountaine, Leena Kumari Prasad, Dave A Miller, James W McGinity, Robert O Williams
The oral delivery of mucoadhesive patches has been shown to enhance the absorption of large molecules such as peptides. We hypothesized that this mechanism could have utility for poorly soluble small molecules by utilizing a mucoadhesive polymer as the matrix for an amorphous solid dispersion. Binary dispersions of itraconazole and carbomer (Carbopol 71G) were prepared utilizing a thermokinetic mixing process (KinetiSol Dispersing) and the physicochemical properties were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction, calorimetry, and liquid chromatography...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087408/effects-of-loading-concentration-blood-and-synovial-fluid-on-antibiotic-release-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-bone-cement-beads
#12
Devendra H Dusane, Scott M Diamond, Cory S Knecht, Nicholas R Farrar, Casey W Peters, Robert P Howlin, Matthew C Swearingen, Jason H Calhoun, Roger D Plaut, Tanya M Nocera, Jeffrey F Granger, Paul Stoodley
Antibiotic loaded cement beads are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of beads to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and lawn biofilm bacteria...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081355/oral-delivery-of-probiotics-in-poultry-using-ph-sensitive-tablets
#13
Tao Jiang, Hui-Shan Li, Geon Goo Han, Bijay Singh, Sang-Kee Kang, Jin-Duck Bok, Dae-Duk Kim, Zhong-Shan Hong, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho
As alternatives to antibiotics in live stocks, probiotics have been used although most of them in the form of liquid or semisolid formulations which show low cell viability after oral administration. Therefore, suitable dry dosage forms should be developed for live stocks to protect probiotics against the low pH in the stomach such that the products have higher probiotics survivability. Here, in order to develop a dry dosage forms of probiotics for poultry, we used hydroxyproyl methylcellulose phthalate 55 (HPMCP 55) as a tablet forming matrix to develop probiotics in a tablet form for poultry...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079507/do-micrornas-have-a-key-epigenetic-role-in-osteoarthritis-and-in-mechanotransduction
#14
REVIEW
Anna De Palma, Sara Cheleschi, Nicola Antonio Pascarelli, Sara Tenti, Mauro Galeazzi, Antonella Fioravanti
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease affecting joint tissues. The pathogenesis of OA is complex and poorly understood, as well as the multiple factors contributing to its development and progression. Accumulating evidence has suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role as regulators of cartilage biology and in the pathogenesis of OA. It has been demonstrated that mechanical loading, important for the regulation of cartilage metabolism, affects miRNAs expression. Furthermore, miRNAs present in human plasma and in synovial fluid could represent promising biological markers for OA...
January 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077264/self-assembly-of-green-tea-catechin-derivatives-in-nanoparticles-for-oral-lycopene-delivery
#15
Weikun Li, Murat Yalcin, Qishan Lin, Mohammed-Salleh M Ardawi, Shaker A Mousa
Lycopene is a natural anti-oxidant that has attracted much attention due to its varied applications such as protection against loss of bone mass, chronic diseases, skin cancer, prostate cancer, and cardiovascular disease. However, high instability and extremely low oral bioavailability limit its further clinical development. We selected a green tea catechin derivative, oligomerized (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (OEGCG) as a carrier for oral lycopene delivery. Lycopene-loaded OEGCG nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a nano-precipitation method, followed by coating with chitosan to form a shell...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073075/freeform-extrusion-fabrication-of-titanium-fiber-reinforced-13-93-bioactive-glass-scaffolds
#16
Albin Thomas, Krishna C R Kolan, Ming C Leu, Gregory E Hilmas
Although implants made with bioactive glass have shown promising results for bone repair, their application in repairing load-bearing long bone is limited due to their poor mechanical properties in comparison to human bone. This work investigates the freeform extrusion fabrication of bioactive silicate 13-93 glass scaffolds reinforced with titanium (Ti) fibers. A composite paste prepared with 13-93 glass and Ti fibers (~16µm in diameter and lengths varying from ~200µm to ~2 mm) was extruded through a nozzle to fabricate scaffolds (0-90° filament orientation pattern) on a heated plate...
December 31, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072496/structural-reconstruction-of-the-perivascular-space-in-the-adult-mouse-neurohypophysis-during-an-osmotic-stimulation
#17
K Nishikawa, E Furube, S Morita, N Horii-Hayashi, M Nishi, S Miyata
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), neuropeptides in the neurohypophysis (NH), control lactation and body fluid homeostasis, respectively. Hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons project their axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the NH to make contact with the vascular surface and release OXT and AVP. The neurohypophysial vascular structure is unique, because it has a wide perivascular space between the inner and outer basement membranes. However, the significance of this unique vascular structure remains unclear; therefore, we aimed to elucidate the functional significance of the perivascular space and its activity-dependent changes during salt loading in adult mice...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071687/bacterial-load-of-conditioned-pressure-ulcers-is-not-a-predictor-for-early-flap-failure-in-spinal-cord-injury
#18
T Kamradt, S Klein, S Zimmermann, J Schröder-Braunstein, C H Fürstenberg, C Hensel, N Weidner, A Hug
OBJECTIVES: Pressure ulcers impose a major lifetime medical problem to patients with high-grade spinal cord injury (SCI). For patients with stages 3-4 pressure ulcers, plastic surgery is often the only remaining treatment option. Despite considerable flap failure rates of around 30%, only sparse knowledge exists on predictors for flap failure. Hence, identification of predictors for flap failures is needed. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 38 SCI patients with stages 3-4 pressure ulcers scheduled for plastic surgery...
January 10, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070227/disposable-fluidic-actuators-for-miniature-in-vivo-surgical-robotics
#19
Abolfazl Pourghodrat, Carl A Nelson
Fusion of robotics and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created new opportunities to develop diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Surgical robotics is advancing from externally actuated systems to miniature in-vivo robotics. However, with miniaturization of electric-motor-driven surgical robots, there comes a trade-off between the size of the robot and its capability. Slow actuation, low load capacity, sterilization difficulties, leaking electricity and transferring produced heat to tissues, and high cost are among the key limitations of the use of electric motors in in-vivo applications...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069930/a-quantitative-analysis-of-brain-soluble-tau-and-the-tau-secretion-factor
#20
Pengcheng Han, Geidy Serrano, Thomas G Beach, Richard J Caselli, Junxiang Yin, Ningning Zhuang, Jiong Shi
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) represent products of insoluble tau protein in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau level is a biomarker in AD diagnosis. The soluble portion of tau protein in brain parenchyma is presumably the source for CSF tau but this has not previously been quantified. We measured CSF tau and soluble brain tau at autopsy in temporal and frontal brain tissue samples from 7 cognitive normal, 12 mild cognitively impaired, and 19 AD subjects. Based on the measured brain soluble tau, we calculated the whole brain tau load and estimated tau secretion factor...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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