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Resilience Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223730/characterization-of-a-new-decellularized-bovine-pericardial-biological-mesh-structural-and-mechanical-properties
#1
Alessandra Bielli, Roberta Bernardini, Dimitrios Varvaras, Piero Rossi, Giancarlo Di Blasi, Giuseppe Petrella, Oreste Claudio Buonomo, Maurizio Mattei, Augusto Orlandi
Implants made from naturally-derived biomaterials, also called biological meshes or biomeshes, typically derive from decellularized extracellular matrix of either animal or human tissue. Biomeshes have many biomedical applications such as ligament repair, bone and cartilage regeneration and soft tissue replacement. Bovine collagen is one of the most widely used and abundantly available xenogenic materials. In particular, bovine pericardium is widely used as extracellular matrix bioprosthetic tissue. The efficiency of a pericardial mesh to function as scaffold depends on the quality of the decellularization protocol used...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220765/transient-disturbance-of-engineered-zno-nanoparticles-enhances-the-resistance-and-resilience-of-anammox-process-in-wastewater-treatment
#2
Zheng-Zhe Zhang, Ya-Fei Cheng, Lian-Zeng-Ji Xu, Yu-Hui Bai, Jia-Jia Xu, Zhi-Jian Shi, Qian-Qian Zhang, Ren-Cun Jin
The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products raises concerns about their environmental impacts, but their potential influence on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in wastewater treatment remains unknown. In this study, the response of granule-based anammox reactor to different loads of ZnONPs was investigated. The introduction of 1-5mgL-1 ZnONPs did not affect reactor performance, but 90% of the nitrogen removal capacity was deprived by a shock of 10mgL-1 ZnONPs within 3days...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216200/development-and-application-of-coupled-system-dynamics-and-game-theory-a-dynamic-water-conflict-resolution-method
#3
Mehdi Zomorodian, Sai Hin Lai, Mehran Homayounfar, Shaliza Ibrahim, Gareth Pender
Conflicts over water resources can be highly dynamic and complex due to the various factors which can affect such systems, including economic, engineering, social, hydrologic, environmental and even political, as well as the inherent uncertainty involved in many of these factors. Furthermore, the conflicting behavior, preferences and goals of stakeholders can often make such conflicts even more challenging. While many game models, both cooperative and non-cooperative, have been suggested to deal with problems over utilizing and sharing water resources, most of these are based on a static viewpoint of demand points during optimization procedures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194338/nurses-use-of-positive-deviance-when-encountering-electronic-health-records-related-unintended-consequences
#4
Alycia A Bristol, Christine W Nibbelink, Sheila M Gephart, Jane M Carrington
As organizations adopt electronic health records (EHRs), nurses frequently encounter system barriers and difficulty performing role expectations. This article describes nurses' experiences with unintended consequences emerging from the use of an EHR. In some situations, nurses were positively deviant when encountering unintended consequences relating to EHRs to accomplish patient care or protect patient safety. Nurses engaged in work-arounds to provide patient care when the EHR did not meet their needs, sometimes in positively deviant ways...
January 2018: Nursing Administration Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191362/current-conditions-and-colonization-history-asymmetrically-shape-the-organization-of-shallow-sessile-communities-after-simulated-state-shifts
#5
Edson A Vieira, Augusto A V Flores, Gustavo M Dias
Historical processes affecting biological organization are rarely considered when predicting the effects of disturbance on community structure. In order to assess the relative importance of historical and post-disturbance conditions as determinants of community structure, we undertook reciprocal transplants, at different successional stages, of sessile communities developing at recreational piers that were previously observed to show contrasting fish predation pressure and settlement rate in the São Sebastião Channel, Brazil...
November 22, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170715/biocompatible-degradable-thermoplastic-polyurethane-based-on-polycaprolactone-block-polytetrahydrofuran-block-polycaprolactone-copolymers-for-soft-tissue-engineering
#6
Hao-Yang Mi, Xin Jing, Brett N Napiwocki, Breanna S Hagerty, Guojun Chen, Lih-Sheng Turng
Biodegradable synthetic polymers have been widely used as tissue engineering scaffold materials. Even though they have shown excellent biocompatibility, they have failed to resemble the low stiffness and high elasticity of soft tissues because of the presence of massive rigid ester bonds. Herein, we synthesized a new thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (CTC-PU(BET)) using poly ester ether triblock copolymer (polycaprolactone-block-polytetrahydrofuran-block-polycaprolactone triblock copolymer, PCTC) as the soft segment, aliphatic diisocyanate (hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI) as the hard segment, and degradable diol (bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, BET) as the chain extender...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132571/the-human-factor-optimizing-trauma-team-performance-in-dynamic-clinical-environments
#7
REVIEW
Christopher Hicks, Andrew Petrosoniak
Resilience is built, not born, and there is no single strategy that reliably manufactures resilient performance in all circumstances. Optimizing team performance in dynamic environments involves the complex interplay of strategies that target individual preparation, team interaction, environmental optimization, and systems-level resilience engineering. To accomplish this, health care can draw influence from human factors research to inform tangible, practical, and measurable improvements in performance and outcomes, modified to suit local and domain-specific needs...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116271/stereolithographic-hydrogel-printing-of-3d-culture-chips-with-biofunctionalized-complex-3d-perfusion-networks
#8
Rujing Zhang, Niels B Larsen
Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models capturing both the structural and dynamic complexity of the in vivo situation are in great demand as an alternative to animal models. Despite tremendous progress in engineering complex tissue/organ models in the past decade, approaches that support the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically stable hydrogel constructs as self-contained chips, where confined culture volumes are traversed and surrounded by perfusable vascular-like networks...
