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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390515/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-known-causes-unknown-effects
#1
REVIEW
Diego Iacono, Sharon B Shively, Brian L Edlow, Daniel P Perl
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologic diagnosis typically made in human brains with a history of repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI). It remains unknown whether CTE occurs exclusively after rTBI, or whether a single TBI (sTBI) can cause CTE. Similarly, it is unclear whether impact (eg, motor vehicle accidents) and non-impact (eg, blasts) types of energy transfer trigger divergent or common pathologies. While it is established that a history of rTBI increases the risk of multiple neurodegenerative diseases (eg, dementia, parkinsonism, and CTE), the possible pathophysiologic and molecular mechanisms underlying these risks have yet to be elucidated...
May 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347679/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-the-cellular-sequela-to-repetitive-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Alexander R Vile, Leigh Atkinson
This review aims to integrate current literature on the pathogenic mechanisms of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) to create a multifactorial understanding of the disease. CTE is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, classed as a tauopathy, although it appears the pathogenic mechanisms are more complex than this. It affects those with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. Currently, there are no treatments for CTE and the disease can only be affirmatively diagnosed in post mortem. Understanding the pathogenesis of the disease will provide an avenue to explore possible treatment and diagnostic modalities...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338593/clinical-correlates-to-assist-with-cte-diagnosis-insights-from-a-novel-rodent-repeat-concussion-model
#3
Gretchen M Thomsen, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Annie Ma, Livia Wyss, Patricia Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Pablo Avalos, Navpreet Dhillon, Noell Cho, Oksana Shelest, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to repetitive head injuries. CTE symptoms include changes in mood, behavior, cognition and motor function, however CTE is only currently diagnosed post-mortem. Using a rat model of recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI) we demonstrate rodent deficits that predict the severity of CTE-like brain pathology. METHODS: Bilateral, closed skull, mild TBI was administered once per week to 35 WT rats, 8 rats received 2 injuries ('2xTBI'), 27 rats received 5 injuries ('5xTBI') and 13 rats were sham controls...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326890/functional-and-molecular-correlates-following-single-and-repeated-rat-closed-head-concussion-indices-of-vulnerability-following-brain-injury
#4
Andrea Mountney, Angela Boutte, Casandra M Cartagena, William J Flerlage, David Johnson, Chanyang Rho, Xi-Chun M Lu, Angela M Yarnell, Sean R Marcsisin, Jason Sousa, Chau Vuong, Victor E Zottig, Lai Yee Leung, Ying Deng-Bryant, Janice Gilsdorf, Frank C Tortella, Deborah A Shear
Closed-head concussive injury is one of the most common causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Isolated concussions frequently produce acute neurological impairments; however, individuals typically recover spontaneously within a short time frame. In contrast, brain injuries resulting from multiple concussions can result in cumulative damage and elevated risk of developing chronic brain pathologies, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Increased attention has focused on identification of diagnostic markers that can prognostically serve as indices of brain health after injury, revealing the temporal profile of vulnerability to a second insult...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269777/what-is-the-relationship-of-traumatic-brain-injury-to-dementia
#5
Mario F Mendez
There is a long history linking traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the development of dementia. Despite significant reservations, such as recall bias or concluding causality for TBI, a summary of recent research points to several conclusions on the TBI-dementia relationship. 1) Increasing severity of a single moderate-to-severe TBI increases the risk of subsequent Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of dementia. 2) Repetitive, often subconcussive, mild TBIs increases the risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a degenerative neuropathology...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254594/the-current-status-of-research-on-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
Kenneth Perrine, Jacqueline Helcer, Apostolos John Tsiouris, David J Pisapia, Philip Stieg
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) evolved from the term "dementia pugilistica" describing the dementia found in many boxers to its current use in describing the dementia and depression sometimes found in athletes subjected to multiple concussions or sub-concussive blows to the head. Concurrently, the neuropathology evolved to specify a unique type of tauopathy found in perivascular spaces at the depth of sulci and other features not typically seen in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Four stages of CTE have been proposed, with four corresponding clinical syndromes of Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome...
