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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439784/influence-of-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-diet-quality-in-childhood-on-the-incidence-of-internalizing-and-externalizing-disorders-during-adolescence-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
XiuYun Wu, Kerry Bastian, Arto Ohinmaa, Paul Veugelers
PURPOSE: Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. METHODS: We linked health behavior survey data from 2003 among 10- to 11-year-old children across Nova Scotia, Canada, with administrative health care data from 2003 to 2011...
February 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408561/baseline-characteristics-of-participants-in-the-vitamin-d-and-omega-3-trial-vital-effects-on-bone-structure-and-architecture
#2
Catherine M Donlon, Meryl S LeBoff, Sharon H Chou, Nancy R Cook, Trisha Copeland, Julie E Buring, Vadim Bubes, Gregory Kotler, JoAnn E Manson
Vitamin D supplements are often used to benefit skeletal health, although data on effects of daily high-dose vitamin D alone on bone density and structure are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial testing effects of high-dose supplemental vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; 2000 IU/day) and/or omega-3 fatty acids (FAs; 1 g/day) for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. The study has a mean treatment period of 5 years among 25,874 U...
February 2, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405654/practicing-what-we-preach-a-pilot-study-on-oral-health-practices-of-dentists-in-massachusetts
#3
Romesh P Nalliah, Veerasathpurush Allareddy
AIM: Dentists are perceived as leaders and role models of good oral health, but do dentists practice what they preach? The current study was a pilot evaluation dentists of the oral health and oral health practices of dentists in Massachusetts. METHODS: The Massachusetts Dental Society sent emails to 3957 member dentists for whom an email contact was available. One reminder was sent 3 months later, and there was no incentive offered. Institutional review board approval was acquired prior to administering the survey through the Harvard Medical School Committee on Human Studies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388531/consumption-of-processed-food-dietary-patterns-in-four-african-populations
#4
Michelle D Holmes, Shona Dalal, Vikash Sewram, Megan B Diamond, Sally N Adebamowo, Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi, Clement Adebamowo, Faraja S Chiwanga, Marina Njelekela, Carien Laurence, Jimmy Volmink, Francis Bajunirwe, Joan Nankya-Mutyoba, David Guwatudde, Todd G Reid, Walter C Willett, Hans-Olov Adami, Teresa T Fung
OBJECTIVE: To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Setting/Subjects We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda...
February 1, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382929/energy-savings-emission-reductions-and-health-co-benefits-of-the-green-building-movement
#5
REVIEW
MacNaughton P, Cao X, Buonocore J, Cedeno-Laurent J, Spengler J, Bernstein A, Allen J
Buildings consume nearly 40% of primary energy production globally. Certified green buildings substantially reduce energy consumption on a per square foot basis and they also focus on indoor environmental quality. However, the co-benefits to health through reductions in energy and concomitant reductions in air pollution have not been examined.We calculated year by year LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification rates in six countries (the United States, China, India, Brazil, Germany, and Turkey) and then used data from the Green Building Information Gateway (GBIG) to estimate energy savings in each country each year...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373387/bibliometric-study-of-scientific-research-on-scleral-lenses
#6
Francisco Javier Povedano-Montero, Cristina Álvarez-Peregrina, Fernando Hidalgo Santa Cruz, César Villa-Collar, José Sánchez Valverde
PURPOSE: To analyze the state of scientific publications in the field of scleral lenses applying a bibliometric study. METHODS: The database used in this bibliometric study was SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature: scientific journals, books, and conference proceedings. Using remote download techniques, articles published between 1962 (year of first registrations) and 2015 were selected by entering the main descriptors: "scleral contact lenses" and "scleral lenses," limiting the field for the article, keywords, and abstract, linked with the OR tab...
January 25, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370876/the-development-and-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-group-schema-therapy-rating-scale-revised
#7
Emily Bastick, Suili Bot, Simone J W Verhagen, Gerhard Zarbock, Joan Farrell, Odette Brand-de Wilde, Arnoud Arntz, Christopher William Lee
BACKGROUND: Recent research has supported the efficacy of schema therapy as a treatment for personality disorders. A group format has been developed (group schema therapy; GST), which has been suggested to improve both the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the treatment. AIMS: Efficacy studies of GST need to assess treatment fidelity. The aims of the present study were to improve, describe and evaluate a fidelity measure for GST, the Group Schema Therapy Rating Scale - Revised (GSTRS-R)...
