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Resilience Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643560/design-quality-in-the-context-of-healthcare-environments-a-scoping-review
#1
Anna Anåker, Ann Heylighen, Susanna Nordin, Marie Elf
OBJECTIVE: We explored the concept of design quality in relation to healthcare environments. In addition, we present a taxonomy that illustrates the wide range of terms used in connection with design quality in healthcare. BACKGROUND: High-quality physical environments can promote health and well-being. Developments in healthcare technology and methodology put high demands on the design quality of care environments, coupled with increasing expectations and demands from patients and staff that care environments be person centered, welcoming, and accessible while also supporting privacy and security...
July 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636365/sustainable-elastomers-from-renewable-biomass
#2
Zhongkai Wang, Liang Yuan, Chuanbing Tang
Sustainable elastomers have undergone explosive growth in recent years, partly due to the resurgence of biobased materials prepared from renewable natural resources. However, mounting challenges still prevail: How can the chemical compositions and macromolecular architectures of sustainable polymers be controlled and broadened? How can their processability and recyclability be enabled? How can they compete with petroleum-based counterparts in both cost and performance? Molecular-biomass-derived polymers, such as polymyrcene, polymenthide, and poly(ε-decalactone), have been employed for constructing thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs)...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636356/biomimetic-architectured-graphene-aerogel-with-exceptional-strength-and-resilience
#3
Miao Yang, Nifang Zhao, Ying Cui, Weiwei Gao, Qian Zhao, Chao Gao, Hao Bai, Tao Xie
Materials combining lightweight, robust mechanical performances, and multifunctionality are highly desirable for engineering applications. Graphene aerogels have emerged as attractive candidates. Despite recent progresses, the bottleneck remains how to simultaneously achieve both strength and resilience. While multiscale architecture designs may offer a possible route, the difficulty lies in the lack of design guidelines and how to experimentally achieve the necessary structure control over multiple length scales...
June 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627778/engineering-cho-cells-with-an-oncogenic-kit-improves-cells-growth-resilience-to-stress-and-productivity
#4
Mohamed Mahameed, Boaz Tirosh
An optimized biomanufacturing process in mammalian cells is contingent on the ability of the producing cells to reach high viable cell densities. In addition, at the peak of growth, cells need to continue producing the biological entity at a consistent quality. Thus, engineering cells with robust growth performance and resilience to variable stress conditions is highly desirable. The tyrosine kinase receptor, KIT, plays a key role in cell differentiation and the survival of several immune cell types. Its oncogenic mutant, D816V, endows cells with high proliferation capacity and resistance to kinase inhibitors...
June 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621834/from-intricate-to-integrated-biofabrication-of-articulating-joints
#5
Wilhelmina Margaretha Groen, Paweena Diloksumpan, Paul René van Weeren, Riccardo Levato, Jos Malda
Articulating joints owe their function to the specialized architecture and the complex interplay between multiple tissues including cartilage, bone and synovium. Especially the cartilage component has limited self-healing capacity and damage often leads to the onset of osteoarthritis, eventually resulting in failure of the joint as an organ. Although in its infancy, biofabrication has emerged as a promising technology to reproduce the intricate organization of the joint, thus enabling the introduction of novel surgical treatments, regenerative therapies, and new sets of tools to enhance our understanding of joint physiology and pathology...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582616/molecular-engineering-of-robustness-and-resilience-in-enzymatic-reaction-networks
#6
Albert S Y Wong, Aleksandr A Pogodaev, Ilia N Vialshin, Britta Helwig, Wilhelm T S Huck
Living systems rely on complex networks of chemical reactions to control the concentrations of molecules in space and time. Despite the enormous complexity in biological networks, it is possible to identify network motifs that lead to functional outputs such as bistability or oscillations. One of the greatest challenges in chemistry is the creation of such functionality from chemical reactions. A key limitation is our lack of understanding of how molecular structure impacts on the dynamics of chemical reaction networks, preventing the design of networks that are robust (i...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550773/susceptibility-resistance-and-resilience-of-anammox-biomass-to-nanoscale-copper-stress
#7
Zheng-Zhe Zhang, Hai-Yan Hu, Jia-Jia Xu, Zhi-Jian Shi, Yang-Yang Shen, Man-Ling Shi, Ren-Cun Jin
