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Harvard health

Jason P Sullivan, Conor S O'Brien, Laura K Barger, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Charles A Czeisler, Steven W Lockley
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Firefighters' schedules include extended shifts and long work weeks which cause sleep deficiency and circadian rhythm disruption. Many firefighters also suffer from undiagnosed sleep disorders, exacerbating fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that a workplace-based Sleep Health Program (SHP) incorporating sleep health education and sleep disorders screening would improve firefighter health and safety compared to standard practice. DESIGN: Prospective station-level randomized, field-based intervention...
September 26, 2016: Sleep
Margaret E Kruk, Hannah H Leslie, Stéphane Verguet, Godfrey M Mbaruku, Richard M K Adanu, Ana Langer
BACKGROUND: Global efforts to increase births at health-care facilities might not reduce maternal or newborn mortality if quality of care is insufficient. However, little systematic evidence exists for the quality at health facilities caring for women and newborn babies in low-income countries. We analysed the quality of basic maternal care functions and its association with volume of deliveries and surgical capacity in health-care facilities in five sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: In this analysis, we combined nationally representative health system surveys (Service Provision Assessments by the Demographic and Health Survery Programme) with data for volume of deliveries and quality of delivery care from Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda...
September 23, 2016: Lancet Global Health
Mel Burden
A surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance module completed in 2014 highlighted that infection rates for breast surgery inpatients and readmissions at an acute trust had increased to 2.2%, from 0.5% in 2012. The national benchmark for 2014 established by Public Health England (PHE) was 1.0%. This demonstrated a greater than fourfold absolute increase in SSI for breast surgery during these periods. The infection rate could have been due to chance, but warranted investigation. The results were presented to the breast team and used to drive practice transformation through audit and observation, identifying areas of change to improve patient safety...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Theresa L Kapke, Alyson C Gerdes
Although researchers have identified a multitude of factors that contribute to family participation in mental health services, few studies have examined them specifically for Latino youth and their families in the U.S., a population that continues to experience significant disparities related to the availability, accessibility, and quality of mental health services. Latino youth and their families are at greater risk of dropping out of treatment prematurely and demonstrating poor treatment engagement, both of which have subsequent negative effects on treatment response outcomes...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
Lori R Newman, Dara Brodsky, Richard N Jones, Richard M Schwartzstein, Katharyn Meredith Atkins, David H Roberts
INTRODUCTION: Frame-of-reference (FOR) training has been used successfully to teach faculty how to produce accurate and reliable workplace-based ratings when assessing a performance. We engaged 21 Harvard Medical School faculty members in our pilot and implementation studies to determine the effectiveness of using FOR training to assess health professionals' teaching performances. METHODS: All faculty were novices at rating their peers' teaching effectiveness. Before FOR training, we asked participants to evaluate a recorded lecture using a criterion-based peer assessment of medical lecturing instrument...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Weikang Zhang, Hongliang Liu, Jieyun Yin, Wenting Wu, Dakai Zhu, Christopher I Amos, Shenying Fang, Jeffrey E Lee, Yi Li, Jiali Han, Qingyi Wei
The Piwi-piRNA pathway is important for germ cell maintenance, genome integrity, DNA methylation and retrotransposon control and thus may be involved in cancer development. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed prognostic roles of 3,116 common SNPs in PIWI-piRNA pathway genes in melanoma disease-specific survival. A published genome-wide association study (GWAS) by The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center was used to identify associated SNPs, which were later validated by another GWAS from the Harvard Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jenni Tirkkonen, Martin Täubel, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Hanna Leppänen, William G Lindsley, Bean T Chen, Anne Hyvärinen, Kati Huttunen
There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler...
September 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Jennifer L Steel, Andrea C Dunlavy, Collette E Harding, Töres Theorell
Over 50 million people have been displaced, some as a result of conflict, which exposure can lead to psychiatric sequelae. The aims of this study were to provide estimates of pre-emigration trauma, post-migration stress, and psychological sequelae of immigrants and refugees from predominantly Sub-Saharan Africa who immigrated to Sweden. We also examined the predictors of the psychiatric sequelae as well as acculturation within the host country. A total of 420 refugees and immigrants were enrolled using stratified quota sampling...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Tyrone B Pretorius, Anita Padmanabhanunni, Jerome Campbell
OBJECTIVE: There is compelling evidence that a significant proportion of adolescents exposed to violence do not develop trauma-related symptoms, but adapt successfully. This differential vulnerability has propelled research into identifying factors that promote coping. This study focused on the role of fortitude in the relationship between violence and trauma-related symptoms among South African adolescents living in two low-income communities. Fortitude is derived from positive cognitive appraisals of the self, the family and external sources of support...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Michael W Seward, Jason P Block, Avik Chatterjee
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether traffic-light labeling and choice architecture interventions improved dietary choices among students at a northeastern US university. METHODS: In 6 cafeterias at Harvard University, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, we implemented a 7-week intervention including traffic-light labeling (red: least nutrient rich; yellow: nutrient neutral; green: most nutrient rich), choice architecture (how choices are presented to consumers), and "healthy-plate" tray stickers...
