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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149782/frequency-of-circulatory-regulatory-immune-cells-in-iranian-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#1
Tahereh Khamehchian, Eqlim Nemati, Marziyeh Jazayeri, Shirin Azimi, Hassan Nikoueinejad, Hossein Akbari, Behnaz Irandoust
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) act as mediators of peripheral tolerance. We investigated the possible alterations of such cells in peripheral blood of patients with T1D compared to normal individuals. This comparison may lead to a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis processes involved in T1D. 92 participants, including 49 patients with T1D and 43 healthy controls were studied...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147909/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-protein-dj-1-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Daniel Eberhard, Eckhard Lammert
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide escalating health disorder resulting from insulin resistance and functional loss of insulin-producing beta cells that finally cause chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations. Here we review the role of ubiquitously expressed antioxidant protein DJ-1 in the pathogenesis of T2DM. In beta cells, DJ-1 protects against oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and streptozotocin- and cytokine-induced stress and preserves beta cell viability and insulin secretion...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145537/the-role-of-iron-in-type-1-diabetes-etiology-a-systematic-review-of-new-evidence-on-a-long-standing-mystery
#3
Karen L Søgaard, Christina Ellervik, Jannet Svensson, Steffen U Thorsen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is rising, which might be due to the influence of environmental factors. Biological and epidemiological evidence has shown that excess iron is associated with beta-cell damage and impaired insulin secretion. AIM: In this review, our aim was to assess the association between iron and the risk of T1D. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE in July 2016. Studies investigating the effect of iron status/intake on the risk of developing T1D later were included, and study quality was evaluated...
July 2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144809/preserved-proinsulin-secretion-in-long-standing-type-1-diabetes
#4
Devin W Steenkamp, Jose M Cacicedo, Ayse Sahin-Efe, Catherine Sullivan, Elliot Sternthal
OBJECTIVE: Recent literature, has reported preserved residual beta cell function, (c-peptide "microsecretion") in many individuals with long standing type 1 diabetes. However, the concentrations of detectable insulin/c-peptide in the serum are usually very low, and beta cell mass is typically negligible. Proinsulin is measurable in the early years after diagnosis, consistent with the presence of residual functioning beta cells. However, individuals are not expected to secrete significant amounts of proinsulin beyond the early years after diagnosis...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144805/dpp4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-as-a-potential-treatment-option-in-metformin-intolerant-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-study
#5
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has an established role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some patients cannot tolerate it due to associated gastrointestinal adverse events. The present study evaluated DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin as a potential treatment option in metformin intolerant PCOS. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-week prospective randomized open-label study with 30 obese metformin intolerant women with PCOS (aged 35.0±7.2 years, BMI 36.9±5.5 kg/m(2))...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138226/insulin-secretory-effect-of-sitagliptin-assessment-with-a-hyperglycemic-clamp-combined-with-a-meal-challenge
#6
Sudha S Shankar, R Ravi Shankar, Lori A Mixson, Deborah L Miller, Helmut O Steinberg, Chan R Beals, David E Kelley
Sitagliptin,a dipeptidylpeptidase-IVinhibitor(DPP-4),sustains activity of the incretin hormones GLP-1andGIP and improves hyperglycemia inT2DM.It has however proven challenging to quantify the effect of sitagliptin on rates of insulin secretion(ISR) during a prandial challenge.The tight feedback governance ofISR by plasma glucose means that in the face of treatment-related lowering of postprandialglycemia,corresponding stimulation ofISR is lessened.We postulated that sustaining a stable level of moderate hyperglycemia prior to and during a mealchallenge(MC)would be a platform that enables greater clarity to assess the effect ofsitagliptin onISR and an approach that could be valuable to evaluate novel targets that increase insulin secretion directly and by augmenting incretins...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137101/analysis-of-islet-beta-cell-functions-and-their-correlations-with-liver-dysfunction-in-patients-with-neonatal-intrahepatic-cholestasis-caused-by-citrin-deficiency-niccd
#7
Chun-Ting Lu, Jing Yang, Si-Min Huang, Lie Feng, Ze-Jian Li
Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) primarily manifests in neonates or infants with hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, and hypoglycemia. This study investigated the functions of islet beta cells and their correlations with liver dysfunction in NICCD patients.We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on liver function and islet beta cell functions for 36 patients diagnosed with NICCD and 50 subjects as the control group. The NICCD group had significantly higher total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and albumin/globulin ratio (A/G) (P < ...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#8