February 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229128/repetitive-head-impact-exposure-and-later-life-plasma-total-tau-in-former-national-football-league-players
#7
Michael L Alosco, Yorghos Tripodis, Johnny Jarnagin, Christine M Baugh, Brett Martin, Christine E Chaisson, Nate Estochen, Linan Song, Robert C Cantu, Andreas Jeromin, Robert A Stern
INTRODUCTION: Blood protein analysis of total tau (t-tau) may be a practical screening biomarker for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive head impact (RHI) exposure. We examined plasma t-tau in symptomatic former National Football League (NFL) players compared with controls and the relationship between RHI exposure and later-life plasma t-tau. METHODS: Ninety-six former NFL players (age 40-69) and 25 same-age controls underwent blood draw to determine plasma t-tau levels...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214960/axonal-disruption-in-white-matter-underlying-cortical-sulcus-tau-pathology-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#8
Laurena Holleran, Joong Hee Kim, Mihika Gangolli, Thor Stein, Victor Alvarez, Ann McKee, David L Brody
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology...
March 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205009/mixed-pathologies-including-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-account-for-dementia-in-retired-association-football-soccer-players
#9
Helen Ling, Huw R Morris, James W Neal, Andrew J Lees, John Hardy, Janice L Holton, Tamas Revesz, David D R Williams
In retired professional association football (soccer) players with a past history of repetitive head impacts, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a potential neurodegenerative cause of dementia and motor impairments. From 1980 to 2010, 14 retired footballers with dementia were followed up regularly until death. Their clinical data, playing career, and concussion history were prospectively collected. Next-of-kin provided consent for six to have post-mortem brain examination. Of the 14 male participants, 13 were professional and 1 was a committed amateur...
March 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181891/-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-an-old-acquaintance-in-athletes
#10
E G B Vijverberg, A C M Pijnenburg, P Scheltens, Y A L Pijnenburg
- Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by repetitive head injuries like those seen in sports such as boxing, American football and soccer.- The clinical features of CTE are a range of cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms, and histopathology involves deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and the presence of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) with relatively little beta-amyloid.- CTE is difficult to differentiate clinically from Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and psychiatric disorders because of the major symptom overlap between these conditions...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096246/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-is-latency-in-symptom-onset-explained-by-tau-propagation
#11
Joshua Kriegel, Zachary Papadopoulos, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive mild brain trauma. CTE, previously termed "dementia pugilistica," has been identified in American football, ice hockey, baseball, rugby and soccer players, boxers, wrestlers, and military personnel exposed to blast and other traumatic brain injuries. There is often a long latency period between an individual's exposure to repetitive brain trauma and the clinical symptoms of CTE. The pathology of CTE is characterized by a progression from isolated focal perivascular hyperphosphorylated tau lesions in the cerebral cortex to a widespread tauopathy that involves diffuse cortical and medial temporal lobe regions...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067738/does-a-unique-neuropsychiatric-profile-currently-exist-for-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#12
REVIEW
Faith M Hanlon, Christopher A McGrew, Andrew R Mayer
There is evidence that repetitive mild traumatic brain injury leads to specific patterns of neuropathological findings, labeled chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, questions remain about whether these neuropathological changes produce changes in behavior, cognition, and emotional status that are associated with a unique neuropsychiatric profile that can be assessed using currently available clinical tools. Our review of the literature indicates that insufficient evidence currently exists to suggest a distinct neuropsychiatric profile for CTE...