The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) poses an emerging challenge to biological wastewater treatment. The long-term impact of CuNPs on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process was firstly investigated in this study. The nitrogen removal capacity of anammox reactor was nearly deprived within 30days under the stress of 5.0mgL(-1) CuNPs and the relative abundance of anammox bacteria (Ca. Kuenenia) was decreased from 29.59% to 17.53%. Meanwhile, copper resistance genes associated with the Cus, Cop and Pco systems were enriched to eliminate excess intracellular copper...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535490/moderate-ocean-warming-mitigates-but-more-extreme-warming-exacerbates-the-impacts-of-zinc-from-engineered-nanoparticles-on%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-marine-larva
#8
Benjamin Mos, Katrina L Kaposi, Andrew L Rose, Brendan Kelaher, Symon A Dworjanyn
There is growing concern about the combined effects of multiple human-induced stressors on biodiversity. In particular, there are substantial knowledge gaps about the combined effects of existing stressors (e.g. pollution) and predicted environmental stress from climate change (e.g. ocean warming). We investigated the impacts of ocean warming and engineered nanoparticles (nano-zinc oxide, nZnO) on larvae of a cosmopolitan tropical sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Larval T. gratilla were exposed to all combinations of three temperatures, 25, 27 and 29 °C (current SST and near-future predicted warming of +2 and + 4 °C) and six concentrations of nZnO (0, 0...
May 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528117/composite-elastomeric-polyurethane-scaffolds-incorporating-small-intestinal-submucosa-for-soft-tissue-engineering
#9
Lincui Da, Mei Gong, Anjing Chen, Yi Zhang, Yizhou Huang, Zhijun Guo, Shengfu Li, Jesse Li-Ling, Li Zhang, Huiqi Xie
Although soft tissue replacement has been clinically successful in many cases, the corresponding procedure has many limitations including the lack of resilience and mechanical integrity, significant donor-site morbidity, volume loss with time, and fibrous capsular contracture. These disadvantages can be alleviated by utilizing bio-absorbable scaffolds with high resilience and large strain, which are capable of stimulating natural tissue regeneration. Hence, the chemically crosslinked tridimensional scaffolds obtained by incorporating water-based polyurethane (PU) (which was synthesized from polytetramethylene ether glycol, isophorone diisocyanate, and 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) butyric acid) into a bioactive extracellular matrix consisting of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) have been tested in this study to develop a new approach for soft tissue engineering...
May 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498738/biogas-production-from-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-and-relevant-air-quality-implications
#10
Jeff Kuo, Jason Dow
Biopower can diversify energy supply and improve energy resiliency. Increases in biopower production from sustainable biomass can provide many economic and environmental benefits. For example, increasing biogas production through anaerobic digestion of food waste would increase the use of renewable fuels throughout California and add to its renewables portfolio. Although a biopower project will produce renewable energy, the process of producing bioenergy should harmonize with the goal of protecting public health...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493505/resilience-in-ecotoxicology-toward-a-multiple-equilibrium-concept
#11
REVIEW
Mirco Bundschuh, Ralf Schulz, Ralf B Schäfer, Craig R Allen, David G Angeler
The term resilience describes stress-response patterns across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly define resilience based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used to describe the ability of organisms to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), which is termed the rate of recovery. By contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change, that is, when ecosystems reorganize into a new regime following disturbance...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489332/damage-healing-and-remodeling-in-optogenetic-skeletal-muscle-bioactuators
#12
Ritu Raman, Lauren Grant, Yongbeom Seo, Caroline Cvetkovic, Michael Gapinske, Alexandra Palasz, Howard Dabbous, Hyunjoon Kong, Pablo Perez Pinera, Rashid Bashir
A deeper understanding of biological materials and the design principles that govern them, combined with the enabling technology of 3D printing, has given rise to the idea of "building with biology." Using these materials and tools, bio-hybrid robots or bio-bots, which adaptively sense and respond to their environment, can be manufactured. Skeletal muscle bioactuators are developed to power these bio-bots, and an approach is presented to make them dynamically responsive to changing environmental loads and robustly resilient to induced damage...
