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Resilience Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984728/incidence-of-wrong-site-surgery-list-errors-for-a-2-year-period-in-a-single-national-health-service-board
#1
Alistair Geraghty, Lorna Ferguson, Craig McIlhenny, Paul Bowie
INTRODUCTION: Wrong-site/side surgical "never events" continue to cause considerable harm to patients, healthcare professionals, and organizations within the United Kingdom. Incidence has remained static despite the mandatory introduction of surgical checklists. Operating theater list errors have been identified as a regular contributor to these never events. The aims of the study were to identify and to learn from the incidence of wrong-site/side list errors in a single National Health Service board...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953051/intervening-in-interruptions-what-exactly-is-the-risk-we-are-trying-to-manage
#2
Jonathan Gao, Andrew John Rae, Sidney W A Dekker
Interruptions are thought to be significantly associated with medication administration errors. Researchers have tried to reduce medication errors by decreasing or eliminating interruptions. In this article, we argue that interventions are often (perhaps unreflectively) based on one particular model of risk reduction-that of barriers placed between the source of risk and the object-to-be-protected. Well-intentioned interventions can lead to unanticipated effects because the assumptions created by the risk model are not critically examined...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940819/vacancy-driven-gelation-using-defect-rich-nanoassemblies-of-2d-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-and-polymeric-binder-for-biomedical-applications
#3
Manish K Jaiswal, James K Carrow, James L Gentry, Jagriti Gupta, Nara Altangerel, Marlan Scully, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
A new approach of vacancy-driven gelation to obtain chemically crosslinked hydrogels from defect-rich 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) nanoassemblies and polymeric binder is reported. This approach utilizes the planar and edge atomic defects available on the surface of the 2D MoS2 nanoassemblies to form mechanically resilient and elastomeric nanocomposite hydrogels. The atomic defects present on the lattice plane of 2D MoS2 nanoassemblies are due to atomic vacancies and can act as an active center for vacancy-driven gelation with a thiol-activated terminal such as four-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-thiol (PEG-SH) via chemisorption...
September 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840959/tiny-microbes-big-yields-enhancing-food-crop-production-with-biological-solutions
#4
Pankaj Trivedi, Peer M Schenk, Matthew D Wallenstein, Brajesh K Singh
Plant-associated microbiomes have tremendous potential to improve plant resilience and yields in farming systems. There is increasing evidence that biological technologies that use microbes or their metabolites can enhance nutrient uptake and yield, control pests and mitigate plant stress responses. However, to fully realize the potential of microbial technology, their efficacy and consistency under the broad range of real-world conditions need to be improved. While the optimization of microbial biofertilizers and biopesticides is advancing rapidly to enable use in various soils, crop varieties and environments, crop breeding programmes have yet to incorporate the selection of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to breed 'microbe-optimized plants'...
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836981/safe-medication-management-in-specialized-home-healthcare-an-observational-study
#5
Marléne Lindblad, Maria Flink, Mirjam Ekstedt
BACKGROUND: Medication management is a complex, error-prone process. The aim of this study was to explore what constitutes the complexity of the medication management process (MMP) in specialized home healthcare and how healthcare professionals handle this complexity. The study is theoretically based in resilience engineering. METHOD: Data were collected during the MMP at three specialized home healthcare units in Sweden using two strategies: observation of workplaces and shadowing RNs in everyday work, including interviews...
