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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643926/fluid-pressurization-and-tractional-forces-during-tmj-disc-loading-a-biphasic-finite-element-analysis
#1
Y Wu, S E Cisewski, F Wei, X She, T S Gonzales, L R Iwasaki, J C Nickel, H Yao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ploughing mechanism associated with tractional force formation on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc surface. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Ten left TMJ discs were harvested from 6- to 8-month-old male Yorkshire pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Confined compression tests characterized mechanical TMJ disc properties, which were incorporated into a biphasic finite element model (FEM). The FEM was established to investigate load carriage within the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the ploughing mechanism during tractional force formation by simulating previous in vitro plough experiments...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643869/mechanotransduction-properties-of-the-cytoplasmic-tail-of-pecam-1
#2
Jessica L Snyder, Elena McBeath, Tamlyn N Thomas, Yi Jen Chiu, Robert L Clark, Keigi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are a well-known cell system used in the study of mechanobiology. Using cultured ECs, we found that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31), a cell adhesion protein localized to regions of EC-EC contact, was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in ECs exposed to shear or cyclic stretch. Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) binds phosphorylated PECAM-1 and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling cascade, a known flow-activated signaling pathway...
June 23, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639404/mechanoresponsiveness-of-human-adipose-stem-cells-on-nanocomposite-and-micro-hybrid-composite
#3
Fransisca A S van Esterik, Samaneh Ghazanfari, Behrouz Zandieh-Doulabi, Cornelis M Semeins, Cornelis J Kleverlaan, Jenneke Klein-Nulend
Resin-based composites are used for bone repair applications and comprise resin matrix and different sized filler particles. Nanometer-sized filler particles improve composite's mechanical properties compared to micrometer-sized filler particles, but whether differences exist in the biological response to these composites is unknown. Natural bone comprises a nanocomposite structure, and nanoscale interactions with extracellular matrix components influence stem cell differentiation. Therefore we hypothesized that nanometer-sized filler particles in resin-based composites enhance osteogenic differentiation of stem cells showing a more bone cell-like response to mechanical loading compared to micrometer-sized filler particles...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639403/writing-with-fluid-structuring-hydrogels-with-micrometer-precision-by-afm-in-combination-with-nanofluidics
#4
Nicolas Helfricht, Andreas Mark, Marina Behr, Andreas Bernet, Hans-Werner Schmidt, Georg Papastavrou
Hydrogels have many applications in biomedical surface modification and tissue engineering. However, the structuring of hydrogels after their formation represents still a major challenge, in particular due to their softness. Here, a novel approach is presented that is based on the combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanofluidics, also referred to as FluidFM technology. Its applicability is demonstrated for supramolecular hydrogel films that are prepared from low-molecular weight hydrogelators, such as derivates of 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxamides (BTAs)...
June 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639398/epstein-barr-viral-loads-do-not-predict-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-pediatric-lung-transplant-recipients-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Andrew Parrish, Matthew Fenchel, Gregory A Storch, Richard Buller, Sheila Mason, Nikki Williams, David Ikle, Carol Conrad, Albert Faro, Samuel Goldfarb, Don Hayes, Ernestina Melicoff-Portillo, Marc Schecter, Gary Visner, Stuart Sweet, Lara Danziger-Isakov
Prediction of PTLD after pediatric lung transplant remains difficult. Use of EBV VL in WB has been poorly predictive, while measurement of VL in BAL fluid has been suggested to have enhanced utility. The NIH-sponsored Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children (CTOTC-03) prospectively obtained serial quantitative measurements of EBV PCR in both WB and BAL fluid after pediatric lung transplantation. Descriptive statistics, contingency analyses, and Kaplan-Meier analyses evaluated possible association between EBV and PTLD...
June 21, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638899/surface-cleaning-of-artworks-structure-and-dynamics-of-nanostructured-fluids-confined-in-polymeric-hydrogel-networks
#6
Rosangela Mastrangelo, Costanza Montis, Nicole Bonelli, Paolo Tempesti, Piero Baglioni
Nanosystems and confinement tools for the controlled release of a cleaning agent, e.g., hydrogels and microemulsions, have been used for several years for the treatment of delicate surfaces in art restoration interventions. However, notwithstanding the unprecedented achievements from an application point of view, a fundamental comprehension of their interaction mechanism is still lacking. In this study PVA hydrogels, obtained via freeze-thaw processes, are prepared as scaffolds for water-based nanostructured fluids for application in the cleaning of artworks: rheological, thermal, microscopic and scattering techniques showed that, depending on the number of freeze-thaw cycles, the hydrogels exhibit different physicochemical and viscoelastic properties, making them suitable for application in a broad range of cleaning issues...
