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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339647/detection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-ribonucleic-acid-in-the-peritoneal-effluent-of-renal-failure-patients-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Kwazi C Z Ndlovu, Wilbert Sibanda, Alain Assounga
Background.: We evaluated the shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 particles into continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) effluents of HIV-positive patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods.: A total of 58 HIV-positive patients with ESRD on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who had Tenckhoff catheters inserted between September 2012 and February 2015 were prospectively reviewed and followed for 18 months. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent samples from functioning CAPD catheters and plasma samples were obtained at three points during regular clinic visits on days 45 ± 37, 200 ± 19 and 377 ± 13 after catheter insertion...
February 20, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338491/perioperative-management-of-blood-loss-in-spine-surgery
#2
Rabia Qureshi, Varun Puvanesarajah, Amit Jain, Hamid Hassanzadeh
Spine procedures are associated with high rates of blood loss which can result in a greater need for transfusions. Repeated exposure to blood products is associated with risks and adverse reactions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury, fluid shifting, and infections. With the higher number of spine procedures and the increasing open surgery times associated with difficult procedures, excessive blood loss has become more prevalent. Perioperative methods have been established to combat the excessive blood loss and decrease the need for blood products...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337902/helicobacter-pylori-in-periodontal-pockets-and-saliva-a-possible-role-in-gastric-infection-relapses
#3
L Azzi, F Carinci, S Gabaglio, F Cura, F Croveri, L Tettamanti, A Tagliabue, S Segato
It has been a long time since the scientific community started to speculate upon the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in periodontal pockets as an extra-gastric reservoir responsible for gastric relapses after eradication therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of oral HP in a group of patients who underwent examination for gastric infection. Sixty patients were enrolled in the current study, subdivided into two groups: 30 patients with a positive result for HP gastric infection with C-Breath Test Urea examination, and 30 patients with a negative result for HP gastric infection...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336376/effect-of-anesthetics-on-microglial-activation-and-nanoparticle-uptake-implications-for-drug-delivery-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Gokul Kannan, Siva P Kambhampati, Sapna R Kudchadkar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, often with devastating consequences for patients and their families. Affordable and timely therapies can have a substantial impact on outcomes in severe TBI. Despite the common use of sedatives and anesthetics in the acute phase of TBI management, their effect on glial cells is not well understood. We investigated the effect of a commonly used sedative, pentobarbital, on glial cells and their uptake of nanoparticles. First, we studied how pentobarbital affects BV2 mouse microglial cells in culture...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334695/how-the-embryonic-chick-brain-twists
#5
Zi Chen, Qiaohang Guo, Eric Dai, Nickolas Forsch, Larry A Taber
During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332469/marrying-step-feed-with-clarifier-improvements-increase-wet-weather-capacity-integrated-methodology
#6
Glen T Daigger John S Siczka Thomas F Smith David A Frank J A McCorquodale
The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, OH, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30...
