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fluid loading

Abhishek Kumar Tiwari, Rakesh Kumar, Dharmendra Tripathi, Subham Badhyal
In vivo studies suggest that cyclic and low-magnitude loading can be useful over pharmaceutical drugs in normalizing bone loss as it encourages osteogenesis (i.e. new bone formation) at the sites of elevated strain magnitude. In silico models assumed normal strain or strain energy density (SED) as the stimulus to predict loading-induced osteogenesis, however, these models may have limited success in fitting the in vivo new bone formation at several instances. For example, rest-inserted cyclic loading amplifies the new bone formation as compared to continuous-cyclic loading even though similar strain magnitude were induced in both the cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Claudia Conte, Francesca Mastrotto, Vincenzo Taresco, Aleksandra Tchoryk, Fabiana Quaglia, Snjezana Stolnik, Cameron Alexander
In the treatment of lung cancer, there is an urgent need of innovative medicines to optimize pharmacological responses of conventional chemotherapeutics while attenuating side effects. Here, we have exploited some relatively unexplored subtle differences in reduction potential, associated with cancer cell microenvironments in addition to the well-known changes in intracellular redox environment. We report the synthesis and application of novel redox-responsive PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) -PEG (polyethylene glycol) nanoparticles (RR-NPs) programmed to change surface properties when entering tumor microenvironments, thus enhance cell internalization of the particles and their drug cargo...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Daria Tretiakova, Natalia Onishchenko, Ivan Boldyrev, Ilya Mikhalyov, Alexander Tuzikov, Nicolai Bovin, Evgeniy Evtushenko, Elena Vodovozova
Previously, we proposed a liposomal formulation of melphalan (Mlph)-a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent-incorporated in a fluid lipid bilayer in the form of dioleoylglyceride ester. In this work, we compared the stabilizing effect of different amphiphiles included in the Mlph-liposomes, such as phosphatidylinositol (PI), ganglioside GM1 , a conjugate of N-carboxymethyl-modified oligoglycine with dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (acidic lipopeptide), and polyethylene glycol (2000 Da) conjugated with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-lipid), upon incubation in human serum...
March 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Achmed Pircher, Margherita Montali, Peter Wostyn, Joachim Pircher, Jatta Berberat, Luca Remonda, Hanspeter E Killer
PURPOSE: To investigate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics along the entire optic nerve (ON) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of computed tomographic (CT) cisternographies in Caucasian patients with NTG. Fifty-six patients (99 of 112 eyes) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of NTG and underwent CT-cisternography. Twelve subjects without NTG (24 eyes) served as controls. Contrast-loaded cerebrospinal fluid (CLCSF) density measurements in Hounsfield units (HU) were performed at four defined regions along the ON and in the basal cistern...
March 12, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Yong Lei Wang, Ning Wang, Ruibao Jia, Kefeng Zhang, Baozhen Liu, Wuchang Song, Junqi Jia
Countercurrent-cocurrent dissolved air flotation (CCDAF), the popular water purification device, which consists of collision and adhesion contact zones, showed favorable flotation conditions for micro-bubble adhesion and stability. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation was employed to confirm that the unique CCDAF configuration create reasonable and that the flow field characteristics were good no matter for single phase or gas-liquid two-phase conditions. In addition, the turbulence of the flow field was enhanced with the increasing influent load; the swirling was remarkably reduced with the increase of gas holdup...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Gonçalo Marcelo, Inês C Ferreira, Raquel Viveiros, Teresa Casimiro
A novel class of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on Itaconic acid:Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were developed as a potential body-friendly oral drug delivery system for metronidazole (MZ), a pH-independent drug, simulating a real environment. Itaconic acid-based copolymers were synthesized with two different molar ratios of template:monomer:crosslinker (T:M:C), 1:5:25 and 1:5:50, in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) in high yields. Further, impregnation of MZ was performed in scCO2 environment...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Katherine A Muller, Somayeh G Esfahani, Steven C Chapra, C Andrew Ramsburg
Oil-in-water emulsions are routinely used in subsurface remediation with most applications utilizing highly concentrated emulsions (i.e., ≥ 20% wt.). These high oil loadings present a challenge to remedial design as mechanistic insights into transport and retention of concentrated emulsions is limited. Column experiments were designed to examine emulsion transport and retention over a range of input concentrations (1.3 - 23% wt.). Droplet breakthrough and retention data from low concentration experiments was successfully described by existing particle transport models...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ahmed Salim, Muhammad Usman Memon, Sungjoon Lim
Microwave resonators working as sensors can detect only a single analyte at a time. To address this issue, a TE20 -mode substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) resonator is exploited, owing to its two distinct regions of high-intensity electric fields, which can be manipulated by loading two chemicals. Two microfluidic channels with unequal fluid-carrying capacities, engraved in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet, can perturb the symmetric electric fields even if loaded with the two extreme cases of dielectric [ethanol (E), deionized water (DI)] and [deionized water, ethanol]...