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134977/metformin-effects-are-augmented-by-chronic-intermittent-cold-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-male-wistar-rats
#9
A O Ige, O I Iwaloye, E O Adewoye
This study investigated the effects of metformin on some glucose regulatory indices in high fat diet (HFD) fedmale Wistar rats exposed to room temperature and chronic intermittent cold stress (CICS). Thirty rats were randomly dividedinto 5 groups. Group 1(control) was maintained on standard rat chow while groups 2-5 were maintained on HFD for 8weeksrespectively prior to experimental procedures. Control, group 2(HFD untreated) and group 3(HFD+metformin (250mg/kg)were exposed to room temperature while groups 4(HFD untreated+CICS) and 5(HFD+CICS+metformin) were exposed toCICS for 21days...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134606/intravenous-ferric-carboxymaltose-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-iron-deficiency-clever-trial-study-design-and-protocol
#10
Christoph Schindler, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Markolf Hanefeld, Ulrike Schatz, Carsta Köhler, Martin Grüneberg, Diethelm Tschöpe, Matthias Blüher, Christoph Hasslacher, Stefan R Bornstein
INTRODUCTION: HbA1c is the gold standard for glycemic control in pre-diabetes and diabetes. However, its validity has been questioned, especially in the presence of imbalanced iron homeostasis. The CLEVER trial aims to evaluate the relationship between iron deficiency and HbA1c (a biomarker for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of type 2 diabetes) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. METHODS: The CLEVER (intravenous ferric CarboxymaLtosE for improVement of mEtabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes patients with iRon deficiency) trial is a randomized, single-blind, proof-of-concept study with two treatment arms...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132395/impaired-mitochondrial-calcium-uptake-caused-by-tacrolimus-underlies-beta-cell-failure
#11
Angela Lombardi, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino, Gaetano Santulli
BACKGROUND: One of the most common side effects of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus (FK506) is the increased risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association have not been fully clarified. METHODS: We studied the effects of the therapeutic dose of tacrolimus on mitochondrial fitness in beta-cells. RESULTS: We demonstrate that tacrolimus impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta-cells through a previously unidentified mechanism...
November 13, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130725/-eighth-jes%C3%A3%C2%BAs-culebras-lecture-critical-care-nutrition-and-hyperglycemia-a-close-relationship
#12
Alfonso Mesejo
Critically ill patients show a metabolic response to injury that affects carbohydrate metabolism, causing hyperglycemia and an increase in glycemic variability that makes the critically ill patient susceptible to infection, resulting in morbidity and mortality increase. Also, severe hypoglycemia was detected as a consequence of intensive insulin treatment that provokes deleterious effects in their clinical evolution, so a correct monitoring of plasma glucose would contribute to reduce morbidity and mortality...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130298/role-of-micrornas-mirnas-in-pathophysiology-of-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Juhi Tiwari, Gaurav Gupta, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Rahul Sharma, Kavita Pabreja, Yogesh Matta, Neha Arora, Anurag Mishra, Rakesh Sharma, Kamal Dua
Diabetes Mellitus is becoming the critical problem among the entire world and it is difficult to understand the molecular mechanism representing the concept of diabetic pathology. Recently the knowledge of the involvement of genetics in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility has sketched a great concentration towards the transcriptional activity of ß cells within the pancreas. This disease becomes the leading cause of death so it is necessary to study the molecular pathogenesis, phenotypes, and characteristics to design the therapeutic parameters...
November 10, 2017: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129820/deactivation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-infiltrating-macrophages-by-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-surgery-mediates-improvement-of-beta-cell-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#14
Dong Wu, Zhi-Bo Yan, Yu-Gang Cheng, Ming-Wei Zhong, Shao-Zhuang Liu, Guang-Yong Zhang, San-Yuan Hu
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery could improve pancreatic beta cell function, thereby leading to the remission of the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon is yet to be revealed. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in infiltrating macrophages plays an important role in the modulation of beta cell function after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery...
November 9, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129393/disulfide-bond-mediated-cross-linking-of-corneous-beta-proteins-in-lepidosaurian-epidermis
#15
Karin B Holthaus, Lorenzo Alibardi
Corneous beta-proteins (CBPs), formerly referred to as beta-keratins, are major protein components of the epidermis in lepidosaurian reptiles and are largely responsible for their material properties. These proteins have been suggested to form filaments of 3.4nm in thickness and to interact with themselves or with other proteins, including intermediate filament (IF) keratins. Here, we performed immunocytochemical labeling of CBPs in the epidermis of different lizards and snakes and investigated by immunoblotting analysis whether the reduction of disulfide bonds or protein oxidation affects the solubility and mobility of these CBPs...
