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Resilience Engineering

Jennifer M Brown, Jack J C Phelps, Andrew Barkwith, Martin D Hurst, Michael A Ellis, Andrew J Plater
Resilient coastal protection requires adaptive management strategies that build with nature to maintain long-term sustainability. With increasing pressures on shorelines from urbanisation, industrial growth, sea-level rise and changing storm climates soft approaches to coastal management are implemented to support natural habitats and maintain healthy coastal ecosystems. The impact of a beach mega-nourishment along a frontage of interactive natural and engineered systems that incorporate soft and hard defences is explored...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Ke Xia, Sandy Pittelli, Jennifer Church, Wilfredo Colón
Kinetically stable proteins (KSPs) are resistant to the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Such resilience makes KSPs resistant to proteolytic degradation and may have arisen in nature as a mechanism for organismal adaptation and survival against harsh conditions. Legumes are well-known for possessing degradation-resistant proteins that often diminish their nutritional value. Here we applied diagonal two-dimensional (D2D) SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), a method that allows for the proteomics-level identification of KSPs, to a group of 12 legumes (mostly beans and peas) of agricultural and nutritional importance...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Reza Shahmiri, Raj Das
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different matrix designs on resilient attachment on an implant-assisted removable partial denture (IARPD) using finite element analysis (FEA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A laser scanner was used to extract the geometrical data of a human partially edentulous mandible. A 12-mm-long and 4.8-mm-diameter-wide implant was modeled, and two types of intradental attachment of snap fastener principle (elliptical) and resilient attachment (titanium) matrices were modeled along with tooth roots and periodontal ligaments...
September 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
P Soupy Dalyander, Michelle Meyers, Brady Mattsson, Gregory Steyer, Elizabeth Godsey, Justin McDonald, Mark Byrnes, Mark Ford
Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Kun Wang, Hope Lynn Hersh, Christoph Benning
SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2) is crucial for protecting chloroplast membranes following freezing in Arabidopsis thaliana. It has been shown that SFR2 homologs are present in all land plants, including freezing-sensitive species, raising the question of SFR2 function beyond freezing tolerance. Similar to freezing, salt and drought can cause dehydration. Thus, it is hypothesized that in freezing-sensitive plants SFR2 may play roles in their resilience to salt or drought. To test this hypothesis, SlSFR2 RNAi lines were generated in the cold/freezing-sensitive species Solanum lycopersicum (M82 cv...
September 6, 2016: Plant Physiology
Alexandre de Figueiredo, Iain G Johnston, David M D Smith, Sumeet Agarwal, Heidi J Larson, Nick S Jones
BACKGROUND: Incomplete immunisation coverage causes preventable illness and death in both developing and developed countries. Identification of factors that might modulate coverage could inform effective immunisation programmes and policies. We constructed a performance indicator that could quantitatively approximate measures of the susceptibility of immunisation programmes to coverage losses, with an aim to identify correlations between trends in vaccine coverage and socioeconomic factors...
October 2016: Lancet Global Health
Henry P Huntington, Lori T Quakenbush, Mark Nelson
Marine mammals are important sources of food for indigenous residents of northern Alaska. Changing sea ice patterns affect the animals themselves as well as access to them by hunters. Documenting the traditional knowledge of Iñupiaq and Yupik hunters concerning marine mammals and sea ice makes accessible a wide range of information relevant to understanding the ecosystem to which humans belong. We interviewed hunters in 11 coastal villages from the northern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Hunters reported extensive changes in sea ice and weather that have affected the timing of marine mammal migrations, their distribution and behaviour and the efficacy of certain hunting methods...
August 2016: Biology Letters
Natalie Reznikov, Hila Chase, Yehonatan Ben Zvi, Victoria Tarle, Matthew Singer, Vlad Brumfeld, Ron Shahar, Steve Weiner
UNLABELLED: Trabecular bone is an intricate 3D network of struts and plates. Although the structure-function relations in trabecular bone have been studied since the time of Julius Wolff, controversy still exists regarding the architectural parameters responsible for its stability and resilience. We present a parameter that measures the angle between two connected trabeculae - the Inter-Trabecular Angle (ITA). We studied the ITA values derived from μCT scans of different regions of the proximal femora of 5 individuals of different age and sex...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Krishna Kannan, Billyana Tsvetanova, Ray-Yuan Chuang, Vladimir N Noskov, Nacyra Assad-Garcia, Li Ma, Clyde A Hutchison Iii, Hamilton O Smith, John I Glass, Chuck Merryman, J Craig Venter, Daniel G Gibson
Bacteria are indispensable for the study of fundamental molecular biology processes due to their relatively simple gene and genome architecture. The ability to engineer bacterial chromosomes is quintessential for understanding gene functions. Here we demonstrate the engineering of the small-ribosomal subunit (16S) RNA of Mycoplasma mycoides, by combining the CRISPR/Cas9 system and the yeast recombination machinery. We cloned the entire genome of M. mycoides in yeast and used constitutively expressed Cas9 together with in vitro transcribed guide-RNAs to introduce engineered 16S rRNA genes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Ángel Alegría, Peter A Bron, Maria de Angelis, Marco Gobbetti, Michiel Kleerebezem, José A Lemos, Daniel M Linares, Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Francesca Turroni, Douwe van Sinderen, Pekka Varmanen, Marco Ventura, Manuel Zúñiga, Effie Tsakalidou, Jan Kok
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e...