March 7, 2018: Sensors
Zhigao Niu, Eleni Samaridou, Emilie Jaumain, Julie Coëne, Gabriela Ullio, Neha Shrestha, Josep Garcia, Matilde Durán-Lobato, Sulay Tovar, Manuel J Santander-Ortega, M Victoria Lozano, M Mar Arroyo-Jiménez, Rocío Ramos-Membrive, Iván Peñuelas, Aloïse Mabondzo, Véronique Préat, Meritxell Teixidó, Ernest Giralt, María José Alonso
The objective of this work was the development of a new drug nanocarrier intended to overcome the barriers associated to the oral modality of administration and to assess its value for the systemic or local delivery of peptides. The nanocarrier was rationally designed taking into account the nature of the intestinal barriers and was loaded with insulin, which was selected as a model peptide. The nanocarrier consisted of a nanocomplex between insulin and a hydrophobically-modified cell penetrating peptide (CPP), enveloped by a protecting polymer...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Azzurra Agostini, Umberto Capasso Palmiero, Sara D A Barbieri, Monica Lupi, Davide Moscatelli
Ibuprofen (IBU) is a widespread drug used to treat both acute and chronic disorders. It is generally taken orally but the free drug can induce the irritation of the gastric mucosa due to its acid nature. In literature, different approaches have been adopted to prevent the release in the stomach, such as physical entrapment with film-coated tablets and drug-conjugates. Nevertheless, these solutions have many disadvantages, including the fast release of the drug and the difficulty to swallow the tablet, especially for children who may vomit or refuse the tablet...
March 8, 2018: Nanotechnology
Fei Liu, David Z Zhang, Peng Zhang, Miao Zhao, Salman Jafar
Developments in selective laser melting (SLM) have enabled the fabrication of periodic cellular lattice structures characterized by suitable properties matching the bone tissue well and by fluid permeability from interconnected structures. These multifunctional performances are significantly affected by cell topology and constitutive properties of applied materials. In this respect, a diamond unit cell was designed in particular volume fractions corresponding to the host bone tissue and optimized with a smooth surface at nodes leading to fewer stress concentrations...
March 3, 2018: Materials
Amália Machado Bielemann, Raissa Micaella Marcello-Machado, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Fernanda Faot
OBJECTIVE: To quantify and characterize the role of biomarkers in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) at each stage of healing during osseointegration. DESIGN: This systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines using several databases: MedLine (PubMed), Embase, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Medical subject headings and their indexers were used with no other limitations until December 2017. The dataset was extended with relevant papers from the reference lists of selected papers and from the gray literature...
