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Resilience Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550773/susceptibility-resistance-and-resilience-of-anammox-biomass-to-nanoscale-copper-stress
#1
Zheng-Zhe Zhang, Hai-Yan Hu, Jia-Jia Xu, Zhi-Jian Shi, Yang-Yang Shen, Man-Ling Shi, Ren-Cun Jin
The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) poses an emerging challenge to biological wastewater treatment. The long-term impact of CuNPs on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process was firstly investigated in this study. The nitrogen removal capacity of anammox reactor was nearly deprived within 30days under the stress of 5.0mgL(-1) CuNPs and the relative abundance of anammox bacteria (Ca. Kuenenia) was decreased from 29.59% to 17.53%. Meanwhile, copper resistance genes associated with the Cus, Cop and Pco systems were enriched to eliminate excess intracellular copper...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535490/moderate-ocean-warming-mitigates-but-more-extreme-warming-exacerbates-the-impacts-of-zinc-from-engineered-nanoparticles-on%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-marine-larva
#2
Benjamin Mos, Katrina L Kaposi, Andrew L Rose, Brendan Kelaher, Symon A Dworjanyn
There is growing concern about the combined effects of multiple human-induced stressors on biodiversity. In particular, there are substantial knowledge gaps about the combined effects of existing stressors (e.g. pollution) and predicted environmental stress from climate change (e.g. ocean warming). We investigated the impacts of ocean warming and engineered nanoparticles (nano-zinc oxide, nZnO) on larvae of a cosmopolitan tropical sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Larval T. gratilla were exposed to all combinations of three temperatures, 25, 27 and 29 °C (current SST and near-future predicted warming of +2 and + 4 °C) and six concentrations of nZnO (0, 0...
May 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528117/composite-elastomeric-polyurethane-scaffolds-incorporating-small-intestinal-submucosa-for-soft-tissue-engineering
#3
Lincui Da, Mei Gong, Anjing Chen, Yi Zhang, Yizhou Huang, Zhijun Guo, Shengfu Li, Jesse Li-Ling, Li Zhang, Huiqi Xie
Although soft tissue replacement has been clinically successful in many cases, the corresponding procedure has many limitations including the lack of resilience and mechanical integrity, significant donor-site morbidity, volume loss with time, and fibrous capsular contracture. These disadvantages can be alleviated by utilizing bio-absorbable scaffolds with high resilience and large strain, which are capable of stimulating natural tissue regeneration. Hence, the chemically crosslinked tridimensional scaffolds obtained by incorporating water-based polyurethane (PU) (which was synthesized from polytetramethylene ether glycol, isophorone diisocyanate, and 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) butyric acid) into a bioactive extracellular matrix consisting of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) have been tested in this study to develop a new approach for soft tissue engineering...
May 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498738/biogas-production-from-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-and-relevant-air-quality-implications
#4
Jeff Kuo, Jason Dow
Biopower can diversify energy supply and improve energy resiliency. Increases in biopower production from sustainable biomass can provide many economic and environmental benefits. For example, increasing biogas production through anaerobic digestion of food waste would increase the use of renewable fuels throughout California and add to its renewables portfolio. Although a biopower project will produce renewable energy, the process of producing bioenergy should harmonize with the goal of protecting public health...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493505/resilience-in-ecotoxicology-towards-a-multiple-equilibrium-concept
#5
REVIEW
Mirco Bundschuh, Ralf Schulz, Ralf B Schäfer, Craig R Allen, David G Angeler
The term resilience describes stress-response patterns across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly define resilience based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used to describe the ability of organisms to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), being the rate of recovery. By contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change; that is, when ecosystems reorganize into a new regime following disturbance. Under this new regime, structural and functional aspects change considerably relative to the previous regime, without recovery...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489332/damage-healing-and-remodeling-in-optogenetic-skeletal-muscle-bioactuators
#6
Ritu Raman, Lauren Grant, Yongbeom Seo, Caroline Cvetkovic, Michael Gapinske, Alexandra Palasz, Howard Dabbous, Hyunjoon Kong, Pablo Perez Pinera, Rashid Bashir
A deeper understanding of biological materials and the design principles that govern them, combined with the enabling technology of 3D printing, has given rise to the idea of "building with biology." Using these materials and tools, bio-hybrid robots or bio-bots, which adaptively sense and respond to their environment, can be manufactured. Skeletal muscle bioactuators are developed to power these bio-bots, and an approach is presented to make them dynamically responsive to changing environmental loads and robustly resilient to induced damage...