October 29, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128936/hospital-time-prior-to-death-and-pancreas-histopathology-implications-for-future-studies
#16
Irina Kusmartseva, Maria Beery, Tiffany Philips, Stephen Selman, Priyanka Jadhav, Clive Wasserfall, Axel Muller, Alberto Pugliese, Jeffrey A Longmate, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Atkinson, John S Kaddis
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes research studies routinely rely upon the use of tissue samples from human organ donors. It remains unclear whether the length of hospital stay prior to organ donation affects the presence of cells infiltrating the pancreas or the frequency of replicating beta cells. METHODS: To address this, 39 organ donors without diabetes were matched for age, sex, BMI and ethnicity in groups of three. Within each group, donors varied by length of hospital stay immediately prior to organ donation (<3 days, 3 to <6 days, or ≥6 days)...
November 11, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127288/novel-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-probes-enable-real-time-detection-of-potassium-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Helmut Bischof, Markus Rehberg, Sarah Stryeck, Katharina Artinger, Emrah Eroglu, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Benjamin Gottschalk, Rene Rost, Andras T Deak, Tobias Niedrist, Nemanja Vujic, Hanna Lindermuth, Ruth Prassl, Brigitte Pelzmann, Klaus Groschner, Dagmar Kratky, Kathrin Eller, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Tobias Madl, Nikolaus Plesnila, Wolfgang F Graier, Roland Malli
Changes in intra- and extracellular potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations control many important cellular processes and related biological functions. However, our current understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of physiological and pathological K(+) changes is severely limited by the lack of practicable detection methods. We developed K(+)-sensitive genetically encoded, Förster resonance energy transfer-(FRET) based probes, called GEPIIs, which enable quantitative real-time imaging of K(+) dynamics. GEPIIs as purified biosensors are suitable to directly and precisely quantify K(+) levels in different body fluids and cell growth media...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123178/a-nanobody-based-tracer-targeting-dpp6-for-non-invasive-imaging-of-human-pancreatic-endocrine-cells
#18
Alexander Balhuizen, Sam Massa, Iris Mathijs, Jean-Valery Turatsinze, Jens De Vos, Stéphane Demine, Catarina Xavier, Olatz Villate, Isabelle Millard, Dominique Egrise, Carmen Capito, Raphaël Scharfmann, Pieter In't Veld, Piero Marchetti, Serge Muyldermans, Serge Goldman, Tony Lahoutte, Luc Bouwens, Decio L Eizirik, Nick Devoogdt
There are presently no reliable ways to quantify endocrine cell mass (ECM) in vivo, which prevents an accurate understanding of the progressive beta cell loss in diabetes or following islet transplantation. To address this unmet need, we coupled RNA sequencing of human pancreatic islets to a systems biology approach to identify new biomarkers of the endocrine pancreas. Dipeptidyl-Peptidase 6 (DPP6) was identified as a target whose mRNA expression is at least 25-fold higher in human pancreatic islets as compared to surrounding tissues and is not changed by proinflammatory cytokines...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121068/metabolic-regulation-of-glp-1-and-pc1-3-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-line
#19
Veronica Sancho, Giuseppe Daniele, Daniela Lucchesi, Roberto Lupi, Annamaria Ciccarone, Giuseppe Penno, Cristina Bianchi, Angela Dardano, Roberto Miccoli, Stefano Del Prato
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An intra-islet incretin system has been recently suggested to operate through modulation of the expression and activity of proconvertase 1/3 and 2 (PC1/3, PC2) in pancreatic alpha-cell accounting for local release of GLP-1. Little is known, whether this alpha-cell activity can be affected by the metabolic alterations occurring in type 2 diabetes, such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia or hyperglucagonemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AlphaTC1/6 cells from a mice pancreatic cell line were incubated in the presence of two glucose (G) concentration (5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119245/development-and-characterisation-of-a-novel-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-antibody
#20
Emma K Biggs, Lihuan Liang, Jacqueline Naylor, Shimona Madalli, Rachel Collier, Matthew P Coghlan, David J Baker, David C Hornigold, Peter Ravn, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion by binding to GLP-1 receptors (GLP1Rs) on pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 mimetics are used in the clinic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but despite their therapeutic success, several clinical effects of GLP-1 remain unexplained at a mechanistic level, particularly in extrapancreatic tissues. The aim of this study was to generate and characterise a monoclonal antagonistic antibody for the GLP1R for use in vivo...
November 9, 2017: Diabetologia
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