August 24, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827802/spatial-dynamics-of-synthetic-microbial-mutualists-and-their-parasites
#6
Daniel R Amor, Raúl Montañez, Salva Duran-Nebreda, Ricard Solé
A major force contributing to the emergence of novelty in nature is the presence of cooperative interactions, where two or more components of a system act in synergy, sometimes leading to higher-order, emergent phenomena. Within molecular evolution, the so called hypercycle defines the simplest model of an autocatalytic cycle, providing major theoretical insights on the evolution of cooperation in the early biosphere. These closed cooperative loops have also inspired our understanding of how catalytic loops appear in ecological systems...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827660/a-primer-on-selecting-grain-boundary-sets-for-comparison-of-interfacial-fracture-properties-in-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#7
Rémi Dingreville, Doruk Aksoy, Douglas E Spearot
All grain boundaries are not equal in their predisposition for fracture due to the complex coupling between lattice geometry, interfacial structure, and mechanical properties. The ability to understand these relationships is crucial to engineer materials resilient to grain boundary fracture. Here, a methodology is presented to isolate the role of grain boundary structure on interfacial fracture properties, such as the tensile strength and work of separation, using atomistic simulations. Instead of constructing sets of grain boundary models within the misorientation/structure space by simply varying the misorientation angle around a fixed misorientation axis, the proposed method creates sets of grain boundary models by means of isocurves associated with important fracture-related properties of the adjoining lattices...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774178/quantized-transport-strain-induced-perfectly-conducting-modes-and-valley-filtering-on-shape-optimized-graphene-corbino-devices
#8
Gareth W Jones, Dario Andres Bahamon, Antonio H Castro Neto, Vitor M Pereira
The extreme mechanical resilience of graphene and the peculiar coupling it hosts between lattice and electronic degrees of freedom have spawned a strong impetus toward strain-engineered graphene where, on the one hand, strain augments the richness of its phenomenology and makes possible new concepts for electronic devices, and on the other hand, new and extreme physics might take place. Here, we demonstrate that the shape of substrates supporting graphene sheets can be optimized for approachable experiments where strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields (PMF) can be tailored by pressure for directionally selective electronic transmission and pinching-off of current flow down to the quantum channel limit...
September 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746890/aged-engineered-nanoparticles-effect-on-sludge-anaerobic-digestion-performance-and-associated-microbial-communities
#9
Samuel Eduok, Robert Ferguson, Bruce Jefferson, Raffaella Villa, Frédéric Coulon
To investigate the potential effect of aged engineered nanoparticles (a-ENPs) on sludge digestion performance, 150L pilot anaerobic digesters (AD) were fed with a blend of primary and waste activated sludge spiked either with a mixture of silver oxide, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide or a mixture of their equivalent bulk metal salts to achieve a target concentration of 250, 2000, and 2800mgkg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were 1.2 times higher in the spiked digesters and significantly different (p=0...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745279/paediatric-nanofibrous-bioprosthetic-heart-valve
#10
REVIEW
Mehrdad Namdari, Babak Negahdari, Ali Eatemadi
The search for an optimal aortic valve implant with durability, calcification resistance, excellent haemodynamic parameters and ability to withstand mechanical loading is yet to be met. Thus, there has been struggled to fabricate bio-prosthetics heart valve using bioengineering. The consequential product must be resilient with suitable mechanical features, biocompatible and possess the capacity to grow. Defective heart valves replacement by surgery is now common, this improves the value and survival of life for a lot of patients...
August 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#11
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710270/stabilization-of-multimeric-proteins-via-intersubunit-cyclization
#12
Lu Zhu, Shuwen Wang, Wenya Tian, Yeqi Zhang, Yang Song, Jun Zhang, Bo Mu, Chao Peng, Zixin Deng, Hongmin Ma, Xudong Qu
Proteins with high catalytic efficiency and selectivity under mild conditions have long been appreciated by industrial and medicinal fields. These proteins, which are commonly multimeric, often possess low stability, impeding wider application. Currently, strategies to improve the stability of multimeric proteins concentrate on enhancing the interaction at internal interface of the subunits. In this report, we confirmed that the largely underestimated subunit terminal ends are as significant as the internal interface for protein stability...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692697/-formula-see-text-oblivious-similarity-based-searching-for-encrypted-data-outsourced-to-an-untrusted-domain
#13
Zeeshan Pervez, Mahmood Ahmad, Asad Masood Khattak, Naeem Ramzan, Wajahat Ali Khan
Public cloud storage services are becoming prevalent and myriad data sharing, archiving and collaborative services have emerged which harness the pay-as-you-go business model of public cloud. To ensure privacy and confidentiality often encrypted data is outsourced to such services, which further complicates the process of accessing relevant data by using search queries. Search over encrypted data schemes solve this problem by exploiting cryptographic primitives and secure indexing to identify outsourced data that satisfy the search criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669073/improvement-of-abiotic-stress-adaptive-traits-in-mulberry-morus-spp-an-update-on-biotechnological-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Tanmoy Sarkar, Thallapally Mogili, Vankadara Sivaprasad
Mulberry (Morus spp.), being an economically important tree, is cultivated in China, India, Thailand, Brazil, Uzbekistan and other Countries across the globe, for its leaves to feed monophagous mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori). The sustainability of silk industry is directly correlated with the production and continuous supply of high-quality mulberry leaves. In India, it is cultivated on large scale in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions under irrigated conditions for silkworm rearing. Drought, low temperature, high salinity and alkalinity, being experienced in widespread areas, are the major abiotic stresses, causing reduction in its potential foliage yield and quality...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643560/design-quality-in-the-context-of-healthcare-environments-a-scoping-review
#15
Anna Anåker, Ann Heylighen, Susanna Nordin, Marie Elf
OBJECTIVE: We explored the concept of design quality in relation to healthcare environments. In addition, we present a taxonomy that illustrates the wide range of terms used in connection with design quality in healthcare. BACKGROUND: High-quality physical environments can promote health and well-being. Developments in healthcare technology and methodology put high demands on the design quality of care environments, coupled with increasing expectations and demands from patients and staff that care environments be person centered, welcoming, and accessible while also supporting privacy and security...