May 10, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462942/cell-type-specific-epigenetic-editing-at-the-fosb-gene-controls-susceptibility-to-social-defeat-stress
#7
Peter J Hamilton, Dominika J Burek, Sonia I Lombroso, Rachael L Neve, Alfred J Robison, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller
Chronic social defeat stress regulates the expression of Fosb in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to promote the cell-type specific accumulation of ΔFosB in the two medium spiny neuron (MSN) subtypes in this region. ΔFosB is selectively induced in D1-MSNs in the NAc of resilient mice, and in D2-MSNs of susceptible mice. However, little is known about the consequences of such selective induction, particularly in D2-MSNs. This study examined how cell-type specific control of the endogenous Fosb gene in NAc regulates susceptibility to social defeat stress...
May 2, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437083/dual-plug-and-display-synthetic-assembly-using-orthogonal-reactive-proteins-for-twin-antigen-immunization
#8
Karl D Brune, Can M Buldun, Yuanyuan Li, Iona J Taylor, Florian Brod, Sumi Biswas, Mark Howarth
Engineering modular platforms to control biomolecular architecture can advance both the understanding and the manipulation of biological systems. Icosahedral particles uniformly displaying single antigens stimulate potent immune activation and have been successful in various licensed vaccines. However, it remains challenging to display multiple antigens on a single particle and to induce broader immunity protective across strains or even against distinct diseases. Here, we design a dually addressable synthetic nanoparticle by engineering the multimerizing coiled-coil IMX313 and two orthogonally reactive split proteins...
May 5, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403530/sociotechnical-resilience-a-preliminary-concept
#9
Sulfikar Amir, Vivek Kant
This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance...
April 12, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391528/plant-glutathione-transferase-mediated-stress-tolerance-functions-and-biotechnological-applications
#10
REVIEW
Irini Nianiou-Obeidat, Panagiotis Madesis, Christos Kissoudis, Georgia Voulgari, Evangelia Chronopoulou, Athanasios Tsaftaris, Nikolaos E Labrou
Plant glutathione transferases (EC 2.5.1.18, GSTs) are an ancient, multimember and diverse enzyme class. Plant GSTs have diverse roles in plant development, endogenous metabolism, stress tolerance, and xenobiotic detoxification. Their study embodies both fundamental aspects and agricultural interest, because of their ability to confer tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses and to detoxify herbicides. Here we review the biotechnological applications of GSTs towards developing plants that are resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses...
April 8, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345593/microstructural-tissue-engineering-in-the-rachis-and-barbs-of-bird-feathers
#11
Theagarten Lingham-Soliar
Feathers do not have to be especially strong but they do need to be stiff and at the same time resilient and to have a high work of fracture. Syncitial barbule fibres are the highest size-class of continuous filaments in the cortex of the rachis of the feather. However, the rachis can be treated as a generalized cone of rapidly diminishing volume. This means that hundreds of syncitial barbule fibres of the rachis may have to be terminated before reaching the tip - creating potentially thousands of inherently fatal crack-like defects...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270255/a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-spontaneous-volunteer-response-to-the-2013-sudan-floods-changing-the-paradigm
#12
Amin Albahari, Carl H Schultz
Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster? METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive case study involved: (1) interviews with Nafeer members that participated in the disaster response to the Khartoum floods; (2) examination of documents generated during the event; and (3) subsequent benchmarking of their efforts with the Sphere Handbook...
March 8, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269808/development-of-a-framework-for-resilience-measurement-suggestion-of-fuzzy-resilience-grade-rg-and-fuzzy-resilience-early-warning-grade-rewg
#13
Mohsen Omidvar, Adel Mazlomi, Fam Iraj Mohammad, Fereshteh Nirumand
BACKGROUND: Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes...
