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Resilience Engineering

Karan Gulati, Sašo Ivanovski
The trans-mucosal nature of dental implants presents a unique therapeutic challenge, requiring not only rapid establishment and subsequent maintenance of osseointegration, but also the formation of resilient soft tissue integration. Key challenges in achieving long-term success are sub-optimal bone integration in compromised bone conditions and impaired trans-mucosal tissue integration in the presence of a persistent oral microbial biofilm. These challenges can be targeted by employing a drug-releasing implant modification such as TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs), engineered on titanium surfaces via electrochemical anodization...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Justin R E Saward, Neville A Stanton
Undetected error in safety critical contexts generates a latent condition that can contribute to a future safety failure. The detection of latent errors post-task completion is observed in naval air engineers using a diary to record work-related latent error detection (LED) events. A systems view is combined with multi-process theories to explore sociotechnical factors associated with LED. Perception of cues in different environments facilitates successful LED, for which the deliberate review of past tasks within two hours of the error occurring and whilst remaining in the same or similar sociotechnical environment to that which the error occurred appears most effective...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Aline Gomes de Souza, Victor Alexandre Felix Bastos, Isaura Beatriz Borges Silva, Karina Marangoni, Vivian Alonso Goulart
Gene therapy emerged as a mighty alternative for conventional treatment of multiple diseases. It has been defined as a product "that mediate their effects by transcription and/or translation of transferred genetic material and/or by integrating into the host genome and that are administered as nucleic acids, viruses, or genetically engineered microorganisms. The products may be used to modify cells in vivo or transferred to cells ex vivo prior to administration to the recipient". The first therapeutic gene therapy human trial was conducted in 1990 by Michael R...
November 15, 2016: Current Gene Therapy
Paul E Abraham, Hengfu Yin, Anne M Borland, Deborah Weighill, Sung Don Lim, Henrique Cestari De Paoli, Nancy Engle, Piet C Jones, Ryan Agh, David J Weston, Stan D Wullschleger, Timothy Tschaplinski, Daniel Jacobson, John C Cushman, Robert L Hettich, Gerald A Tuskan, Xiaohan Yang
Already a proven mechanism for drought resilience, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized type of photosynthesis that maximizes water-use efficiency by means of an inverse (compared to C3 and C4 photosynthesis) day/night pattern of stomatal closure/opening to shift CO2 uptake to the night, when evapotranspiration rates are low. A systems-level understanding of temporal molecular and metabolic controls is needed to define the cellular behaviour underpinning CAM. Here, we report high-resolution temporal behaviours of transcript, protein and metabolite abundances across a CAM diel cycle and, where applicable, compare the observations to the well-established C3 model plant Arabidopsis...
November 21, 2016: Nature Plants
Saša Lazović, Andreja Leskovac, Sandra Petrović, Lidija Senerovic, Nevena Krivokapić, Tatjana Mitrović, Nikola Božović, Vesna Vasić, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic
It is known that some bacterial species are more resilient to different kinds of irradiation due to the naturally developed protective mechanisms and compounds such as pigments. On the other hand, reasoned tissue engineering using plasma remains a critical task and requires very precise control of plasma parameters in order to mitigate its potential detrimental effects. Here we isolated a natural protective agent, microbially produced undecylprodigiosin ((5'Z)-4'-methoxy-5'-[(5-undecyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene]-1H,5'H-2,2'-bipyrrole), and investigated its effects on human blood cells independently and in combination with plasma...
November 11, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Chengwei Wang, Celso Grebogi, Murilo S Baptista
The electric power system is one of the cornerstones of modern society. One of its most serious malfunctions is the blackout, a catastrophic event that may disrupt a substantial portion of the system, playing havoc to human life and causing great economic losses. Thus, understanding the mechanisms leading to blackouts and creating a reliable and resilient power grid has been a major issue, attracting the attention of scientists, engineers, and stakeholders. In this paper, we study the blackout problem in power grids by considering a practical phase-oscillator model...
September 2016: Chaos
Jennifer M Brown, Jack J C Phelps, Andrew Barkwith, Martin D Hurst, Michael A Ellis, Andrew J Plater
Resilient coastal protection requires adaptive management strategies that build with nature to maintain long-term sustainability. With increasing pressures on shorelines from urbanisation, industrial growth, sea-level rise and changing storm climates soft approaches to coastal management are implemented to support natural habitats and maintain healthy coastal ecosystems. The impact of a beach mega-nourishment along a frontage of interactive natural and engineered systems that incorporate soft and hard defences is explored...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Ke Xia, Sandy Pittelli, Jennifer Church, Wilfredo Colón
Kinetically stable proteins (KSPs) are resistant to the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Such resilience makes KSPs resistant to proteolytic degradation and may have arisen in nature as a mechanism for organismal adaptation and survival against harsh conditions. Legumes are well-known for possessing degradation-resistant proteins that often diminish their nutritional value. Here we applied diagonal two-dimensional (D2D) SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), a method that allows for the proteomics-level identification of KSPs, to a group of 12 legumes (mostly beans and peas) of agricultural and nutritional importance...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Reza Shahmiri, Raj Das
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different matrix designs on resilient attachment on an implant-assisted removable partial denture (IARPD) using finite element analysis (FEA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A laser scanner was used to extract the geometrical data of a human partially edentulous mandible. A 12-mm-long and 4.8-mm-diameter-wide implant was modeled, and two types of intradental attachment of snap fastener principle (elliptical) and resilient attachment (titanium) matrices were modeled along with tooth roots and periodontal ligaments...
