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Beta-cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335416/supplementation-with-phycocyanobilin-citrulline-taurine-and-supranutritional-doses-of-folic-acid-and-biotin-potential-for-preventing-or-slowing-the-progression-of-diabetic-complications
#1
Mark F McCarty
Oxidative stress, the resulting uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity, are key mediators of the vascular and microvascular complications of diabetes. Much of this oxidative stress arises from up-regulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. Phycocyanobilin (PhyCB), the light-harvesting chromophore in edible cyanobacteria such as spirulina, is a biliverdin derivative that shares the ability of free bilirubin to inhibit certain isoforms of NADPH oxidase...
March 14, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332581/elevated-mir-130a-mir130b-mir-152-expression-reduces-intracellular-atp-levels-in-the-pancreatic-beta-cell
#2
Jones K Ofori, Vishal A Salunkhe, Annika Bagge, Neelanjan Vishnu, Mototsugu Nagao, Hindrik Mulder, Claes B Wollheim, Lena Eliasson, Jonathan L S Esguerra
MicroRNAs have emerged as important players of gene regulation with significant impact in diverse disease processes. In type-2 diabetes, in which impaired insulin secretion is a major factor in disease progression, dysregulated microRNA expression in the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell has been widely-implicated. Here, we show that miR-130a-3p, miR-130b-3p, and miR-152-3p levels are elevated in the pancreatic islets of hyperglycaemic donors, corroborating previous findings about their upregulation in the islets of type-2 diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki rats...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327131/transcriptome-analysis-of-pancreatic-cells-across-distant-species-highlights-novel-important-regulator-genes
#3
Estefania Tarifeño-Saldivia, Arnaud Lavergne, Alice Bernard, Keerthana Padamata, David Bergemann, Marianne L Voz, Isabelle Manfroid, Bernard Peers
BACKGROUND: Defining the transcriptome and the genetic pathways of pancreatic cells is of great interest for elucidating the molecular attributes of pancreas disorders such as diabetes and cancer. As the function of the different pancreatic cell types has been maintained during vertebrate evolution, the comparison of their transcriptomes across distant vertebrate species is a means to pinpoint genes under strong evolutionary constraints due to their crucial function, which have therefore preserved their selective expression in these pancreatic cell types...
March 21, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325643/alpha-cells-the-main-source-of-il-1%C3%AE-in-human-pancreas
#4
Florence Anquetil, Somayeh Sabouri, Charles Thivolet, Teresa Rodriguez-Calvo, Jose Zapardiel-Gonzalo, Natalie Amirian, Darius Schneider, Ericka Castillo, Yasaman Lajevardi, Matthias G von Herrath
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is known to trigger beta cell dysfunction in vitro and could potentially play a role during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, several clinical trials attempting to block IL-1β function have had minimal success. We therefore re-investigated local expression of IL-1β in human diabetic and non-diabetic pancreata. We obtained pancreatic tissue sections from the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) including non-diabetic (n = 9), non-diabetic auto-antibody positive (AAb+, n = 5), type 1 diabetes (n = 6), and type 2 diabetes (n = 6) donors...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324008/vessel-network-architecture-of-adult-human-islets-promotes-distinct-cell-cell-interactions-in-situ-and-is-altered-after-transplantation
#5
Christian M Cohrs, Chunguang Chen, Stephan R Jahn, Julia Stertmann, Helena Chmelova, Jürgen Weitz, Andrea Bähr, Nikolai Klymiuk, Anja Steffen, Barbara Ludwig, Virginia Kamvissi, Eckhard Wolf, Stefan R Bornstein, Michele Solimena, Stephan Speier
Islet cell hormone release is modulated by signals from endothelial and endocrine cells within the islet. However, models of intra-islet vascularization and paracrine cell signaling are mostly based on rodent pancreas. We here assessed for the first time the architecture and endocrine cell interaction of the vascular network in unperturbed human islets in situ and their potential to re-establish their endogenous vascular network after transplantation in vivo. We prepared pancreas tissue slices of fresh tissue obtained from non-diabetic patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy...
January 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323959/insulin-and-glucagon-partners-for-life
#6
Jens Juul Holst, William Holland, Jesper Gromada, Young Lee, Roger H Unger, Hai Yan, Kyle W Sloop, Timothy J Kieffer, Nicolas Damond, Pedro L Herrera
In August 2016, several leaders in glucagon biology gathered for the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Hagedorn Workshop in Oxford, England. A key point of discussion focused around the need for basal insulin to allow for the therapeutic benefit of glucagon blockade in the treatment of diabetes. Among the most enlightening experimental results presented were findings from studies where glucagon receptor-deficient mice were administered streptozotocin to destroy pancreatic beta cells or had undergone diphtheria toxin-induced beta cell ablation...