November 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083233/the-measurement-and-role-of-ecological-resilience-systems-theory-across-domain-specific-outcomes-the-domain-specific-resilient-systems-scales
#9
John Maltby, Liz Day, Sophie S Hall, Sally Chivers
Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education...
October 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048904/ultra-high-elastic-strain-energy-storage-in-metal-oxide-infiltrated-patterned-hybrid-polymer-nanocomposites
#10
Keith Dusoe, Xinyi Ye, Kim Kisslinger, Aaron Stein, Seok-Woo Lee, Chang-Yong Nam
Modulus of resilience, the measure of a material's ability to store and release elastic strain energy, is critical for realizing advanced mechanical actuation technologies in micro/nanoelectromechanical systems. In general, engineering the modulus of resilience is difficult because it requires asymmetrically increasing yield strength and Young's modulus against their mutual scaling behavior. This task becomes further challenging if it needs to be carried out at the nanometer scale. Here, we demonstrate organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanopillars with one of the highest modulus of resilience per density, by utilizing vapor-phase aluminum oxide infiltration in lithographically patterned negative photoresist SU-8...
October 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048447/strategies-for-disease-prevention-and-health-promotion-in-urban-areas-the-erice-50-charter
#11
D D'Alessandro, S Arletti, A Azara, M Buffoli, L Capasso, A Cappuccitti, A Casuccio, A Cecchini, G Costa, A M De Martino, M Dettori, E Di Rosa, G M Fara, M Ferrante, G Giammanco, A Lauria, G Melis, U Moscato, I Oberti, C Patrizio, M G Petronio, A Rebecchi, V Romano Spica, G Settimo, C Signorelli, S Capolongo
The Erice 50 Charter titled "Strategies for Diseases Prevention and Health Promotion in Urban Areas" was unanimously approved at the conclusion of the 50th Residential Course "Urban Health. Instruments for promoting health and for assessing hygienic and sanitary conditions in urban areas", held from 29th March to 2nd April 2017 in Erice, at the "Ettore Majorana" Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture and promoted by the International School of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine "G. D'Alessandro" and the Study Group "Building Hygiene" of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health (SItI)...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984728/incidence-of-wrong-site-surgery-list-errors-for-a-2-year-period-in-a-single-national-health-service-board
#12
Alistair Geraghty, Lorna Ferguson, Craig McIlhenny, Paul Bowie
INTRODUCTION: Wrong-site/side surgical "never events" continue to cause considerable harm to patients, healthcare professionals, and organizations within the United Kingdom. Incidence has remained static despite the mandatory introduction of surgical checklists. Operating theater list errors have been identified as a regular contributor to these never events. The aims of the study were to identify and to learn from the incidence of wrong-site/side list errors in a single National Health Service board...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953051/intervening-in-interruptions-what-exactly-is-the-risk-we-are-trying-to-manage
#13
Jonathan Gao, Andrew John Rae, Sidney W A Dekker
Interruptions are thought to be significantly associated with medication administration errors. Researchers have tried to reduce medication errors by decreasing or eliminating interruptions. In this article, we argue that interventions are often (perhaps unreflectively) based on one particular model of risk reduction-that of barriers placed between the source of risk and the object-to-be-protected. Well-intentioned interventions can lead to unanticipated effects because the assumptions created by the risk model are not critically examined...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940819/vacancy-driven-gelation-using-defect-rich-nanoassemblies-of-2d-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-and-polymeric-binder-for-biomedical-applications
#14
Manish K Jaiswal, James K Carrow, James L Gentry, Jagriti Gupta, Nara Altangerel, Marlan Scully, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
A new approach of vacancy-driven gelation to obtain chemically crosslinked hydrogels from defect-rich 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) nanoassemblies and polymeric binder is reported. This approach utilizes the planar and edge atomic defects available on the surface of the 2D MoS2 nanoassemblies to form mechanically resilient and elastomeric nanocomposite hydrogels. The atomic defects present on the lattice plane of 2D MoS2 nanoassemblies are due to atomic vacancies and can act as an active center for vacancy-driven gelation with a thiol-activated terminal such as four-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-thiol (PEG-SH) via chemisorption...
