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Resilience Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345593/microstructural-tissue-engineering-in-the-rachis-and-barbs-of-bird-feathers
#1
Theagarten Lingham-Soliar
Feathers do not have to be especially strong but they do need to be stiff and at the same time resilient and to have a high work of fracture. Syncitial barbule fibres are the highest size-class of continuous filaments in the cortex of the rachis of the feather. However, the rachis can be treated as a generalized cone of rapidly diminishing volume. This means that hundreds of syncitial barbule fibres of the rachis may have to be terminated before reaching the tip - creating potentially thousands of inherently fatal crack-like defects...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270255/a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-spontaneous-volunteer-response-to-the-2013-sudan-floods-changing-the-paradigm
#2
Amin Albahari, Carl H Schultz
Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster? METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive case study involved: (1) interviews with Nafeer members that participated in the disaster response to the Khartoum floods; (2) examination of documents generated during the event; and (3) subsequent benchmarking of their efforts with the Sphere Handbook...
March 8, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269808/development-of-a-framework-for-resilience-measurement-suggestion-of-fuzzy-resilience-grade-rg-and-fuzzy-resilience-early-warning-grade-rewg
#3
Mohsen Omidvar, Adel Mazlomi, Fam Iraj Mohammad, Fereshteh Nirumand
BACKGROUND: Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes...
February 28, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265251/looking-through-the-glass-ceiling-a-qualitative-study-of-stem-women-s-career-narratives
#4
Mary J Amon
Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women's perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women's experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261251/transcript-profiling-reveals-the-presence-of-abiotic-stress-and-developmental-stage-specific-ascorbate-oxidase-genes-in-plants
#5
Rituraj Batth, Kapil Singh, Sumita Kumari, Ananda Mustafiz
Abiotic stress and climate change is the major concern for plant growth and crop yield. Abiotic stresses lead to enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) consequently resulting in cellular damage and major losses in crop yield. One of the major scavengers of ROS is ascorbate (AA) which acts as first line of defense against external oxidants. An enzyme named ascorbate oxidase (AAO) is known to oxidize AA and deleteriously affect the plant system in response to stress. Genome-wide analysis of AAO gene family has led to the identification of five, three, seven, four, and six AAO genes in Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis, Glycine max, Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor genomes, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230977/extracellular-self-assembly-of-functional-and-tunable-protein-conjugates-from-bacillus-subtilis
#6
Charlie Gilbert, Mark Howarth, Colin R Harwood, Tom Ellis
The ability to stably and specifically conjugate recombinant proteins to one another is a powerful approach for engineering multifunctional enzymes, protein therapeutics, and novel biological materials. While many of these applications have been illustrated through in vitro and in vivo intracellular protein conjugation methods, extracellular self-assembly of protein conjugates offers unique advantages: simplifying purification, reducing toxicity and burden, and enabling tunability. Exploiting the recently described SpyTag-SpyCatcher system, we describe here how enzymes and structural proteins can be genetically encoded to covalently conjugate in culture media following programmable secretion from Bacillus subtilis...
March 7, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208508/correlation-powered-information-engines-and-the-thermodynamics-of-self-correction
#7
Alexander B Boyd, Dibyendu Mandal, James P Crutchfield
Information engines can use structured environments as a resource to generate work by randomizing ordered inputs and leveraging the increased Shannon entropy to transfer energy from a thermal reservoir to a work reservoir. We give a broadly applicable expression for the work production of an information engine, generally modeled as a memoryful channel that communicates inputs to outputs as it interacts with an evolving environment. The expression establishes that an information engine must have more than one memory state in order to leverage input environment correlations...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195836/understanding-nurses-strategies-to-handle-un-wanted-nurse-calls-a-resilience-perspective
#8
Joakim Klemets, Tor Erik Evjemo
Nurse calls in a hospital can constitute either positive or negative (wanted or unwanted) interruptions depending on various factors. This study aims to understand nurses' strategies in facilitating the reception of wanted nurse calls and the restriction of unwanted nurse calls. Applying a resilience engineering perspective, nurses' performance variability is investigated as a basis to design appropriate computer support to enhance efficiency and patient safety. A qualitative case study was conducted for a period of 4 years with focus on nurses' use of a wireless nurse call system at a Norwegian university hospital...
February 13, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182724/engineering-characterisation-of-epoxidized-natural-rubber-modified-hot-mix-asphalt
#9
Ramez A Al-Mansob, Amiruddin Ismail, Nur Izzi Md Yusoff, Riza Atiq O K Rahmat, Muhamad Nazri Borhan, Shaban Ismael Albrka, Che Husna Azhari, Mohamed Rehan Karim
Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165584/triblock-copolymers-based-on-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-and-trimethylene-carbonate-for-the-3d-printing-of-tissue-engineering-scaffolds
#10
Aysun Güney, Jos Malda, Wouter J A Dhert, Dirk W Grijpma
BACKGROUND: Biodegradable PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) were prepared and used in the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Triblock copolymers of various molecular weights containing equal amounts of TMC and CL were prepared. These block copolymers combine the low glass transition temperature of amorphous PTMC (approximately -20°C) and the semi-crystallinity of PCL (glass transition approximately -60°C and melting temperature approximately 60°C)...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152103/decentralized-control-scheme-for-myriapod-robot-inspired-by-adaptive-and-resilient-centipede-locomotion
#11
Kotaro Yasui, Kazuhiko Sakai, Takeshi Kano, Dai Owaki, Akio Ishiguro
Recently, myriapods have attracted the attention of engineers because mobile robots that mimic them potentially have the capability of producing highly stable, adaptive, and resilient behaviors. The major challenge here is to develop a control scheme that can coordinate their numerous legs in real time, and an autonomous decentralized control could be the key to solve this problem. Therefore, we focus on real centipedes and aim to design a decentralized control scheme for myriapod robots by drawing inspiration from behavioral experiments on centipede locomotion under unusual conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134573/measuring-resilience
#12
Robert R Hoffman, P A Hancock
OBJECTIVE: As human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) moves to embrace a greater systems perspective concerning human-machine technologies, new and emergent properties, such as resilience, have arisen. Our objective here is to promote discussion as to how to measure this latter, complex phenomenon. BACKGROUND: Resilience is now a much-referenced goal for technology and work system design. It subsumes the new movement of resilience engineering. As part of a broader systems approach to HF/E, this concept requires both a definitive specification and an associated measurement methodology...