January 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322294/effects-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-on-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
Xiafei Lyu, Xiaolin Zhu, Bin Zhao, Liang Du, Dawei Chen, Chun Wang, Guanjian Liu, Xingwu Ran
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a novel family of glucose-lowering agents. Accumulating evidence suggests that DPP-4 inhibitors preserve pancreatic beta-cell function, but results in previous studies have been inconsistent. We assessed the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on the homoeostasis model assessment beta-cell function (HOMA-B) or insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in patients with type 2 diabetes through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Relevant articles were identified from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases up to December 27, 2016...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321233/heterogeneity-of-the-pancreatic-beta-cell
#8
REVIEW
Giselle Dominguez Gutierrez, Jesper Gromada, Lori Sussel
The pancreatic beta cell functions as a key regulator of blood glucose levels by integrating a variety of signals in response to changing metabolic demands. Variations in beta cell identity that translate into functionally different subpopulations represent an interesting mechanism to allow beta cells to efficiently respond to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Recently, there is emerging evidence that morphological and functional differences between beta cells exist. Furthermore, the ability of novel single cell technologies to characterize the molecular identity of individual beta cells has created a new era in the beta cell field...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320046/increased-insulin-resistance-and-glucagon-levels-in-mild-inactive-systemic-lupus-patients-despite-normal-glucose-tolerance
#9
Cíntia Nh Miyake, Bruno Gualano, Wagner S Dantas, Renato T Pereira, William Neves, Vanessa O Zambelli, Samuel K Shinjo, Rosa M Pereira, Elizabeth R Silva, Ana Lúcia Sá-Pinto, Eduardo Borba, Hamilton Roschel, Eloisa Bonfá, Fabiana B Benatti
OBJECTIVE: To assess insulin sensitivity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in response to a meal tolerance test (MTT). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 33 adult females mild/inactive SLE and 16 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched female healthy controls (CTRL) underwent a MTT and were assessed for insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. Skeletal muscle protein expressions of total and membrane GLUT-4 were also evaluated (SLE, n=10; CTRL, n=5); muscle biopsies were performed after MTT...
March 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319674/assessment-of-circulating-betatrophin-concentrations-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#10
Onur Erol, Mustafa Kemal Özel, Hamit Yaşar Ellidağ, Tayfun Toptaş, Aysel Uysal Derbent, Necat Yılmaz
The aims of the current study were to investigate the betatrophin levels in lean glucose-tolerant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to explore the relationships between these levels and antropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. The study population consisted of 50 lean (body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m(2)) women diagnosed with PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria, and 60 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls without any features of clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism. Before recruitment, glucose tolerance was evaluated in all of the subjects using the 2-h 75 g oral glucose-tolerance test, and only those exhibiting normal glucose tolerance were enrolled...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315336/streptozotocin-produces-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-decreases-bdnf-concentrations-to-induce-apoptosis-of-rin5f-cells-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-wistar-rats
#11
Siresha Bathina, Nanduri Srinivas, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative disorders, such as deficits in learning, memory and cognition and Alzheimer's disease are associated with diabetes mellitus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor and is known to possess anti-obesity, anti-diabetic actions and is believed to have a role in memory and Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether STZ can reduce BDNF production by rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells in vitro and decrease BDNF levels in the pancreas, liver and brain in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314379/rejuvenation-by-partial-reprogramming-of-the-epigenome
#12
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James Larrick, Jennifer L Lei
Epigenetic variation with age is one of the most important hallmarks of aging. Resetting or repairing the epigenome of aging cells in intact animals may rejuvenate the cells and perhaps the entire organism. In fact, differentiated adult cells, which by definition have undergone some epigenetic changes, are capable of being rejuvenated and reprogrammed to create pluripotent stem cells and viable cloned animals. Apparently, such reprogramming is capable of completely resetting the epigenome. However, attempts to fully reprogram differentiated cells in adult animals have failed in part because reprogramming leads to formation of teratomas...
March 17, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303682/ultrastructural-alterations-of-pancreatic-beta-cells-in-human-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Matilde Masini, Luisa Martino, Lorella Marselli, Marco Bugliani, Ugo Boggi, Franco Filipponi, Piero Marchetti, Vincenzo De Tata
AIMS: Both types of diabetes are characterized by beta-cell failure and death, leading to insulin insufficiency. Very limited information is currently available about the ultrastructural alterations of beta cells in human diabetes. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive ultrastructural analysis of human pancreatic islets in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We performed a morphometric electron microscopy evaluation of beta cells obtained from the pancreas of 8 non-diabetic (ND), 5 type 1 (T1D) and 8 type 2 (T2D) diabetic organ donors...