March 22, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332446/scaling-effects-in-spiral-capsule-robots
#7
Liang Liang, Rong Hu, Bai Chen, Yong Tang, Yan Xu
Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-2) m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331309/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-drug-release-and-antibacterial-properties-of-the-novel-vancomycin-loaded-bone-like-hydroxyapatite-poly-amino-acid-scaffold
#8
Zhidong Cao, Dianming Jiang, Ling Yan, Jun Wu
Antibiotic-loaded carriers were developed to fill cavities and locally deliver antibiotics following implantation. However, the most commonly used antibiotic carrier, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), has many disadvantages including that it does not promote bone regeneration or conduction. Vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid (V-BHA/PAA) was successfully fabricated by a homogeneous method, certified as biosafe and known to promote osteogenesis. To evaluate its drug-release features, the quantity of the vancomycin in the elution was obtained every 2 days after in vitro simulated body fluid immersion...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329096/diffuse-white-matter-signal-abnormalities-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-are-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-viral-escape-in-the-central-nervous-system-among-patients-with-neurological-symptoms
#9
Ruthiran Kugathasan, Dami A Collier, Lewis J Haddow, Kate El Bouzidi, Simon G Edwards, Jonathan D Cartledge, Robert F Miller, Ravindra K Gupta
Background.: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can replicate independently in extravascular compartments such as the central nervous system, resulting in either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discordance (viral load [VL] in CSF 0.5 log10 copies HIV-1 RNA greater than plasma VL) or escape (detection of HIV VL >50 copies/mL in CSF in patients with suppressed plasma VL <50 copies/mL). Both discordance and escape may be associated with neurological symptoms. We explored risk factors for CSF discordance and escape in patients presenting with diverse neurological problems...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326684/collagen-cellulose-nanocrystal-scaffolds-containing-curcumin-loaded-microspheres-on-infected-full-thickness-burns-repair
#10
Rui Guo, Yong Lan, Wei Xue, Biao Cheng, Yuanming Zhang, Changyong Wang, Seeram Ramakrishna
Burn infection is a serious problem that delays wound healing and leads to death. Curcumin (Cur) has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activity. However, its instability, extremely low aqueous solubility and bioavailability in physiological fluids may make it difficult to maintain local Cur concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for burn infection treatment. The objective of this study was to construct complexes of Cur/gelatin microspheres (GMs) and porous collagen (Coll)-cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) composite scaffolds for full-thickness burn infection treatment...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324468/ascariasis-and-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-state-a-surprising-ultrasound-finding-in-the-emergency-department
#11
Giles N Cattermole, Jean-Paul Nzabandora
BACKGROUND: We report the ultrasound finding of ascariasis in a patient with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). Although ascariasis is common in low-resource settings, there has been no previous report associating ascariasis with HHS. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old Rwandan man was admitted to the emergency department in coma, with a glycemia of 600 mg/dl. He was resuscitated with fluids, intubated and ventilated, and treated with insulin and antibiotics...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323719/passive-leg-raising-for-assessment-of-volume-responsiveness-a-review
#12
Jaume Mesquida, Guillem Gruartmoner, Ricard Ferrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the existing evidence on the passive leg raising (PLR) test for fluid responsiveness prediction. RECENT FINDINGS: It has been well established that either insufficient or excessive fluid administration derives in worse outcomes in critically ill patients, highlighting that a more accurate assessment of fluid management is required. Accordingly, several cardiovascular indices have been tested to improve our ability to predict patients' response to fluid loading at the bedside, the so-called functional hemodynamic monitoring...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323109/self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-design-of-a-novel-vaginal-delivery-system-for-curcumin
#13
S Köllner, I Nardin, R Markt, J Griesser, F Prüfert, A Bernkop-Schnürch
AIM: The aim of this study was to develop a vaginal self-emulsifying delivery system for curcumin being capable of spreading, of permeating the mucus gel layer and of protecting the drug being incorporated in oily nanodroplets towards mucus interactions and immobilization. METHODS: The emulsifying properties of curcumin loaded SEDDS containing 30% Cremophor RH40, 20% Capmul PG-8, 30% Captex 300, 10% DMSO and 10% tetraglycol (SEDD formulation A) as well as 25% PEG 200, 35% Cremophor RH40, 20% Captex 355, 10% Caprylic acid and 10% Tween 80 (SEDD formulation B) after diluting 1+2 with artificial vaginal fluid were characterized regarding droplet size and zeta potential...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321852/active-matrix-metalloproteinase-8-and-periodontal-bacteria-depending-on-periodontal-status-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
A Kirchner, J Jäger, B Krohn-Grimberghe, S Patschan, T Kottmann, G Schmalz, R F Mausberg, R Haak, D Ziebolz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this clinical cross-sectional study was to determine the level of active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) and periodontal pathogenic bacteria in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with varying periodontal conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 103 patients with RA and 104 healthy controls (HC) were included. The assessment of periodontal status included periodontal probing depth, bleeding on probing and clinical attachment loss...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321634/a-preliminary-study-about-the-potential-effects-of-heavy-metals-on-the-human-male-reproductive-parameters-in-hiv-infected-population-in-china
#15
Renyan Li, Letian Zhao, Lianbing Li, Zhiwei Hou, Danyan Zhang, Ling Wan, Li Wei, Yuyou Yang, Jing Lv, Mingfu Ma, Yijian Zhu
Due to the inconsistent effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the human male reproduction in previous studies and the impacts of environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, on male reproduction receiving little attention in HIV-infected population, the aim of present study was to investigate whether heavy metals have potential effects on reproductive parameters in HIV-infected men. The current study assessed the associations between semen quality or serum hormone and concentration of the three heavy metal toxicants (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)) in seminal, urine, and serum, and 50 HIV-infected men were recruited in the present study...
