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Resilience Engineering

Viviana P Ribeiro, Alain da Silva Morais, F Raquel Maia, Raphael F Canadas, João B Costa, Ana L Oliveira, Joaquim M Oliveira, Rui L Reis
Several processing technologies and engineering strategies have been combined to create scaffolds with superior performance for efficient tissue regeneration. Cartilage tissue is a good example of that, presenting limited self-healing capacity together with a high elasticity and load-bearing properties. In this work, novel porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds derived from horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated crosslinking of highly concentrated aqueous SF solution (16 wt.%) in combination with salt-leaching and freeze-drying methodologies were developed for articular cartilage tissue engineering (TE) applications...
April 4, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Emma F Camp, Verena Schoepf, David J Suggett
Coral reefs are in a state of rapid global decline via environmental and climate change, and efforts have intensified to identify or engineer coral populations with increased resilience. Concurrent with these efforts has been increasing use of the popularised term "Super Coral" in both popular media and scientific literature without a unifying definition. However, how this subjective term is currently applied has the potential to mislead inference over factors contributing to coral survivorship, and the future trajectory of coral reef form and functioning...
March 26, 2018: Global Change Biology
Jayanna N Banavath, Thammineni Chakradhar, Varakumar Pandit, Sravani Konduru, Krishna K Guduru, Chandra S Akila, Sudhakar Podha, Chandra O R Puli
Peanut is an important oilseed and food legume cultivated as a rain-fed crop in semi-arid tropics. Drought and high salinity are the major abiotic stresses limiting the peanut productivity in this region. Development of drought and salt tolerant peanut varieties with improved yield potential using biotechnological approach is highly desirable to improve the peanut productivity in marginal geographies. As abiotic stress tolerance and yield represent complex traits, engineering of regulatory genes to produce abiotic stress-resilient transgenic crops appears to be a viable approach...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Mark Hooper
In a paper awarded 'Best Member Paper' at the 2016 Institute of Hospital Engineering, Australia (IHEA) National Conference held at the Adelaide Oval last October, Mark Hooper BEng, executive project manager at Echuca Regional Health in Victoria, Australia, describes a A$66 million redevelopment project at the hospital--which is located in the historic port town of Echuca on the Murray river, two and a half hours north of Melbourne. He highlights some of the significant innovation that went into the project, in areas including plant operation and maintenance, emergency planning, resilience, and patient and staff comfort...
May 2017: Health Estate
Alberto Martinetti, Maria Mikela Chatzimichailidou, Luisa Maida, Leo van Dongen
Occupational health and safety (OHS) represents an important field of exploration for the research community: in spite of the growing of the technological innovations, the raising complexity of systems involves critical issues in terms of degradation of the safety levels. In such a situation, new safety management approaches (SMA) are now mandatory in order to face the safety implications of the current technological evolutions. Along these lines, performing risk-based analysis alone seems not to be enough anymore...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Yosephine Gumulya, Naomi J Boxall, Himel N Khaleque, Ville Santala, Ross P Carlson, Anna H Kaksonen
Biomining with acidophilic microorganisms has been used at commercial scale for the extraction of metals from various sulfide ores. With metal demand and energy prices on the rise and the concurrent decline in quality and availability of mineral resources, there is an increasing interest in applying biomining technology, in particular for leaching metals from low grade minerals and wastes. However, bioprocessing is often hampered by the presence of inhibitory compounds that originate from complex ores. Synthetic biology could provide tools to improve the tolerance of biomining microbes to various stress factors that are present in biomining environments, which would ultimately increase bioleaching efficiency...