January 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108235/the-use-of-bacteriophages-to-biocontrol-oral-biofilms
#13
Szymon P Szafrański, Andreas Winkel, Meike Stiesch
Infections induced by oral biofilms include caries, as well as periodontal, and peri-implant disease, and may influence quality of life, systemic health, and expenditure. As bacterial biofilms are highly resistant and resilient to conventional antibacterial therapy, it has been difficult to combat these infections. An innovative alternative to the biocontrol of oral biofilms could be to use bacteriophages or phages, the viruses of bacteria, which are specific, non-toxic, self-proliferating, and can penetrate into biofilms...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101863/lessons-from-animal-models-of-cytoplasmic-intermediate-filament-proteins
#14
Jamal-Eddine Bouameur, Thomas M Magin
Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a major cytoskeletal network contributing to cell shape, adhesion and migration as well as to tissue resilience and renewal in numerous bilaterians, including mammals. The observation that IFs are dispensable in cultured mammalian cells, but cause tissue-specific, life-threatening disorders, has pushed the need to investigate their function in vivo. In keeping with human disease, the deletion or mutation of murine IF genes resulted in highly specific pathologies...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074876/scale-up-of-nature-s-tissue-weaving-algorithms-to-engineer-advanced-functional-materials
#15
Joanna L Ng, Lillian E Knothe, Renee M Whan, Ulf Knothe, Melissa L Knothe Tate
We are literally the stuff from which our tissue fabrics and their fibers are woven and spun. The arrangement of collagen, elastin and other structural proteins in space and time embodies our tissues and organs with amazing resilience and multifunctional smart properties. For example, the periosteum, a soft tissue sleeve that envelops all nonarticular bony surfaces of the body, comprises an inherently "smart" material that gives hard bones added strength under high impact loads. Yet a paucity of scalable bottom-up approaches stymies the harnessing of smart tissues' biological, mechanical and organizational detail to create advanced functional materials...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040683/engineering-technology-resilience-through-informatics-safety-science
#16
EDITORIAL
Enrico Coiera, Farah Magrabi, Jan Talmon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024197/building-blue-an-eco-engineering-framework-for-foreshore-developments
#17
M Mayer-Pinto, E L Johnston, A B Bugnot, T M Glasby, L Airoldi, A Mitchell, K A Dafforn
Urbanisation in terrestrial systems has driven architects, planners, ecologists and engineers to collaborate on the design and creation of more sustainable structures. Examples include the development of 'green infrastructure' and the introduction of wildlife corridors that mitigate urban stressors and provide positive ecological outcomes. In contrast, efforts to minimise the impacts of urban developments in marine environments have been far more restricted in their extent and scope, and have often overlooked the ecological role of the built environment as potential habitat...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987318/adaptation-in-families-of-children-with-down-syndrome-in-east-asian-countries-an-integrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Hyunkyung Choi, Marcia Van Riper
AIM: The purpose of this integrative literature review was to understand the experiences of East Asian families of children with Down syndrome and identify factors affecting their adaptation in the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation. BACKGROUND: Socio-cultural factors influence how well families adapt following the birth of a child with Down syndrome. Existing literature in this area has focused primarily on families from Western cultures...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965876/implementing-resilience-engineering-for-healthcare-quality-improvement-using-the-care-model-a-feasibility-study-protocol
#19
J E Anderson, A J Ross, J Back, M Duncan, P Snell, K Walsh, P Jaye
BACKGROUND: Resilience engineering (RE) is an emerging perspective on safety in complex adaptive systems that emphasises how outcomes emerge from the complexity of the clinical environment. Complexity creates the need for flexible adaptation to achieve outcomes. RE focuses on understanding the nature of adaptations, learning from success and increasing adaptive capacity. Although the philosophy is clear, progress in applying the ideas to quality improvement has been slow. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of translating RE concepts into practical methods to improve quality by designing, implementing and evaluating interventions based on RE theory...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924233/the-impact-of-redundancy-and-teamwork-on-resilience-engineering-factors-by-fuzzy-mathematical-programming-and-analysis-of-variance-in-a-large-petrochemical-plant
#20
Ali Azadeh, Vahid Salehi, Mahsa Mirzayi
BACKGROUND: Resilience engineering (RE) is a new paradigm that can control incidents and reduce their consequences. Integrated RE includes four new factors-self-organization, teamwork, redundancy, and fault-tolerance-in addition to conventional RE factors. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of these four factors on RE and determine the most efficient factor in an uncertain environment. METHODS: The required data were collected through a questionnaire in a petrochemical plant in June 2013...
December 2016: Safety and Health At Work
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