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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911827/tau-prions-from-alzheimer-s-disease-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-patients-propagate-in-cultured-cells
#1
Amanda L Woerman, Atsushi Aoyagi, Smita Patel, Sabeen A Kazmi, Iryna Lobach, Lea T Grinberg, Ann C McKee, William W Seeley, Steven H Olson, Stanley B Prusiner
Tau prions are thought to aggregate in the central nervous system, resulting in neurodegeneration. Among the tauopathies, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common, whereas argyrophilic grain disease (AGD), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), Pick's disease (PiD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are less prevalent. Brain extracts from deceased individuals with PiD, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by three-repeat (3R) tau prions, were used to infect HEK293T cells expressing 3R tau fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885490/localized-cortical-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-pathology-after-single-severe-axonal-injury-in-human-brain
#2
Sharon B Shively, Sarah L Edgerton, Diego Iacono, Dushyant P Purohit, Bao-Xi Qu, Vahram Haroutunian, Kenneth L Davis, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Daniel P Perl
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repetitive mild impact traumatic brain injury from contact sports. Recently, a consensus panel defined the pathognomonic lesion for CTE as accumulations of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) in neurons (neurofibrillary tangles), astrocytes and cell processes distributed around small blood vessels at sulcal depths in irregular patterns within the cortex. The pathophysiological mechanism for this lesion is unknown. Moreover, a subset of CTE cases harbors cortical β-amyloid plaques...
November 24, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#3
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834536/progression-of-tau-pathology-within-cholinergic-nucleus-basalis-neurons-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-chronic-effects-of-neurotrauma-consortium-study
#4
Elliott J Mufson, Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Laura Mahady, Nicholas M Kanaan, Eric E Abrahamson, Milos D Ikonomovic, Fiona Crawford, Victor Alvarez, Thor Stein, Ann C McKee
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), a cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) cortical projection system, develops neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) during the progressive pathological stages of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of athletes. METHOD: To characterize NFT pathology, tau-antibodies marking early, intermediate and late stages of NFT development in CBF tissue obtained at autopsy from eighteen former athletes and veterans with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) were used...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829969/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-athletes-involved-with-high-impact-sports
#5
Cyrus Safinia, Eric M Bershad, H Brent Clark, Karen SantaCruz, Naila Alakbarova, Jose I Suarez, Afshin A Divani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-impact sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive impacts in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829172/disordered-app-metabolism-and-neurovasculature-in-trauma-and-aging-combined-risks-for-chronic-neurodegenerative-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Milos D Ikonomovic, Zhiping Mi, Eric E Abrahamson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), advanced age, and cerebral vascular disease are factors conferring increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). These conditions are also related pathologically through multiple interacting mechanisms. The hallmark pathology of AD consists of pathological aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and tau proteins. These molecules are also involved in neuropathology of several other chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and are under intense investigation in the aftermath of TBI as potential contributors to the risk for developing AD and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)...
November 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815395/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-like-abnormalities-in-a-routine-neuropathology-service
#7
Shawna Noy, Sherry Krawitz, Marc R Del Bigio
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been described mainly in professional athletes and military personnel and is characterized by deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau at the depths of cortical sulci and around blood vessels. To assess CTE-like changes in a routine neuropathology service, we prospectively examined 111 brains (age 18-60 years). The presence of tau-immunoreactive deposits was staged using guidelines described by others and was correlated with the medical history. 72/111 cases were negative for CTE-like changes; 34/111 were CTE stage <1; 3/111 were CTE stage 1; and 2/111 were CTE stage 2...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793189/microglial-neuroinflammation-contributes-to-tau-accumulation-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#8
Jonathan D Cherry, Yorghos Tripodis, Victor E Alvarez, Bertrand Huber, Patrick T Kiernan, Daniel H Daneshvar, Jesse Mez, Philip H Montenigro, Todd M Solomon, Michael L Alosco, Robert A Stern, Ann C McKee, Thor D Stein
The chronic effects of repetitive head impacts (RHI) on the development of neuroinflammation and its relationship to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) are unknown. Here we set out to determine the relationship between RHI exposure, neuroinflammation, and the development of hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) pathology and dementia risk in CTE. We studied a cohort of 66 deceased American football athletes from the Boston University-Veteran's Affairs-Concussion Legacy Foundation Brain Bank as well as 16 non-athlete controls...