February 21, 2018: Genes
Laibao Liu, Yatong Zhang, Shuyao Wu, Shuangcheng Li, Dahe Qin
Memory effects refer to the impacts of antecedent climate conditions on current vegetation productivity. This temporal linkage has been found to be strong in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the dominant climatic factors that determine such patterns are still unclear. Here, we defined'water-memory effects' as the persistent effects of antecedent precipitation on the vegetation productivity for a given memory length (from 1 to up to 12 months). Based on satellite observations and climate data, we quantified the length of water-memory effects and evaluated the contributions of antecedent precipitation on current vegetation...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jinkai Xue, Chunkai Huang, Yanyan Zhang, Yang Liu, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Canada has the world's largest oil sands reservoirs. Surface mining and subsequent caustic hot water extraction of bitumen lead to an enormous quantity of tailings (volumetric ratio bitumen:water=9:1). Due to the zero-discharge approach and the persistency of the complex matrix, oil producers are storing oil sands tailings in vast ponds in Northern Alberta. Oil sands tailings are comprised of sand, clay and process-affected water (OSPW). OSPW contains an extremely complex matrix of organic contaminants (e.g...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
David G Angeler, Craig R Allen, Maj-Liz Persson
BACKGROUND: The term resilience describes stress-response patterns of subjects across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly distinguish resilience definitions based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used for describing the ability of subjects to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), and is the rate of recovery. In contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change: when complex systems (including humans) respond to disturbances by reorganizing into a new regime (stable state) where structural and functional aspects have fundamentally changed relative to the prior regime...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Hui Lu, Haiqin Huang, Weiming Yang, Hamish Robert Mackey, Samir Kumar Khanal, Di Wu, Guang-Hao Chen
Autotrophic denitrification has been widely studied for odor mitigation, corrosion control and nitrogen removal in recent years. This paper examines the response of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) driven autotrophic denitrification under short-term stress of dissolved sulfide. A series of batch tests were conducted to investigate the effect of different sulfide concentrations (0-1600 mg-total dissolved sulfide (TDS)/L) on autotrophic denitrification and sulfide oxidation by SOB-enriched sludge. Our results show that autotrophic denitrification (NO3- to N2) was stimulated up to 200 mg-TDS/L with a maximum denitrification rate of 9...
January 19, 2018: Water Research
Zackary L Jones, Kristin M Mikkelson, Scott Nygren, David L Sedlak, Jonathan O Sharp
The widespread adoption of engineered wetlands designed for water treatment is hindered by uncertainties in system reliability, resilience and management associated with coupled biological and physical processes. To better understand how shallow unit process open-water wetlands self-colonize and evolve, we analyzed the composition of the microbial community in benthic biomats from system establishment through approximately 3 years of operation. Our analysis was conducted across three parallel demonstration-scale (7500 m2) cells located within the Prado Constructed Wetlands in Southern California...
January 10, 2018: Water Research
Can M Buldun, Jisoo Jean, Michael R Bedford, Mark Howarth
Simple efficient reactions for connecting biological building-blocks open up many new possibilities. Here we have designed SnoopLigase, a protein which catalyzes site-specific transamidation, forming an isopeptide bond with up to 99% efficiency between two peptide tags, SnoopTagJr and DogTag. We initially developed these components by three-part splitting of the Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesin RrgA. The units were then engineered, guided by structure, bioinformatic analysis of sequence homology, and computational prediction of stability...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
David M Baker, Christopher J Freeman, Jane C Y Wong, Marilyn L Fogel, Nancy Knowlton
Coastal oceans are increasingly eutrophic, warm and acidic through the addition of anthropogenic nitrogen and carbon, respectively. Among the most sensitive taxa to these changes are scleractinian corals, which engineer the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth. Corals' sensitivity is a consequence of their evolutionary investment in symbiosis with the dinoflagellate alga, Symbiodinium. Together, the coral holobiont has dominated oligotrophic tropical marine habitats. However, warming destabilizes this association and reduces coral fitness...
January 29, 2018: ISME Journal
Karl E Bridges, Paul M Corballis, Erik Hollnagel
Objective The objective was to develop an understanding, using the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM), of the factors that could cause a deer hunter to misidentify their intended target. Background Hunting is a popular activity in many communities. However, hunters vary considerably based on training, experience, and expertise. Surprisingly, safety in hunting has not received much attention, especially failure-to-identify hunting incidents. These are incidents in which the hunter, after spotting and targeting their quarry, discharge their firearm only to discover they have been spotting and targeting another human, an inanimate object, or flora by mistake...