March 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318948/comparative-assessment-of-intrinsic-mechanical-stimuli-on-knee-cartilage-and-compressed-agarose-constructs
#16
A Completo, C Bandeiras, F Fonseca
A well-established cue for improving the properties of tissue-engineered cartilage is mechanical stimulation. However, the explicit ranges of mechanical stimuli that correspond to favorable metabolic outcomes are elusive. Usually, these outcomes have only been associated with the applied strain and frequency, an oversimplification that can hide the fundamental relationship between the intrinsic mechanical stimuli and the metabolic outcomes. This highlights two important key issues: the firstly is related to the evaluation of the intrinsic mechanical stimuli of native cartilage; the second, assuming that the intrinsic mechanical stimuli will be important, deals with the ability to replicate them on the tissue-engineered constructs...
March 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318569/designing-affinity-chromatographic-processes-for-the-capture-of-antibodies-part-i-a-simplified-approach
#17
D Pfister, L David, M Holzer, R-M Nicoud
Protein A affinity chromatography is a standard technique for the purification of therapeutic antibodies. Recently, multi-column chromatographic processes have emerged to turn classical capture processes into more efficient and continuous systems. The design of such chromatographic processes, be they single-column or multi-column systems, is described in this work. A rational method to conceive, scale-up and compare processes is proposed and illustrated with different examples. All along this article, the results of the equilibrium theory, i...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318267/magnetic-microlassos-for-reversible-cargo-capture-transport-and-release
#18
Tao Yang, Tonguc Onur Tasci, Keith B Neeves, Ning Wu, David W M Marr
Microbot propulsion has seen increasing interest in recent years as artificial methods that overcome the well-established reversible and challenging nature of microscale fluid mechanics. While controlled movement is an important feature of microbot action, many envisioned applications also involve cargo transport where microbots must be able to load and unload contents on command while tolerating complex solution chemistry. Here we introduce a physical method that uses flexible and linked superparamagnetic colloidal chains, which can form closed rings or "lassos" in the presence of a planar rotating magnetic field...
March 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317777/preparation-characterization-and-stability-of-curcumin-loaded-zein-shellac-composite-colloidal-particles
#19
Cuixia Sun, Chenqi Xu, Like Mao, Di Wang, Jie Yang, Yanxiang Gao
Curcumin-loaded zein-shellac composite particles were prepared by the antisolvent co-precipitation method. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was significantly improved from 82.7% in zein particles to 93.2% in zein-shellac complex particles. The result of differential scanning calorimetry suggested that curcumin in the polymeric matrix was in an amorphous state. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that curcumin had non-covalently interacted with zein and shellac, mainly through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317393/structural-analysis-of-two-different-stent-configurations
#20
M Simão, J M Ferreira, J Mora-Rodriguez, H M Ramos
Two different stent configurations (i.e. the well known Palmaz-Schatz (PS) and a new stent configuration) are mechanically investigated. A finite element model was used to study the two geometries under combining loads and a computational fluid dynamic model based on fluid structure interaction was developed investigating the plaque and the artery wall reactions in a stented arterial segment. These models determine the stress and displacement fields of the two stents under internal pressure conditions. Results suggested that stent designs cause alterations in vascular anatomy that adversely affect arterial stress distributions within the wall, which have impact in the vessel responses such as the restenosis...
March 20, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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