February 22, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Linda Martin, Bethany Sarosiek, Meredith Harrison, Traci Hedrick, James Isbell, Alexander Krupnick, Christine Lau, Hunter Mehaffey, Robert Thiele, Dustin Walters, Randal Blank
BACKGROUND: To minimize the stress of surgery, improve the patient experience, reduce variability and optimize resource utilization, we implemented a thoracic Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol and evaluated progress after one year. METHODS: Two protocols were developed: video assisted thoracic surgery (ERAS-VATS) and thoracotomy (ERAS-T). Each incorporated preoperative patient education, carbohydrate loading, opioid-sparing analgesia, conservative fluid management, and early ambulation...
March 3, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Luca Luzzi, Federico Franchi, Annarita Dapoto, Marco Ghisalberti, Roberto Corzani, Daniele Marrelli, Luca Marchetti, Piero Paladini, Sabino Scolletta
Background: In the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma the Hyperthermic Intra THOracic Chemotherapy (HITHOC) can improve the efficacy of pleurectomy and decortication with a local cytotoxic effect. However its biological impact in patient's hemodynamic and microcirculatory changes were rarely investigated. Aim of this study is to describe our experience with HITHOC after pleurectomy and decortication evaluating the role of sublingual video-microscopy in assessing the microcirculatory changes in the perioperative period...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Vito Graziano, Lisa Miller, Lin Yang
The structural information contained in solution scattering data from empty lipid nanodiscs is examined in the context of a multi-component geometric model. X-ray scattering data were collected on nanodiscs of different compositions at scattering vector magnitudes up to 2.0 Å-1 . Through the calculation of the partial form factor for each of the nanodisc components before the isotropic average, structural parameters in the model were correlated to the features observed in the X-ray scattering data and to the corresponding distance distribution function...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Crystallography
David A Osborn, Tim Schindler, Lisa J Jones, John Kh Sinn, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Cynthia Picard, Cédric Julien, Josée Frappier, Justin Miron, Louise Théroux, Doris Dea, John C S Breitner, Judes Poirier
Genome-wide association studies have identified several cholesterol metabolism-related genes as top risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We hypothesized that specific genetic variants could act as disease-modifying factors by altering the expression of those genes. Targeted association studies were conducted with available genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and histopathological data from 3 independent cohorts: the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), the Quebec Founder Population (QFP), and the United Kingdom Brain Expression Consortium (UKBEC)...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Jessy Lauer, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Annie Hélène Rouard
BACKGROUND: The mechanical demands of underwater shoulder exercises have only been assessed indirectly via electromyographical measurements. Yet, this is insufficient to understand all the clinical implications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal system loading during slow (30°/s) scapular plane arm elevation and lowering performed in two media (air vs water) and body positions (sitting vs supine). METHODS: Eighteen participants' upper bodies were scanned and virtually animated within unsteady numerical fluid flow simulations to compute hydrodynamic forces...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Martin Eckert, Danuta Mizgalska, Anton Sculean, Jan Potempa, Andreas Stavropoulos, Sigrun Eick
Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia secrete proteases, gingipains and KLIKK-proteases. In addition, T. forsythia produces a serpin (miropin) with broad inhibitory spectrum. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the level of expression of miropin and individual proteases in vivo in periodontal and peri-implant health and disease conditions. Biofilm and gingival/peri-implant crevicular fluid (GCF or PISF respectively) samples from healthy tooth and implant sites (n=10), gingivitis and mucositis sites (n=12), and periodontitis and peri-implantitis sites (n=10)...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Karthickeyan Viswanathan
In the present study, non-edible seed oil namely raw neem oil was converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. In the experimentation, two biodiesel blends were prepared namely B25 (25% neem oil methyl ester with 75% of diesel) and B50 (50% neem oil methyl ester with 50% diesel). Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technique with catalytic converter (CC) was fixed in the exhaust tail pipe of the engine for the reduction of engine exhaust emissions. Initially, the engine was operated with diesel as a working fluid and followed by refilling of biodiesel blends B25 and B50 to obtain the baseline readings without SCR and CC...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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