June 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636330/water-in-ionic-liquid-lubricants-friend-and-foe
#7
Oscar Y Fajardo, Fernando Bresme, Alexei A Kornyshev, Michael Urbakh
To a greater or lesser extent, most room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) absorb water from humid air. Penetration of water into the lubricating nanoscale film may affect its equilibrium structure and dynamic properties and thus influence the ability of RTILs as lubricants to reduce friction between solid surfaces. Here we investigate the impact of hydration on lubrication using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Water adsorption changes both the ionic liquid molecules orientation and the slip conditions at the solid-liquid interfaces, resulting in a reduced resistance against squeezing-out of the lubricant by an external load...
June 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633547/lipid-based-nanosystem-of-edaravone-development-optimization-characterization-and-in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation
#8
Ankit Parikh, Krishna Kathawala, Chun Chuan Tan, Sanjay Garg, Xin-Fu Zhou
Edaravone (EDR) is a well-recognized lipophilic free radical scavenger for diseases including neurodegenerative disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. However, its oral use is restricted due to poor oral bioavailability (BA). The aim of present research was to enable its oral use by developing a lipid-based nanosystem (LNS). The components of LNS including oil, surfactants, and co-surfactants were selected based on their potential to maximize the solubilization in gastrointestinal (GI) fluids, reduce its glucuronidation and improve transmembrane permeability...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630185/in-vivo-biomarker-analysis-of-intranasally-dosed-pc945-a-novel-antifungal-triazole-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-infection-in-immunocompromised-mice
#9
Genki Kimura, Takahiro Nakaoki, Thomas Colley, Garth Rapeport, Pete Strong, Kazuhiro Ito, Yasuo Kizawa
PC945 is a novel triazole optimised for lung delivery and the objective of this study is to determine the effects of intranasally dosed PC945 on Aspergillus fumigatus infection and associated biomarkers in immunocompromised mice. PC945, posaconazole or voriconazole was treated intranasally once daily on days 0 to 3 (early intervention) or days 1 to 3 (late intervention) post-infection in temporarily neutropenic A/J mice infected intranasally with A. fumigatus, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were collected on day 3...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629036/intestine-targeted-delivery-potency-of-the-o-carboxymethyl-chitosan-gum-arabic-coacervate-effects-of-coacervation-acidity-and-possible-mechanism
#10
Guo-Qing Huang, Li-Na Liu, Xiao-Na Han, Jun-Xia Xiao
The potential of the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC)-gum Arabic (GA) coacervate as an intestine-targeted delivery system for hydrophobic compounds was concerned. OCMC-GA coacervates and emulsified bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded microcapsules were prepared in pH3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 and their swelling behaviors as well as BSA release profiles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids were measured. All the coacervates showed higher swelling ratios in the simulated gastric solution than in the simulated intestine and colon solutions and the values increased as the coacervation pH increased from 3...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625992/flow-cytometry-a-powerful-novel-tool-to-assess-viability-of-fungal-conidia-in-metal-working-fluids
#11
D Vanhauteghem, K Demeyere, N Callaert, A Boelaert, G Haesaert, K Audenaert, E Meyer
Fungal contamination of metal working fluids (MWF) is a dual problem in automatized processing plants because resulting fungal biofilms obstruct cutting, drilling and polishing machines. Moreover, some fungal species of MWF comprise pathogens such as Fusarium solani Therefore, the development of an accurate analytical tool to evaluate conidia viability in MWF is important. We developed a flow cytometric method to measure fungal viability in MWF using F. solani as model organism. To validate this method, viable and dead conidia were mixed in several proportions and flow cytometrically analyzed...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625306/spinal-induced-hypotension-incidence-mechanisms-prophylaxis-and-management-summarizing-20-years-of-research
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer E Lee, Ronald B George, Ashraf S Habib
Hypotension commonly occurs in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. This leads to maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes, including maternal nausea and vomiting and fetal acidosis, and might even lead to cardiovascular collapse if not treated. Arterial dilatation and reduction in systemic vascular resistance are the major contributors to spinal-induced hypotension. Therefore, strategies aimed at expanding the intravascular volume with fluid loading or increasing venous return with lower extremities mechanical compression and lateral tilt have had limited effectiveness in the management of spinal-induced hypotension...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625256/-comparison-of-effect-of-norepinephrine-and-terlipressin-on-patients-with-ards-combined-with-septic-shock-a-prospective-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Zhi Chen, Ping Zhou, Yuanhua Lu, Chunli Yang
OBJECTIVE: To approach the effect of different vasopressor on hemodynamics, volume responsiveness, fluid volume balance, renal function and prognosis in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicated with septic shock. METHODS: A prospective single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. ARDS patients with septic shock admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital from January 1st, 2015 to May 1st, 2016 were enrolled...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625234/-effect-of-global-end-diastolic-volume-index-guidance-fluid-resuscitation-in-elderly-patients-with-septic-shock
#14
Shuang Ma, Rumin Zhang, Shifu Wang, Meiling Zhao, Lei Wang, Yun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of global end diastolic volume index (GEDVI) on fluid resuscitation in elderly patients with septic shock. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. Septic shock patients over 65 years admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Shandong Province, Zibo Central Hospital from January 2013 to December 2015 were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 20 cases in each group...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624722/age-related-differences-in-the-response-of-the-l5-s1-intervertebral-disc-to-spinal-traction
#15
Ulrike H Mitchell, Paul F Beattie, Jennifer Bowden, Robert Larson, Haonan Wang
BACKGROUND: Lumbar traction is a common treatment for low back pain; however its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that a key effect of lumbar traction is its capacity to influence fluid movement within the intervertebral disc (IVD). OBJECTIVES: To determine differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained with lumbar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the L5-S1 IVD before, and during, the application of lumbar traction...