October 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770214/clustering-of-tau-immunoreactive-pathology-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#9
Richard A Armstrong, Ann C McKee, Victor E Alvarez, Nigel J Cairns
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder which may result from repetitive brain injury. A variety of tau-immunoreactive pathologies are present, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), neuropil threads (NT), dot-like grains (DLG), astrocytic tangles (AT), and occasional neuritic plaques (NP). In tauopathies, cellular inclusions in the cortex are clustered within specific laminae, the clusters being regularly distributed parallel to the pia mater. To determine whether a similar spatial pattern is present in CTE, clustering of the tau-immunoreactive pathology was studied in the cortex, hippocampus, and dentate gyrus in 11 cases of CTE and 7 cases of Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) without CTE...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765734/current-public-knowledge-pertaining-to-traumatic-brain-injury-influence-of-demographic-factors-social-trends-and-sport-concussion-experience-on-the-understanding-of-traumatic-brain-injury-sequelae
#10
Zachary C Merz, Ryan Van Patten, John Lace
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to assess current broad traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related knowledge in the general public, as well as understanding regarding specific TBI-related conditions including post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). METHODS: Data were collected from 307 domestic and 73 international individuals via online researcher-developed survey instrumentation utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk marketplace, a recently developed website that allows for a streamlined process of survey-based participant recruitment and data collection...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763536/fluid-biomarkers-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-intended-context-of-use
#11
Tanya Bogoslovsky, Jessica Gill, Andreas Jeromin, Cora Davis, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in this area. In this review, we focus on different settings of TBI management where blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers could be utilized for predicting clinically-relevant consequences and guiding management decisions. Requirements that the biomarker must fulfill differ based on the intended context of use (CoU)...
October 18, 2016: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735996/defective-synthesis-and-release-of-astrocytic-thrombospondin-1-mediates-the-neuronal-tdp-43-proteinopathy-resulting-in-defects-in-neuronal-integrity-associated-with-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-vitro-studies
#12
A R Jayakumar, X Y Tong, N Shamaladevi, S Barcelona, G Gaidosh, A Agarwal, M D Norenberg
Transactivating DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) inclusions and the accumulation of phosphorylated and ubiquitinated tau proteins (p-tau) have been identified in postmortem brain specimens from patients with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To examine whether these proteins contribute to the development of CTE, we utilized an in vitro trauma system known to reproduce many of the findings observed in humans and experimental animals with traumatic brain injury. Accordingly, we examined the role of TDP-43 and Tau in an in vitro model of trauma, and determined whether these proteins contribute to the defective neuronal integrity associated with CNS trauma...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715315/alzheimer-s-disease-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-distinct-but-possibly-overlapping-disease-entities
#13
Ryan C Turner, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Matthew J Robson, John M Lee, Julian E Bailes
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have long been recognized as sharing some similar neuropathological features, mainly the presence of neurofibrilary tangles and hyperphosphorylated tau, but have generally been described as distinct entities. Evidence indicates that neurotrauma increases the risk of developing dementia and accelerates the progression of disease. Findings are emerging that CTE and AD may be present in the same patients. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This study presents a series of previously unpublished cases, with one case demonstrating possible neurotrauma-related AD, one pure CTE, and an example of a case exhibiting features of both AD and CTE...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688951/significance-of-concussions-in-hawai-i-from-land-to-sea
#14
David X Cifu, Olivia K Uchima, Alaina S Davis, Amy E Lower, Jingyu L Jin, Henry L Lew
Head injuries are a particular concern in Hawai'i given the large military population, the presence of many land and water sports such as football and surfing, and the lenient helmet laws for motorcycle and bicycle riders. Physical, psychological, and cognitive symptoms from single or repeated concussions can affect an individual's reentry to society and activity. Current literature indicates that repeated head injuries are associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) which is thought to lead to dementia...