September 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Philip Hands, David S Rabiger, Anna Koltunow
Overview of developmental events and signalling during central cell maturation and early endosperm development with a focus on mechanisms of sexual and autonomous endosperm initiation. Endosperm is important for seed viability and global food supply. The mechanisms regulating the developmental transition between Female Gametophyte (FG) maturation and early endosperm development in angiosperms are difficult to study as they occur buried deep within the ovule. Knowledge of the molecular events underlying this developmental window of events has significantly increased with the combined use of mutants, cell specific markers, and plant hormone sensing reporters...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
Karima Medini, Bradley W Mansel, Martin A K Williams, Margaret A Brimble, David E Williams, Juliet A Gerrard
UNLABELLED: The self-assembling peptide IKHLSVN, inspired by inspection of a protein-protein interface, has previously been reported as one of a new class of bio-inspired peptides. Here the peptide, dubbed littleSven, and modifications designed to probe the resilience of the sequence to self-assembly, is characterised. Although the parent peptide did not form a hydrogel, small modifications to the sequence (one side chain or an N-terminus modification) led to hydrogels with properties (eg...
October 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Kirstine Zinck Pedersen
This article explores an apparent paradox of stability and change in patient safety thinking and practice. The dominant approach to patient safety has largely been focused on closing 'safety gaps' through standardisation in seemingly stable healthcare systems. However, the presupposition of system stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities...
September 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Yuanchun Ma, Augé Robert, Chao Dong, Zong-Ming Cheng
Cation/proton antiporter 1 (CPA1) genes encode cellular Na(+) /H(+) exchanger proteins, which act to adjust ionic balance. Over-expression of CPA1scan improve plant performance under salt stress. However, the diversified roles of the CPA1 family and the various parameters used in evaluating transgenic plants over-expressing CPA1s make it challenging to assess the complex functions of CPA1s and their physiological mechanisms in salt tolerance. Using meta-analysis, we determined how over-expression of CPA1shas influenced several plant characteristics involved in response and resilience to NaCl stress...
July 7, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Gh A Shirali, Sh Azadian, A Saki
BACKGROUND: In recent years, an increasing number of natural and man-made disasters have exposed many people and properties to various disasters. This has resulted in approximately 75,000 deaths worldwide every year due to disasters. Crisis management is becoming increasingly important to cope effectively with the magnitude and potential damage resulting from disasters. Hospitals, as the final point in the rescue chain, have a key role in the crisis management and need to be resilient against disasters...
June 14, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Maria Pregnolato, Alistair Ford, Craig Robson, Vassilis Glenis, Stuart Barr, Richard Dawson
Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Ellen S Deutsch, Yue Dong, Louis P Halamek, Michael A Rosen, Jeffrey M Taekman, John Rice
OBJECTIVE: We describe health care simulation, designed primarily for training, and provide examples of how human factors experts can collaborate with health care professionals and simulationists-experts in the design and implementation of simulation-to use contemporary simulation to improve health care delivery. BACKGROUND: The need-and the opportunity-to apply human factors expertise in efforts to achieve improved health outcomes has never been greater. Health care is a complex adaptive system, and simulation is an effective and flexible tool that can be used by human factors experts to better understand and improve individual, team, and system performance within health care...
June 6, 2016: Human Factors
Takehiro Hariya, Yuji Tanaka, Shunji Yokokura, Toru Nakazawa
This study evaluated a new technique to toughen and optically clarify human amniotic membrane (AM) tissue, which is naturally thin and clouded, and determined the suitability of the altered tissue for corneal transplantation. The technique created a tissue laminate by repeatedly depositing wet layers of AM and dehydrating them, followed by chemical cross-linking to tighten integration at the layer interfaces and within the layers, thereby improving the physical properties of the laminates by increasing light transmittance and mechanical strength...
September 2016: Biomaterials
Malav S Desai, Eddie Wang, Kyle Joyner, Tae Won Chung, Hyo-Eon Jin, Seung-Wuk Lee
We developed rubber-like elastomeric materials using a natural elastin derived sequence and genetic engineering to create precisely defined elastin-like polypeptides. The coiled elastin-like polypeptide chains, which behave like entropic springs, were cross-linked using an end-to-end tethering scheme to synthesize simple hydrogels with excellent extensibility and reversibility. Our hydrogels extend to strains as high as 1500% and remain highly resilient with elastic recovery as high as 94% even at 600% strain, significantly exceeding any other protein-based hydrogel...
July 11, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Torben C Rick, Leslie A Reeder-Myers, Courtney A Hofman, Denise Breitburg, Rowan Lockwood, Gregory Henkes, Lisa Kellogg, Darrin Lowery, Mark W Luckenbach, Roger Mann, Matthew B Ogburn, Melissa Southworth, John Wah, James Wesson, Anson H Hines
Estuaries around the world are in a state of decline following decades or more of overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Oysters (Ostreidae), ecosystem engineers in many estuaries, influence water quality, construct habitat, and provide food for humans and wildlife. In North America's Chesapeake Bay, once-thriving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations have declined dramatically, making their restoration and conservation extremely challenging. Here we present data on oyster size and human harvest from Chesapeake Bay archaeological sites spanning ∼3,500 y of Native American, colonial, and historical occupation...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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