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Resilience Engineering

Laibao Liu, Yatong Zhang, Shuyao Wu, Shuangcheng Li, Dahe Qin
Memory effects refer to the impacts of antecedent climate conditions on current vegetation productivity. This temporal linkage has been found to be strong in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the dominant climatic factors that determine such patterns are still unclear. Here, we defined'water-memory effects' as the persistent effects of antecedent precipitation on the vegetation productivity for a given memory length (from 1 to up to 12 months). Based on satellite observations and climate data, we quantified the length of water-memory effects and evaluated the contributions of antecedent precipitation on current vegetation...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jinkai Xue, Chunkai Huang, Yanyan Zhang, Yang Liu, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Canada has the world's largest oil sands reservoirs. Surface mining and subsequent caustic hot water extraction of bitumen lead to an enormous quantity of tailings (volumetric ratio bitumen:water=9:1). Due to the zero-discharge approach and the persistency of the complex matrix, oil producers are storing oil sands tailings in vast ponds in Northern Alberta. Oil sands tailings are comprised of sand, clay and process-affected water (OSPW). OSPW contains an extremely complex matrix of organic contaminants (e.g...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
David G Angeler, Craig R Allen, Maj-Liz Persson
BACKGROUND: The term resilience describes stress-response patterns of subjects across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly distinguish resilience definitions based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used for describing the ability of subjects to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), and is the rate of recovery. In contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change: when complex systems (including humans) respond to disturbances by reorganizing into a new regime (stable state) where structural and functional aspects have fundamentally changed relative to the prior regime...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Hui Lu, Haiqin Huang, Weiming Yang, Hamish Robert Mackey, Samir Kumar Khanal, Di Wu, Guang-Hao Chen
Autotrophic denitrification has been widely studied for odor mitigation, corrosion control and nitrogen removal in recent years. This paper examines the response of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) driven autotrophic denitrification under short-term stress of dissolved sulfide. A series of batch tests were conducted to investigate the effect of different sulfide concentrations (0-1600 mg-total dissolved sulfide (TDS)/L) on autotrophic denitrification and sulfide oxidation by SOB-enriched sludge. Our results show that autotrophic denitrification (NO3- to N2) was stimulated up to 200 mg-TDS/L with a maximum denitrification rate of 9...
January 19, 2018: Water Research
Zackary L Jones, Kristin M Mikkelson, Scott Nygren, David L Sedlak, Jonathan O Sharp
The widespread adoption of engineered wetlands designed for water treatment is hindered by uncertainties in system reliability, resilience and management associated with coupled biological and physical processes. To better understand how shallow unit process open-water wetlands self-colonize and evolve, we analyzed the composition of the microbial community in benthic biomats from system establishment through approximately 3 years of operation. Our analysis was conducted across three parallel demonstration-scale (7500 m2) cells located within the Prado Constructed Wetlands in Southern California...
January 10, 2018: Water Research
Can M Buldun, Jisoo Jean, Michael R Bedford, Mark Howarth
Simple efficient reactions for connecting biological building-blocks open up many new possibilities. Here we have designed SnoopLigase, a protein which catalyzes site-specific transamidation, forming an isopeptide bond with up to 99% efficiency between two peptide tags, SnoopTagJr and DogTag. We initially developed these components by three-part splitting of the Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesin RrgA. The units were then engineered, guided by structure, bioinformatic analysis of sequence homology, and computational prediction of stability...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
David M Baker, Christopher J Freeman, Jane C Y Wong, Marilyn L Fogel, Nancy Knowlton
Coastal oceans are increasingly eutrophic, warm and acidic through the addition of anthropogenic nitrogen and carbon, respectively. Among the most sensitive taxa to these changes are scleractinian corals, which engineer the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth. Corals' sensitivity is a consequence of their evolutionary investment in symbiosis with the dinoflagellate alga, Symbiodinium. Together, the coral holobiont has dominated oligotrophic tropical marine habitats. However, warming destabilizes this association and reduces coral fitness...
January 29, 2018: ISME Journal
Karl E Bridges, Paul M Corballis, Erik Hollnagel
Objective The objective was to develop an understanding, using the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM), of the factors that could cause a deer hunter to misidentify their intended target. Background Hunting is a popular activity in many communities. However, hunters vary considerably based on training, experience, and expertise. Surprisingly, safety in hunting has not received much attention, especially failure-to-identify hunting incidents. These are incidents in which the hunter, after spotting and targeting their quarry, discharge their firearm only to discover they have been spotting and targeting another human, an inanimate object, or flora by mistake...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
Sarbendu Rakshit, Soumen Majhi, Bidesh K Bera, Sudeshna Sinha, Dibakar Ghosh
A large class of engineered and natural systems, ranging from transportation networks to neuronal networks, are best represented by multiplex network architectures, namely a network composed of two or more different layers where the mutual interaction in each layer may differ from other layers. Here we consider a multiplex network where the intralayer coupling interactions are switched stochastically with a characteristic frequency. We explore the intralayer and interlayer synchronization of such a time-varying multiplex network...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Pelin Toren, Erol Ozgur, Mehmet Bayindir
Early detection of pathogens or their virulence factors in complex media has a key role in early diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Nano-molar and selective detection of Exotoxin A, which is a virulence factor secreted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the sputum of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients, can pave the way for early diagnosis of P. aeruginosa infections. In this study, we conducted a preliminary study to demonstrate the feasibility of optical biodetection of P. aeruginosa Exotoxin A in a diluted artificial sputum mimicking the CF respiratory environment...