September 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686843/does-neuroinflammation-drive-the-relationship-between-tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-dementia-development-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Lyndsey E Collins-Praino, Frances Corrigan
A history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is linked to an increased risk for the later development of dementia. This encompasses a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), with AD linked to history of moderate-severe TBI and CTE to a history of repeated concussion. Of note, both AD and CTE are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, which are thought to play an important role in the development of neurodegeneration...
September 28, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676441/cerebral-18-%C3%A2-f-t807-av1451-retention-pattern-in-clinically-probable-cte-resembles-pathognomonic-distribution-of-cte-tauopathy
#16
D L Dickstein, M Y Pullman, C Fernandez, J A Short, L Kostakoglu, K Knesaurek, L Soleimani, B D Jordan, W A Gordon, K Dams-O'Connor, B N Delman, E Wong, C Y Tang, S T DeKosky, J R Stone, R C Cantu, M Sano, P R Hof, S Gandy
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder most commonly associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein, known as a tauopathy. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE can only be definitively established postmortem. However, a new positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, [(18)F]T807/AV1451, may provide the antemortem detection of tau aggregates, and thus various tauopathies, including CTE. Our goal was to examine [(18)F]T807/AV1451 retention in athletes with neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with a history of multiple concussions...
September 27, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637402/repetitive-head-impacts-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#17
REVIEW
Ann C McKee, Michael L Alosco, Bertrand R Huber
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a distinctive neurodegenerative disease that occurs as a result of repetitive head impacts. CTE can only be diagnosed by postmortem neuropathologic examination of brain tissue. CTE is a unique disorder with a pathognomonic lesion that can be reliably distinguished from other neurodegenerative diseases. CTE is associated with violent behaviors, explosivity, loss of control, depression, suicide, memory loss and cognitive changes. There is increasing evidence that CTE affects amateur athletes as well as professional athletes and military veterans...
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632903/fluid-biomarkers-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-related-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow
Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as concussion, remain a major unmet clinical need. Moderate to severe TBI can be diagnosed definitively by clinical assessment and standard neuroimaging techniques that detect the gross damage to the brain parenchyma. Diagnostic tools for mild TBI are lacking and, currently, the diagnosis has to be made on clinical grounds alone, because most patients show no gross pathological changes on CT. Most patients with mild TBI recover quickly, but about 15% develop an ill-defined condition called postconcussive syndrome (PCS)...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567184/progressive-focal-gray-matter-volume-loss-in-a-former-high-school-football-player-a-possible-magnetic-resonance-imaging-volumetric-signature-for-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#19
Cyrus A Raji, David A Merrill, Jorge R Barrio, Bennet Omalu, Gary W Small
Here a case is presented of a 51-year-old former high school football player with multiple concussions, including one episode with loss of consciousness. The patient experienced 6 years of cognitive and mood decline, and his wife corroborated increasing memory loss, attentional difficulties, and depressed mood without suicidal ideation. He had been unable to maintain full-time employment because of progressive decline. Based on his presentation, he had been previously diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder, type II...
October 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561662/factors-influencing-clinical-correlates-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Breton M Asken, Molly J Sullan, Aliyah R Snyder, Zachary M Houck, Vaughn E Bryant, Loren P Hizel, Molly E McLaren, Duane E Dede, Michael S Jaffee, Steven T DeKosky, Russell M Bauer
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologically defined disease reportedly linked to a history of repetitive brain trauma. As such, retired collision sport athletes are likely at heightened risk for developing CTE. Researchers have described distinct pathological features of CTE as well a wide range of clinical symptom presentations, recently termed traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES). These clinical symptoms are highly variable, non-specific to individuals described as having CTE pathology in case reports, and are often associated with many other factors...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
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