June 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462942/cell-type-specific-epigenetic-editing-at-the-fosb-gene-controls-susceptibility-to-social-defeat-stress
#13
Peter J Hamilton, Dominika J Burek, Sonia I Lombroso, Rachael L Neve, Alfred J Robison, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller
Chronic social defeat stress regulates the expression of Fosb in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to promote the cell-type-specific accumulation of ΔFosB in the two medium spiny neuron (MSN) subtypes in this region. ΔFosB is selectively induced in D1-MSNs in the NAc of resilient mice, and in D2-MSNs of susceptible mice. However, little is known about the consequences of such selective induction, particularly in D2-MSNs. This study examined how cell-type-specific control of the endogenous Fosb gene in NAc regulates susceptibility to social defeat stress...
May 2, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437083/dual-plug-and-display-synthetic-assembly-using-orthogonal-reactive-proteins-for-twin-antigen-immunization
#14
Karl D Brune, Can M Buldun, Yuanyuan Li, Iona J Taylor, Florian Brod, Sumi Biswas, Mark Howarth
Engineering modular platforms to control biomolecular architecture can advance both the understanding and the manipulation of biological systems. Icosahedral particles uniformly displaying single antigens stimulate potent immune activation and have been successful in various licensed vaccines. However, it remains challenging to display multiple antigens on a single particle and to induce broader immunity protective across strains or even against distinct diseases. Here, we design a dually addressable synthetic nanoparticle by engineering the multimerizing coiled-coil IMX313 and two orthogonally reactive split proteins...
May 5, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403530/sociotechnical-resilience-a-preliminary-concept
#15
Sulfikar Amir, Vivek Kant
This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance...
April 12, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391528/plant-glutathione-transferase-mediated-stress-tolerance-functions-and-biotechnological-applications
#16
REVIEW
Irini Nianiou-Obeidat, Panagiotis Madesis, Christos Kissoudis, Georgia Voulgari, Evangelia Chronopoulou, Athanasios Tsaftaris, Nikolaos E Labrou
Plant glutathione transferases (EC 2.5.1.18, GSTs) are an ancient, multimember and diverse enzyme class. Plant GSTs have diverse roles in plant development, endogenous metabolism, stress tolerance, and xenobiotic detoxification. Their study embodies both fundamental aspects and agricultural interest, because of their ability to confer tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses and to detoxify herbicides. Here we review the biotechnological applications of GSTs towards developing plants that are resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses...
April 8, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345593/microstructural-tissue-engineering-in-the-rachis-and-barbs-of-bird-feathers
#17
Theagarten Lingham-Soliar
Feathers do not have to be especially strong but they do need to be stiff and at the same time resilient and to have a high work of fracture. Syncitial barbule fibres are the highest size-class of continuous filaments in the cortex of the rachis of the feather. However, the rachis can be treated as a generalized cone of rapidly diminishing volume. This means that hundreds of syncitial barbule fibres of the rachis may have to be terminated before reaching the tip - creating potentially thousands of inherently fatal crack-like defects...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270255/a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-spontaneous-volunteer-response-to-the-2013-sudan-floods-changing-the-paradigm
#18
Amin Albahari, Carl H Schultz
Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster? METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive case study involved: (1) interviews with Nafeer members that participated in the disaster response to the Khartoum floods; (2) examination of documents generated during the event; and (3) subsequent benchmarking of their efforts with the Sphere Handbook...
March 8, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269808/development-of-a-framework-for-resilience-measurement-suggestion-of-fuzzy-resilience-grade-rg-and-fuzzy-resilience-early-warning-grade-rewg
#19
Mohsen Omidvar, Adel Mazlomi, Fam Iraj Mohammad, Fereshteh Nirumand
BACKGROUND: Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes...
February 28, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265251/looking-through-the-glass-ceiling-a-qualitative-study-of-stem-women-s-career-narratives
#20
Mary J Amon
Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women's perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women's experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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