January 16, 2018: ACS Sensors
Mehdi Abdi, Myung-Joong Hwang, Mortaza Aghtar, Martin B Plenio
Recently observed quantum emitters in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) membranes have a potential for achieving high accessibility and controllability thanks to the lower spatial dimension. Moreover, these objects naturally have a high sensitivity to vibrations of the hosting membrane due to its low mass density and high elasticity modulus. Here, we propose and analyze a spin-mechanical system based on color centers in a suspended hBN mechanical resonator. Through group theoretical analyses and ab initio calculation of the electronic and spin properties of such a system, we identify a spin doublet ground state and demonstrate that a spin-motion interaction can be engineered, which enables ground-state cooling of the mechanical resonator...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Matt Howard, J Bakker-Dyos, L Gallagher, J P O'Hara, D Woods, A Mellor
INTRODUCTION: The British Service Dhaulagiri Research Expedition (BSDMRE) took place from 27 March to 31 May 2016. The expedition involved 129 personnel, with voluntary participation in nine different study protocols. Studies were conducted in three research camps established at 3600, 4600 and 5140 m and involved taking and storing blood samples, cardiac echocardiography and investigations involving a balance plate. Research in this remote environment requires careful planning in order to provide a robust and resilient power plan...
December 25, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Alessandra Bielli, Roberta Bernardini, Dimitrios Varvaras, Piero Rossi, Giancarlo Di Blasi, Giuseppe Petrella, Oreste Claudio Buonomo, Maurizio Mattei, Augusto Orlandi
Implants made from naturally-derived biomaterials, also called biological meshes or biomeshes, typically derive from decellularized extracellular matrix of either animal or human tissue. Biomeshes have many biomedical applications such as ligament repair, bone and cartilage regeneration and soft tissue replacement. Bovine collagen is one of the most widely used and abundantly available xenogenic materials. In particular, bovine pericardium is widely used as extracellular matrix bioprosthetic tissue. The efficiency of a pericardial mesh to function as scaffold depends on the quality of the decellularization protocol used...
February 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Zheng-Zhe Zhang, Ya-Fei Cheng, Lian-Zeng-Ji Xu, Yu-Hui Bai, Jia-Jia Xu, Zhi-Jian Shi, Qian-Qian Zhang, Ren-Cun Jin
The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products raises concerns about their environmental impacts, but their potential influence on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in wastewater treatment remains unknown. In this study, the response of granule-based anammox reactor to different loads of ZnONPs was investigated. The introduction of 1-5mgL-1 ZnONPs did not affect reactor performance, but 90% of the nitrogen removal capacity was deprived by a shock of 10mgL-1 ZnONPs within 3days...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mehdi Zomorodian, Sai Hin Lai, Mehran Homayounfar, Shaliza Ibrahim, Gareth Pender
Conflicts over water resources can be highly dynamic and complex due to the various factors which can affect such systems, including economic, engineering, social, hydrologic, environmental and even political, as well as the inherent uncertainty involved in many of these factors. Furthermore, the conflicting behavior, preferences and goals of stakeholders can often make such conflicts even more challenging. While many game models, both cooperative and non-cooperative, have been suggested to deal with problems over utilizing and sharing water resources, most of these are based on a static viewpoint of demand points during optimization procedures...
2017: PloS One
Alycia A Bristol, Christine W Nibbelink, Sheila M Gephart, Jane M Carrington
As organizations adopt electronic health records (EHRs), nurses frequently encounter system barriers and difficulty performing role expectations. This article describes nurses' experiences with unintended consequences emerging from the use of an EHR. In some situations, nurses were positively deviant when encountering unintended consequences relating to EHRs to accomplish patient care or protect patient safety. Nurses engaged in work-arounds to provide patient care when the EHR did not meet their needs, sometimes in positively deviant ways...
January 2018: Nursing Administration Quarterly
Edson A Vieira, Augusto A V Flores, Gustavo M Dias
Historical processes affecting biological organization are rarely considered when predicting the effects of disturbance on community structure. In order to assess the relative importance of historical and post-disturbance conditions as determinants of community structure, we undertook reciprocal transplants, at different successional stages, of sessile communities developing at recreational piers that were previously observed to show contrasting fish predation pressure and settlement rate in the São Sebastião Channel, Brazil...
November 22, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Hao-Yang Mi, Xin Jing, Brett N Napiwocki, Breanna S Hagerty, Guojun Chen, Lih-Sheng Turng
Biodegradable synthetic polymers have been widely used as tissue engineering scaffold materials. Even though they have shown excellent biocompatibility, they have failed to resemble the low stiffness and high elasticity of soft tissues because of the presence of massive rigid ester bonds. Herein, we synthesized a new thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (CTC-PU(BET)) using poly ester ether triblock copolymer (polycaprolactone-block-polytetrahydrofuran-block-polycaprolactone triblock copolymer, PCTC) as the soft segment, aliphatic diisocyanate (hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI) as the hard segment, and degradable diol (bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, BET) as the chain extender...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Christopher Hicks, Andrew Petrosoniak
Resilience is built, not born, and there is no single strategy that reliably manufactures resilient performance in all circumstances. Optimizing team performance in dynamic environments involves the complex interplay of strategies that target individual preparation, team interaction, environmental optimization, and systems-level resilience engineering. To accomplish this, health care can draw influence from human factors research to inform tangible, practical, and measurable improvements in performance and outcomes, modified to suit local and domain-specific needs...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Rujing Zhang, Niels B Larsen
Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models capturing both the structural and dynamic complexity of the in vivo situation are in great demand as an alternative to animal models. Despite tremendous progress in engineering complex tissue/organ models in the past decade, approaches that support the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically stable hydrogel constructs as self-contained chips, where confined culture volumes are traversed and surrounded by perfusable vascular-like networks...
November 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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