February 28, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265251/looking-through-the-glass-ceiling-a-qualitative-study-of-stem-women-s-career-narratives
#14
Mary J Amon
Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women's perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women's experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261251/transcript-profiling-reveals-the-presence-of-abiotic-stress-and-developmental-stage-specific-ascorbate-oxidase-genes-in-plants
#15
Rituraj Batth, Kapil Singh, Sumita Kumari, Ananda Mustafiz
Abiotic stress and climate change is the major concern for plant growth and crop yield. Abiotic stresses lead to enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) consequently resulting in cellular damage and major losses in crop yield. One of the major scavengers of ROS is ascorbate (AA) which acts as first line of defense against external oxidants. An enzyme named ascorbate oxidase (AAO) is known to oxidize AA and deleteriously affect the plant system in response to stress. Genome-wide analysis of AAO gene family has led to the identification of five, three, seven, four, and six AAO genes in Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis, Glycine max, Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor genomes, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230977/extracellular-self-assembly-of-functional-and-tunable-protein-conjugates-from-bacillus-subtilis
#16
Charlie Gilbert, Mark Howarth, Colin R Harwood, Tom Ellis
The ability to stably and specifically conjugate recombinant proteins to one another is a powerful approach for engineering multifunctional enzymes, protein therapeutics, and novel biological materials. While many of these applications have been illustrated through in vitro and in vivo intracellular protein conjugation methods, extracellular self-assembly of protein conjugates offers unique advantages: simplifying purification, reducing toxicity and burden, and enabling tunability. Exploiting the recently described SpyTag-SpyCatcher system, we describe here how enzymes and structural proteins can be genetically encoded to covalently conjugate in culture media following programmable secretion from Bacillus subtilis...
March 7, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208508/correlation-powered-information-engines-and-the-thermodynamics-of-self-correction
#17
Alexander B Boyd, Dibyendu Mandal, James P Crutchfield
Information engines can use structured environments as a resource to generate work by randomizing ordered inputs and leveraging the increased Shannon entropy to transfer energy from a thermal reservoir to a work reservoir. We give a broadly applicable expression for the work production of an information engine, generally modeled as a memoryful channel that communicates inputs to outputs as it interacts with an evolving environment. The expression establishes that an information engine must have more than one memory state in order to leverage input environment correlations...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195836/understanding-nurses-strategies-to-handle-un-wanted-nurse-calls-a-resilience-perspective
#18
Joakim Klemets, Tor Erik Evjemo
Nurse calls in a hospital can constitute either positive or negative (wanted or unwanted) interruptions depending on various factors. This study aims to understand nurses' strategies in facilitating the reception of wanted nurse calls and the restriction of unwanted nurse calls. Applying a resilience engineering perspective, nurses' performance variability is investigated as a basis to design appropriate computer support to enhance efficiency and patient safety. A qualitative case study was conducted for a period of 4 years with focus on nurses' use of a wireless nurse call system at a Norwegian university hospital...
February 13, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182724/engineering-characterisation-of-epoxidized-natural-rubber-modified-hot-mix-asphalt
#19
Ramez A Al-Mansob, Amiruddin Ismail, Nur Izzi Md Yusoff, Riza Atiq O K Rahmat, Muhamad Nazri Borhan, Shaban Ismael Albrka, Che Husna Azhari, Mohamed Rehan Karim
Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165584/triblock-copolymers-based-on-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-and-trimethylene-carbonate-for-the-3d-printing-of-tissue-engineering-scaffolds
#20
Aysun Güney, Jos Malda, Wouter J A Dhert, Dirk W Grijpma
BACKGROUND: Biodegradable PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) were prepared and used in the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Triblock copolymers of various molecular weights containing equal amounts of TMC and CL were prepared. These block copolymers combine the low glass transition temperature of amorphous PTMC (approximately -20°C) and the semi-crystallinity of PCL (glass transition approximately -60°C and melting temperature approximately 60°C)...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
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