June 9, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622752/microvascular-fluid-exchange-during-cpb-with-deep-hypothermia-circulatory-arrest-or-low-flow
#16
Bjørg Elvevoll, Paul Husby, Venny L Kvalheim, Lodve Stangeland, Arve Mongstad, Øyvind S Svendsen
OBJECTIVE: Use of deep hypothermic low-flow (DHLF) cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been associated with higher fluid loading than the use of deep hypothermia circulatory arrest (DHCA). We evaluated whether these perfusion strategies influenced fluid extravasation rates and edema generation differently per-operatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve anesthetized pigs, randomly allocated to DHLF (n = 6) or DHCA (n = 6), underwent 2.5 hours CPB with cooling to 20°C for 30 minutes (min), followed by 30 min arrested circulation (DHCA) or 30 min low-flow circulation (DHLF) before 90 min rewarming to normothermia...
June 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620355/role-of-the-vasopressin-apelin-balance-and-potential-use-of-metabolically-stable-apelin-analogs-in-water-metabolism-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Adrien Flahault, Pierre Couvineau, Rodrigo Alvear-Perez, Xavier Iturrioz, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Apelin, a (neuro)vasoactive peptide, plays a prominent role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions. In animal models, experimental data demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injection of apelin into lactating rats inhibits the phasic electrical activity of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons, reduces plasma AVP levels, and increases aqueous diuresis. In the kidney, apelin increases diuresis by increasing the renal microcirculation and by counteracting the antidiuretic effect of AVP at the tubular level...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620014/the-tendinopathic-achilles-tendon-does-not-remain-iso-volumetric-upon-repeated-loading-insights-from-3d-ultrasound
#18
Leila Nuri, Steven J Obst, Richard Newsham-West, Rod S Barrett
Mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (MAT) alters the normal three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the Achilles tendon (AT) at rest and under a single tensile load. However, how MAT changes the 3D morphology of AT during repeated loading remains unclear. This study compared the AT longitudinal, transverse and volume strains during repeated loading in MAT with those of the contralateral tendon in people with unilateral MAT. Ten adults with unilateral MAT performed 10 successive 25 second submaximal (50%) voluntary isometric plantarflexion contractions with both legs...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616241/passive-leg-raising-test-with-minimally-invasive-monitoring-the-way-forward-for-guiding-septic-shock-resuscitation
#19
Patrick M Honore, Herbert D Spapen
BACKGROUND: Swift and adequate fluid loading is a cornerstone of septic shock therapy. Yet, careful assessment of volume responsiveness and volume amount during the resuscitation process is a prerequisite. Both overzealous initial fluid administration and late fluid overload are harmful and may be associated with increased mortality. MAIN BODY: Static (i.e., central venous or pulmonary artery occlusion) pressure readings are erroneous for monitoring fluid resuscitation and should be abandoned...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614817/shifting-focus-from-hydration-for-performance-to-hydration-for-health
#20
Erica T Perrier
Over the past 10 years, literature on hydration biomarkers has evolved considerably - from (de)hydration assessment towards a more global definition of biomarkers of hydration in daily life. This shift in thinking about hydration markers was largely driven by investigating the differences that existed between otherwise healthy individuals whose habitual, ad-libitum drinking habits differ, and by identifying physiological changes in low-volume drinkers who subsequently increase their water intake. Aside from obvious differences in urinary volume and concentration, a growing body of evidence is emerging that links differences in fluid intake with small, but biologically significant, differences in vasopressin (copeptin), glomerular filtration rate, and markers of metabolic dysfunction or disease...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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