March 2018: Human Factors
Sarbendu Rakshit, Soumen Majhi, Bidesh K Bera, Sudeshna Sinha, Dibakar Ghosh
A large class of engineered and natural systems, ranging from transportation networks to neuronal networks, are best represented by multiplex network architectures, namely a network composed of two or more different layers where the mutual interaction in each layer may differ from other layers. Here we consider a multiplex network where the intralayer coupling interactions are switched stochastically with a characteristic frequency. We explore the intralayer and interlayer synchronization of such a time-varying multiplex network...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Pelin Toren, Erol Ozgur, Mehmet Bayindir
Early detection of pathogens or their virulence factors in complex media has a key role in early diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Nanomolar and selective detection of Exotoxin A, which is a virulence factor secreted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the sputum of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients, can pave the way for early diagnosis of P. aeruginosa infections. In this study, we conducted a preliminary study to demonstrate the feasibility of optical biodetection of P. aeruginosa Exotoxin A in a diluted artificial sputum mimicking the CF respiratory environment...
February 23, 2018: ACS Sensors
Mehdi Abdi, Myung-Joong Hwang, Mortaza Aghtar, Martin B Plenio
Recently observed quantum emitters in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) membranes have a potential for achieving high accessibility and controllability thanks to the lower spatial dimension. Moreover, these objects naturally have a high sensitivity to vibrations of the hosting membrane due to its low mass density and high elasticity modulus. Here, we propose and analyze a spin-mechanical system based on color centers in a suspended hBN mechanical resonator. Through group theoretical analyses and ab initio calculation of the electronic and spin properties of such a system, we identify a spin doublet ground state and demonstrate that a spin-motion interaction can be engineered, which enables ground-state cooling of the mechanical resonator...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Matt Howard, J Bakker-Dyos, L Gallagher, J P O'Hara, D Woods, A Mellor
INTRODUCTION: The British Service Dhaulagiri Research Expedition (BSDMRE) took place from 27 March to 31 May 2016. The expedition involved 129 personnel, with voluntary participation in nine different study protocols. Studies were conducted in three research camps established at 3600, 4600 and 5140 m and involved taking and storing blood samples, cardiac echocardiography and investigations involving a balance plate. Research in this remote environment requires careful planning in order to provide a robust and resilient power plan...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Alessandra Bielli, Roberta Bernardini, Dimitrios Varvaras, Piero Rossi, Giancarlo Di Blasi, Giuseppe Petrella, Oreste Claudio Buonomo, Maurizio Mattei, Augusto Orlandi
Implants made from naturally-derived biomaterials, also called biological meshes or biomeshes, typically derive from decellularized extracellular matrix of either animal or human tissue. Biomeshes have many biomedical applications such as ligament repair, bone and cartilage regeneration and soft tissue replacement. Bovine collagen is one of the most widely used and abundantly available xenogenic materials. In particular, bovine pericardium is widely used as extracellular matrix bioprosthetic tissue. The efficiency of a pericardial mesh to function as scaffold depends on the quality of the decellularization protocol used...
February 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Zheng-Zhe Zhang, Ya-Fei Cheng, Lian-Zeng-Ji Xu, Yu-Hui Bai, Jia-Jia Xu, Zhi-Jian Shi, Qian-Qian Zhang, Ren-Cun Jin
The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products raises concerns about their environmental impacts, but their potential influence on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in wastewater treatment remains unknown. In this study, the response of granule-based anammox reactor to different loads of ZnONPs was investigated. The introduction of 1-5mgL-1 ZnONPs did not affect reactor performance, but 90% of the nitrogen removal capacity was deprived by a shock of 10mgL-1 ZnONPs within 3days...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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