March 16, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303303/melatonin-signalling-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-too-little-too-much-or-just-right
#14
EDITORIAL
Hindrik Mulder
Of the associations of genetic variants with type 2 diabetes, the one of an SNP in an intron of the gene encoding the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) has been remarkably robust. Work from our group and others has provided support for a model where carriers of this risk G allele exhibit increased MTNR1B expression in islets of Langerhans. Most published studies to date favour that melatonin's action on the beta cell is inhibition of insulin secretion. Hence, our model proposes that this inhibitory effect of melatonin is exaggerated in carriers of the MTNR1B risk G allele...
March 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300170/cd8-t-cells-specific-for-the-islet-autoantigen-igrp-are-restricted-in-their-t-cell-receptor-chain-usage
#15
Yannick F Fuchs, Anne Eugster, Sevina Dietz, Christian Sebelefsky, Denise Kühn, Carmen Wilhelm, Annett Lindner, Anita Gavrisan, Jan Knoop, Andreas Dahl, Anette-G Ziegler, Ezio Bonifacio
CD8(+) T cells directed against beta cell autoantigens are considered relevant for the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Using single cell T cell receptor sequencing of CD8(+) T cells specific for the IGRP265-273 epitope, we examined whether there was expansion of clonotypes and sharing of T cell receptor chains in autoreactive CD8(+) T cell repertoires. HLA-A*0201 positive type 1 diabetes patients (n = 19) and controls (n = 18) were analysed. TCR α- and β-chain sequences of 418 patient-derived IGRP265-273-multimer(+) CD8(+) T cells representing 48 clonotypes were obtained...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299380/conditional-islet-hypovascularisation-does-not-preclude-beta-cell-expansion-during-pregnancy-in-mice
#16
Willem Staels, Yves Heremans, Gunter Leuckx, Naomi Van Gassen, Ciro Salinno, Sofie De Groef, Martine Cools, Eli Keshet, Yuval Dor, Harry Heimberg, Nico De Leu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Endothelial-endocrine cell interactions and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A signalling are deemed essential for maternal islet vascularisation, glucose control and beta cell expansion during mouse pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess whether pregnancy-associated beta cell expansion was affected under conditions of islet hypovascularisation. METHODS: Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1), a VEGF-A decoy receptor, was conditionally overexpressed in maternal mouse beta cells from 1...
March 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298252/reduced-circulating-stem-cells-associate-with-excess-fasting-and-post-load-nefa-exposure-in-healthy-adults-with-normal-glucose-tolerance
#17
Gian Paolo Fadini, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Angelo Avogaro, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Reduced levels of circulating stem cells (CSCs) predict cardiovascular events and death, but the factors underlying variability of CSCs in healthy adults are mostly unknown. Previous studies detected associations of CSCs with glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, while the role of fatty acids has been overlooked. We herein aimed to describe in better detail the metabolic abnormalities associated with a reduced CSC level. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 94 healthy male and female individuals with normal glucose tolerance, aged 18-65 years...
March 6, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296236/development-of-the-endocrine-pancreas-in-the-beagle-dog-from-fetal-to-adult-life
#18
Emilie Bricout-Neveu, Severine Pechberty, Karine Reynaud, Cindy Maenhoudt, Marie José Lecomte, Philippe Ravassard, Paul Czernichow
Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out...
March 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295962/improving-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-stimulate-insulin-secretion-or-provide-beta-cell-rest
#19
REVIEW
Daniël H van Raalte, C Bruce Verchere
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by a gradual decline of pancreatic beta cell function that determines the progressive course of the disease. While beta-cell failure is an important contributor to hyperglycemia, chronic hyperglycemia itself is also detrimental for beta-cell function, likely by inducing prolonged secretory stress on the beta cell as well as through direct glucotoxic mechanisms that have not been fully defined. For years, research has been carried out in search of therapies targeting hyperglycemia that preserve long-term beta-cell function in T2D, a quest that is still ongoing...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293323/effect-of-sanitary-environmental-conditions-of-diabetic-hypertension-incidence-in-displaced-persons
#20
Muamer Muraspahić, Isaja Kastrat, Semsudin Plojović, Mirsad Imamovic, Sonja Ketin, Rade Biocanin
BACKGROUND: The abnormal conditions of life and genetic factors often play a major role in the incidence of "diabetes - diabetes", heart disease and vascular disease, jaundice and posttraumatic stress. AIM: Trauma and posttraumatic stress are most common in the displaced persons, and the focus of this paper is to focus on this issue regarding cases in former Yugoslavia, and now in our country. These diseases are caused by increased beta-cell sensitivity to viruses, the development of autoimmune antibodies attacking their pancreas cells, degenerative changes in cells that result in the change of structure and of insulin production...
March 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
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