January 26, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370810/global-action-for-training-in-malaria-elimination
#8
Dyann F Wirth, Núria Casamitjana, Marcel Tanner, Michael R Reich
The Rethinking Malaria Leadership Forum, held at Harvard Business School in February 2017 with collaboration of the Barcelona Institute for Global Health and the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, identified this training gap as a high priority for both analysis and action. The gap in human resource training for malaria elimination needs to be addressed in order to assure continued progress. This paper identifies major gaps in skills and human resources, suggests institutions that can assist in filling the training gaps, and proposes global actions to implement expanded training for malaria elimination in endemic countries...
January 25, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349713/patient-reported-outcomes-of-catheter-based-accelerated-partial-breast-brachytherapy-and-whole-breast-irradiation-a-single-institution-experience
#9
Krishan R Jethwa, Mohamed M Kahila, Kristin C Mara, William S Harmsen, David M Routman, Geralyn M Pumper, Kimberly S Corbin, Jeff A Sloan, Kathryn J Ruddy, Tina J Hieken, Sean S Park, Robert W Mutter
PURPOSE: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and whole breast irradiation (WBI) are treatment options for early-stage breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare patient-reported-outcomes (PRO) between patients receiving multi-channel intra-cavitary brachytherapy APBI or WBI. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 131 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or early stage invasive breast cancer were treated with adjuvant APBI (64) or WBI (67) and participated in a PRO questionnaire...
January 18, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313034/the-wyss-institute-a-new-model-for-medical-technology-innovation-and-translation-across-the-academic-industrial-interface
#10
REVIEW
Mary Tolikas, Ayis Antoniou, Donald E Ingber
The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University was formed based on the recognition that breakthrough discoveries cannot change the world if they never leave the laboratory. The Institute's mission is to discover the biological principles that Nature uses to build living things, and to harness these insights to create biologically inspired engineering innovations to advance human health and create a more sustainable world. Since its launch in 2009, the Institute has developed a new model for innovation, collaboration, and technology translation within academia, breaking "silos" to enable collaborations that cross institutional and disciplinary barriers...
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298301/mapping-of-global-scientific-research-in-comorbidity-and-multimorbidity-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#11
Ferrán Catalá-López, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Matthew J Page, Brian Hutton, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent
BACKGROUND: The management of comorbidity and multimorbidity poses major challenges to health services around the world. Analysis of scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity is limited in the biomedical literature. This study aimed to map global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity to understand the maturity and growth of the area during the past decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Web of Science...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295715/symptoms-related-to-new-flight-attendant-uniforms
#12
Eileen McNeely, Steven J Staffa, Irina Mordukhovich, Brent Coull
BACKGROUND: Flight attendants at Alaska Airlines reported health symptoms after the introduction of new uniforms in 2011. The airline replaced the uniforms in 2014 without acknowledging harm. To understand possible uniform-related health effects, we analyzed self-reported health symptoms in crew who participated in the Harvard Flight Attendant Health Study between 2007 and 2015, the period before, during, and after the introduction of new uniforms. METHODS: We calculated a standardized prevalence of respiratory, dermatological and allergic symptoms at baseline, as well as during and after uniform changes in 684 flight attendants with a varying number of surveys completed across each time point...
January 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290170/cost-effectiveness-of-drugs-to-treat-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma-in-the-united-states
#13
Josh J Carlson, Gregory F Guzauskas, Richard H Chapman, Patricia G Synnott, Shanshan Liu, Elizabeth T Russo, Steven D Pearson, Elizabeth D Brouwer, Daniel A Ollendorf
BACKGROUND: New 3-drug regimens have been developed and approved to treat multiple myeloma (MM). The absence of direct comparative data and the high cost of treatment support the need to assess the relative clinical and economic outcomes across all approved regimens. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatments for relapsed and/or refractory MM from a U.S. health system perspective. METHODS: We developed a partition survival model with 3 health states (progression-free, progression, and death) to evaluate the following regimens: carfilzomib (CFZ), elotuzumab (ELO), ixazomib (IX), daratumumab (DAR), and panobinostat (PAN) in combination with lenalidomide (LEN) or bortezomib (BOR) plus dexamethasone (DEX) in the second and/or third line of therapy...