July 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636365/sustainable-elastomers-from-renewable-biomass
#16
Zhongkai Wang, Liang Yuan, Chuanbing Tang
Sustainable elastomers have undergone explosive growth in recent years, partly due to the resurgence of biobased materials prepared from renewable natural resources. However, mounting challenges still prevail: How can the chemical compositions and macromolecular architectures of sustainable polymers be controlled and broadened? How can their processability and recyclability be enabled? How can they compete with petroleum-based counterparts in both cost and performance? Molecular-biomass-derived polymers, such as polymyrcene, polymenthide, and poly(ε-decalactone), have been employed for constructing thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs)...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636356/biomimetic-architectured-graphene-aerogel-with-exceptional-strength-and-resilience
#17
Miao Yang, Nifang Zhao, Ying Cui, Weiwei Gao, Qian Zhao, Chao Gao, Hao Bai, Tao Xie
Materials combining lightweight, robust mechanical performances, and multifunctionality are highly desirable for engineering applications. Graphene aerogels have emerged as attractive candidates. Despite recent progresses, the bottleneck remains how to simultaneously achieve both strength and resilience. While multiscale architecture designs may offer a possible route, the difficulty lies in the lack of design guidelines and how to experimentally achieve the necessary structure control over multiple length scales...
July 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627778/engineering-cho-cells-with-an-oncogenic-kit-improves-cells-growth-resilience-to-stress-and-productivity
#18
Mohamed Mahameed, Boaz Tirosh
An optimized biomanufacturing process in mammalian cells is contingent on the ability of the producing cells to reach high viable cell densities. In addition, at the peak of growth, cells need to continue producing the biological entity at a consistent quality. Thus, engineering cells with robust growth performance and resilience to variable stress conditions is highly desirable. The tyrosine kinase receptor, KIT, plays a key role in cell differentiation and the survival of several immune cell types. Its oncogenic mutant, D816V, endows cells with high proliferation capacity, and resistance to kinase inhibitors...
November 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621834/from-intricate-to-integrated-biofabrication-of-articulating-joints
#19
Wilhelmina Margaretha Groen, Paweena Diloksumpan, Paul René van Weeren, Riccardo Levato, Jos Malda
Articulating joints owe their function to the specialized architecture and the complex interplay between multiple tissues including cartilage, bone and synovium. Especially the cartilage component has limited self-healing capacity and damage often leads to the onset of osteoarthritis, eventually resulting in failure of the joint as an organ. Although in its infancy, biofabrication has emerged as a promising technology to reproduce the intricate organization of the joint, thus enabling the introduction of novel surgical treatments, regenerative therapies, and new sets of tools to enhance our understanding of joint physiology and pathology...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582616/molecular-engineering-of-robustness-and-resilience-in-enzymatic-reaction-networks
#20
Albert S Y Wong, Aleksandr A Pogodaev, Ilia N Vialshin, Britta Helwig, Wilhelm T S Huck
Living systems rely on complex networks of chemical reactions to control the concentrations of molecules in space and time. Despite the enormous complexity in biological networks, it is possible to identify network motifs that lead to functional outputs such as bistability or oscillations. One of the greatest challenges in chemistry is the creation of such functionality from chemical reactions. A key limitation is our lack of understanding of how molecular structure impacts on the dynamics of chemical reaction networks, preventing the design of networks that are robust (i...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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