September 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840959/tiny-microbes-big-yields-enhancing-food-crop-production-with-biological-solutions
#15
Pankaj Trivedi, Peer M Schenk, Matthew D Wallenstein, Brajesh K Singh
Plant-associated microbiomes have tremendous potential to improve plant resilience and yields in farming systems. There is increasing evidence that biological technologies that use microbes or their metabolites can enhance nutrient uptake and yield, control pests and mitigate plant stress responses. However, to fully realize the potential of microbial technology, their efficacy and consistency under the broad range of real-world conditions need to be improved. While the optimization of microbial biofertilizers and biopesticides is advancing rapidly to enable use in various soils, crop varieties and environments, crop breeding programmes have yet to incorporate the selection of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to breed 'microbe-optimized plants'...
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836981/safe-medication-management-in-specialized-home-healthcare-an-observational-study
#16
Marléne Lindblad, Maria Flink, Mirjam Ekstedt
BACKGROUND: Medication management is a complex, error-prone process. The aim of this study was to explore what constitutes the complexity of the medication management process (MMP) in specialized home healthcare and how healthcare professionals handle this complexity. The study is theoretically based in resilience engineering. METHOD: Data were collected during the MMP at three specialized home healthcare units in Sweden using two strategies: observation of workplaces and shadowing RNs in everyday work, including interviews...
August 24, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827802/spatial-dynamics-of-synthetic-microbial-mutualists-and-their-parasites
#17
Daniel R Amor, Raúl Montañez, Salva Duran-Nebreda, Ricard Solé
A major force contributing to the emergence of novelty in nature is the presence of cooperative interactions, where two or more components of a system act in synergy, sometimes leading to higher-order, emergent phenomena. Within molecular evolution, the so called hypercycle defines the simplest model of an autocatalytic cycle, providing major theoretical insights on the evolution of cooperation in the early biosphere. These closed cooperative loops have also inspired our understanding of how catalytic loops appear in ecological systems...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827660/a-primer-on-selecting-grain-boundary-sets-for-comparison-of-interfacial-fracture-properties-in-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#18
Rémi Dingreville, Doruk Aksoy, Douglas E Spearot
All grain boundaries are not equal in their predisposition for fracture due to the complex coupling between lattice geometry, interfacial structure, and mechanical properties. The ability to understand these relationships is crucial to engineer materials resilient to grain boundary fracture. Here, a methodology is presented to isolate the role of grain boundary structure on interfacial fracture properties, such as the tensile strength and work of separation, using atomistic simulations. Instead of constructing sets of grain boundary models within the misorientation/structure space by simply varying the misorientation angle around a fixed misorientation axis, the proposed method creates sets of grain boundary models by means of isocurves associated with important fracture-related properties of the adjoining lattices...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774178/quantized-transport-strain-induced-perfectly-conducting-modes-and-valley-filtering-on-shape-optimized-graphene-corbino-devices
#19
Gareth W Jones, Dario Andres Bahamon, Antonio H Castro Neto, Vitor M Pereira
The extreme mechanical resilience of graphene and the peculiar coupling it hosts between lattice and electronic degrees of freedom have spawned a strong impetus toward strain-engineered graphene where, on the one hand, strain augments the richness of its phenomenology and makes possible new concepts for electronic devices, and on the other hand, new and extreme physics might take place. Here, we demonstrate that the shape of substrates supporting graphene sheets can be optimized for approachable experiments where strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields (PMF) can be tailored by pressure for directionally selective electronic transmission and pinching-off of current flow down to the quantum channel limit...
September 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746890/aged-engineered-nanoparticles-effect-on-sludge-anaerobic-digestion-performance-and-associated-microbial-communities
#20
Samuel Eduok, Robert Ferguson, Bruce Jefferson, Raffaella Villa, Frédéric Coulon
To investigate the potential effect of aged engineered nanoparticles (a-ENPs) on sludge digestion performance, 150L pilot anaerobic digesters (AD) were fed with a blend of primary and waste activated sludge spiked either with a mixture of silver oxide, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide or a mixture of their equivalent bulk metal salts to achieve a target concentration of 250, 2000, and 2800mgkg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were 1.2 times higher in the spiked digesters and significantly different (p=0...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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