January 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289940/prevalence-of-mental-ill-health-traumas-and-postmigration-stress-among-refugees-from-syria-resettled-in-sweden-after-2011-a-population-based-survey
#14
Petter Tinghög, Andreas Malm, Charlotta Arwidson, Erika Sigvardsdotter, Andreas Lundin, Fredrik Saboonchi
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of and associations between anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), low subjective well-being (SWB), potential traumas and postmigration stress among refugees from Syria resettled in Sweden. DESIGN: A cross-sectional and population-based questionnaire study based on a known and complete sample frame. The survey included multiple measures of mental ill health and factors of particular relevance for refugees...
December 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230839/prevalence-estimation-when-disease-status-is-verified-only-among-test-positives-applications-in-hiv-screening-programs
#15
Emma G Thomas, Sarah B Peskoe, Donna Spiegelman
The first goal of the United Nations' 90-90-90 HIV/AIDS elimination strategy is to ensure that, by 2020, 90% of HIV-positive people know their HIV status. Estimating the prevalence of HIV among people eligible for screening allows assessment of the number of additional cases that might be diagnosed through continued screening efforts in this group. Here, we present methods for estimating prevalence when HIV status is verified by a gold standard only among those who test positive on an initial, imperfect screening test with known sensitivity and specificity...
December 11, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226791/counting-the-cost-of-afrophobia-post-migration-adaptation-and-mental-health-challenges-of-african-refugees-in-south-africa
#16
Lindokuhle Thela, Andrew Tomita, Varsha Maharaj, Mpho Mhlongo, Jonathan K Burns
There are few studies on the role of migration within sub-Saharan Africa and its relation to the development of mental illness. We investigated post-resettlement adaptation and mental health challenges of African refugees/migrants in Durban, South Africa. We interviewed 335 African help-seeking refugees/migrants for anxiety, depression (25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (30-item Harvard Trauma Questionnaire). Socio-demographic and migration history, focusing on post-migration circumstances and experiences of discrimination in the host country, were obtained...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171194/third-person-self-talk-reduces-ebola-worry-and-risk-perception-by-enhancing-rational-thinking
#17
Ethan Kross, Brian D Vickers, Ariana Orvell, Izzy Gainsburg, Tim P Moran, Margaret Boyer, John Jonides, Jason Moser, Ozlem Ayduk
BACKGROUND: During the fall of 2014, the threat of an Ebola outbreak gripped the United States (Poll, 8-12 October 2014; see Harvard School of Public Health & SSRS, 2014), creating a unique opportunity to advance basic knowledge concerning how emotion regulation works in consequential contexts and translate existing research in this area to inform public health and policy. METHOD: We addressed these issues by examining whether third-person self-talk, a simple technique that promotes emotion regulation, could nudge people into reasoning about Ebola more rationally...
November 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100134/the-impact-of-trauma-exposure-characteristics-on-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-psychiatric-co-morbidity-among-syrian-refugees
#18
Man Cheung Chung, Nowf AlQarni, Mariam AlMazrouei, Shamsa Al Muhairi, Mudar Shakra, Britt Mitchell, Sara Al Mazrouei, Shurooq Al Hashimi
This study investigated the impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees. One thousand one hundred and ninety-seven refugees residing in Turkey and Sweden participated in the research. They completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Forty-three percent of refugees met the cutoff for PTSD. After adjusting for location of residence, witnessing horror and exposure to life threat and assault were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity respectively...
October 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093828/exposure-to-violence-and-mental-health-of-adolescents-south-african-health-and-well-being-study
#19
Stephen A Stansfeld, Catherine Rothon, Jayati Das-Munshi, Cathy Mathews, Arlene Adams, Charlotte Clark, Crick Lund
Background: Material and social environmental stressors affect mental health in adolescence. Protective factors such as social support from family and friends may help to buffer the effects of adversity. Aims: The association of violence exposure and emotional disorders was examined in Cape Town adolescents. Method: A total of 1034 Grade 8 high school students participated from seven government co-educational schools in Cape Town, South Africa...
September 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082026/prevalence-of-anxiety-depression-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-kashmir-valley
#20
Tambri Housen, Annick Lenglet, Cono Ariti, Showkat Shah, Helal Shah, Shabnum Ara, Kerri Viney, Simon Janes, Giovanni Pintaldi
BACKGROUND: Following the partition of India in 1947, the Kashmir Valley has been subject to continual political insecurity and ongoing conflict, the region remains highly militarised. We conducted a representative cross-sectional population-based survey of adults to estimate the prevalence and predictors of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the 10 districts of the Kashmir Valley. METHODS: Between October and December 2015, we interviewed 5519 out of 5600 invited participants, ≥18 years of age, randomly sampled using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling design...
2017: BMJ Global Health
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