January 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911827/tau-prions-from-alzheimer-s-disease-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-patients-propagate-in-cultured-cells
#13
Amanda L Woerman, Atsushi Aoyagi, Smita Patel, Sabeen A Kazmi, Iryna Lobach, Lea T Grinberg, Ann C McKee, William W Seeley, Steven H Olson, Stanley B Prusiner
Tau prions are thought to aggregate in the central nervous system, resulting in neurodegeneration. Among the tauopathies, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common, whereas argyrophilic grain disease (AGD), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), Pick's disease (PiD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are less prevalent. Brain extracts from deceased individuals with PiD, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by three-repeat (3R) tau prions, were used to infect HEK293T cells expressing 3R tau fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885490/localized-cortical-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-pathology-after-single-severe-axonal-injury-in-human-brain
#14
Sharon B Shively, Sarah L Edgerton, Diego Iacono, Dushyant P Purohit, Bao-Xi Qu, Vahram Haroutunian, Kenneth L Davis, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Daniel P Perl
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repetitive mild impact traumatic brain injury from contact sports. Recently, a consensus panel defined the pathognomonic lesion for CTE as accumulations of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) in neurons (neurofibrillary tangles), astrocytes and cell processes distributed around small blood vessels at sulcal depths in irregular patterns within the cortex. The pathophysiological mechanism for this lesion is unknown. Moreover, a subset of CTE cases harbors cortical β-amyloid plaques...
March 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#15
REVIEW
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834536/progression-of-tau-pathology-within-cholinergic-nucleus-basalis-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#16
Elliott J Mufson, Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Laura Mahady, Nicholas M Kanaan, Eric E Abrahamson, Milos D Ikonomovic, Fiona Crawford, Victor Alvarez, Thor Stein, Ann C McKee
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. METHOD: To characterize NFT pathology, tau-antibodies marking early, intermediate and late stages of NFT development in CBF tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) were used...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829969/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-athletes-involved-with-high-impact-sports
#17
Cyrus Safinia, Eric M Bershad, H Brent Clark, Karen SantaCruz, Naila Alakbarova, Jose I Suarez, Afshin A Divani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-impact sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive impacts in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829172/disordered-app-metabolism-and-neurovasculature-in-trauma-and-aging-combined-risks-for-chronic-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Milos D Ikonomovic, Zhiping Mi, Eric E Abrahamson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), advanced age, and cerebral vascular disease are factors conferring increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). These conditions are also related pathologically through multiple interacting mechanisms. The hallmark pathology of AD consists of pathological aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and tau proteins. These molecules are also involved in neuropathology of several other chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and are under intense investigation in the aftermath of TBI as potential contributors to the risk for developing AD and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
March 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815395/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-like-abnormalities-in-a-routine-neuropathology-service
#19
Shawna Noy, Sherry Krawitz, Marc R Del Bigio
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been described mainly in professional athletes and military personnel and is characterized by deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau at the depths of cortical sulci and around blood vessels. To assess CTE-like changes in a routine neuropathology service, we prospectively examined 111 brains (age 18-60 years). The presence of tau-immunoreactive deposits was staged using guidelines described by others and was correlated with the medical history. 72/111 cases were negative for CTE-like changes; 34/111 were CTE stage <1; 3/111 were CTE stage 1; and 2/111 were CTE stage 2...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793189/microglial-neuroinflammation-contributes-to-tau-accumulation-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#20
Jonathan D Cherry, Yorghos Tripodis, Victor E Alvarez, Bertrand Huber, Patrick T Kiernan, Daniel H Daneshvar, Jesse Mez, Philip H Montenigro, Todd M Solomon, Michael L Alosco, Robert A Stern, Ann C McKee, Thor D Stein
The chronic effects of repetitive head impacts (RHI) on the development of neuroinflammation and its relationship to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) are unknown. Here we set out to determine the relationship between RHI exposure, neuroinflammation, and the development of hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) pathology and dementia risk in CTE. We studied a cohort of 66 deceased American football athletes from the Boston University-Veteran's Affairs-Concussion Legacy Foundation Brain Bank as well as 16 non-athlete controls...
October 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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