September 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
P Soupy Dalyander, Michelle Meyers, Brady Mattsson, Gregory Steyer, Elizabeth Godsey, Justin McDonald, Mark Byrnes, Mark Ford
Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Kun Wang, Hope Lynn Hersh, Christoph Benning
SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2) is crucial for protecting chloroplast membranes following freezing in Arabidopsis thaliana. It has been shown that SFR2 homologs are present in all land plants, including freezing-sensitive species, raising the question of SFR2 function beyond freezing tolerance. Similar to freezing, salt and drought can cause dehydration. Thus, it is hypothesized that in freezing-sensitive plants SFR2 may play roles in their resilience to salt or drought. To test this hypothesis, SlSFR2 RNAi lines were generated in the cold/freezing-sensitive species Solanum lycopersicum (M82 cv...
September 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
Alexandre de Figueiredo, Iain G Johnston, David M D Smith, Sumeet Agarwal, Heidi J Larson, Nick S Jones
BACKGROUND: Incomplete immunisation coverage causes preventable illness and death in both developing and developed countries. Identification of factors that might modulate coverage could inform effective immunisation programmes and policies. We constructed a performance indicator that could quantitatively approximate measures of the susceptibility of immunisation programmes to coverage losses, with an aim to identify correlations between trends in vaccine coverage and socioeconomic factors...
October 2016: Lancet Global Health
Henry P Huntington, Lori T Quakenbush, Mark Nelson
Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods...
August 2016: Biology Letters
Natalie Reznikov, Hila Chase, Yehonatan Ben Zvi, Victoria Tarle, Matthew Singer, Vlad Brumfeld, Ron Shahar, Steve Weiner
UNLABELLED: Trabecular bone is an intricate 3D network of struts and plates. Although the structure-function relations in trabecular bone have been studied since the time of Julius Wolff, controversy still exists regarding the architectural parameters responsible for its stability and resilience. We present a parameter that measures the angle between two connected trabeculae - the Inter-Trabecular Angle (ITA). We studied the ITA values derived from μCT scans of different regions of the proximal femora of 5 individuals of different age and sex...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Krishna Kannan, Billyana Tsvetanova, Ray-Yuan Chuang, Vladimir N Noskov, Nacyra Assad-Garcia, Li Ma, Clyde A Hutchison Iii, Hamilton O Smith, John I Glass, Chuck Merryman, J Craig Venter, Daniel G Gibson
Bacteria are indispensable for the study of fundamental molecular biology processes due to their relatively simple gene and genome architecture. The ability to engineer bacterial chromosomes is quintessential for understanding gene functions. Here we demonstrate the engineering of the small-ribosomal subunit (16S) RNA of Mycoplasma mycoides, by combining the CRISPR/Cas9 system and the yeast recombination machinery. We cloned the entire genome of M. mycoides in yeast and used constitutively expressed Cas9 together with in vitro transcribed guide-RNAs to introduce engineered 16S rRNA genes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Ángel Alegría, Peter A Bron, Maria de Angelis, Marco Gobbetti, Michiel Kleerebezem, José A Lemos, Daniel M Linares, Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Francesca Turroni, Douwe van Sinderen, Pekka Varmanen, Marco Ventura, Manuel Zúñiga, Effie Tsakalidou, Jan Kok
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e...
September 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Philip Hands, David S Rabiger, Anna Koltunow
Overview of developmental events and signalling during central cell maturation and early endosperm development with a focus on mechanisms of sexual and autonomous endosperm initiation. Endosperm is important for seed viability and global food supply. The mechanisms regulating the developmental transition between Female Gametophyte (FG) maturation and early endosperm development in angiosperms are difficult to study as they occur buried deep within the ovule. Knowledge of the molecular events underlying this developmental window of events has significantly increased with the combined use of mutants, cell specific markers, and plant hormone sensing reporters...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
Karima Medini, Bradley W Mansel, Martin A K Williams, Margaret A Brimble, David E Williams, Juliet A Gerrard
UNLABELLED: The self-assembling peptide IKHLSVN, inspired by inspection of a protein-protein interface, has previously been reported as one of a new class of bio-inspired peptides. Here the peptide, dubbed littleSven, and modifications designed to probe the resilience of the sequence to self-assembly, is characterised. Although the parent peptide did not form a hydrogel, small modifications to the sequence (one side chain or an N-terminus modification) led to hydrogels with properties (eg...
October 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Kirstine Zinck Pedersen
This article explores an apparent paradox of stability and change in patient safety thinking and practice. The dominant approach to patient safety has largely been focused on closing 'safety gaps' through standardisation in seemingly stable healthcare systems. However, the presupposition of system stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities...
September 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Yuanchun Ma, Augé Robert, Chao Dong, Zong-Ming Cheng
Cation/proton antiporter 1 (CPA1) genes encode cellular Na(+) /H(+) exchanger proteins, which act to adjust ionic balance. Over-expression of CPA1scan improve plant performance under salt stress. However, the diversified roles of the CPA1 family and the various parameters used in evaluating transgenic plants over-expressing CPA1s make it challenging to assess the complex functions of CPA1s and their physiological mechanisms in salt tolerance. Using meta-analysis, we determined how over-expression of CPA1shas influenced several plant characteristics involved in response and resilience to NaCl stress...
July 7, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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