October 2016: American Journal of Public Health
E Nowak, R Pfitzner, P Przybyłowski
INTRODUCTION: The Polish definition of brain death originated from the original Harvard criteria and has been revised several times. Practitioners worldwide are required to regularly update their national guidelines on the definition of brain death to fit the latest international research concerning this topic. AIMS: (1) Compare current Polish guidelines on diagnosing brain death in adults with the American, British, Australian, and New Zealand recommendations; and (2) evaluate existing differences for the purposes of updating the Polish guidelines...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Yeting Du, Monica Ter-Minassian, Lauren Brais, Nichole Brooks, Amanda Waldron, Jennifer A Chan, Xihong Lin, Peter Kraft, David C Christiani, Matthew H Kulke
The etiology of neuroendocrine tumors remains poorly defined. Although neuroendocrine tumors are in some cases associated with inherited genetic syndromes, such syndromes are rare. The majority of neuroendocrine tumors are thought to be sporadic. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify potential genetic risk factors for sporadic neuroendocrine tumors. Using germline DNA from blood specimens, we genotyped 909,622 SNPs using the Affymetrix 6.0 GeneChip, in a cohort comprising 832 neuroendocrine tumor cases from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital and 4542 controls from the Harvard School of Public Health...
August 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Xiuyun Wu, Sara F L Kirk, Arto Ohinmaa, Paul Veugelers
PURPOSE: This study sought to identify the principal components of self-esteem and the health behavioural determinants of these components among grade five students. METHODS: We analysed data from a population-based survey among 4918 grade five students, who are primarily 10 and 11 years of age, and their parents in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The survey comprised the Harvard Youth and Adolescent Questionnaire, parental reporting of students' physical activity (PA) and time spent watching television or using computer/video games...
2016: SpringerPlus
Laura F Garabedian, Dennis Ross-Degnan, Stephen B Soumerai, Niteesh K Choudhry, Jeffrey S Brown
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the 2006 Massachusetts health reform, the model for the Affordable Care Act, on short-term enrollment and utilization in the unsubsidized individual health insurance market. DATA SOURCE: Seven years of administrative and claims data from Harvard Pilgrim Health Care. RESEARCH DESIGN: We employed pre-post survival analysis and an interrupted time series design to examine changes in enrollment length, utilization patterns, and use of elective procedures (discretionary inpatient surgeries and infertility treatment) among nonelderly adult enrollees before (n = 6,912) and after (n = 29,207) the MA reform...
July 25, 2016: Health Services Research
Jay M Bhatt, Harrison W Lin, Neil Bhattacharyya
Importance: Tinnitus is a common problem for millions of individuals and can cause substantial negative effects on their quality of life. A large epidemiologic study of tinnitus and its management patterns in the US adult population is lacking. Objectives: To quantify the epidemiologic features and effect of tinnitus and to analyze the management of tinnitus in the United States relative to the 2014 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) clinical practice guidelines...
July 21, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Sergi Aranda, Yang Shi, Luciano Di Croce
The Keystone Symposium on Chromatin and Epigenetics, organized by Luciano Di Croce (Center for Genomic Regulation, Spain) and Yang Shi (Harvard Medical School, USA), took place 20 to 24 March 2016 at Whistler (British Columbia, Canada). The symposium brought together some of the most outstanding scientists studying how chromatin structure and epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene function in both development and disease. Junior scientists had the opportunity to interact with experienced researchers by presenting their work and discussing ideas and novel hypotheses...
October 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Anita Padmanabhanunni, Jerome Campbell, Tyrone B Pretorius
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated gender differences in the role of appraisals of safety in the relationship between exposure to violence and trauma-related symptoms among South African adolescents living in low socioeconomic settings. Limited research exists in developing contexts on the role of cognitive appraisals in mitigating outcome following exposure to violence. Given the prevalence of violence in South Africa and the vulnerability of youth, this type of research is valuable in identifying adolescents at risk of negative psychological outcome following exposure, and in informing intervention efforts...
July 11, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Giorgio Scita, Carmen Sorrentino, Andrea Boggio, David Hemenway, Andrea Ballabeni
Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i...
2016: F1000Research
David B Duong, Erin E Sullivan, Myechia Minter-Jordan, Lindsay Giesen, Andrew L Ellner
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care established the Abundance Agents of Change (AoC) program to promote interprofessional learning and innovation, increase partnership between 15 academic and community health centers (CHCs) in Boston's most under-served communities, and increase medical student interest in primary care careers. METHODS: The AoC is modeled in the form of a 'grants challenge', offering $20,000 to interprofessional student teams to develop an innovative solution that addresses a healthcare delivery need identified by CHCs...
2016: Medical Education Online
Touraj Ayazi, Leslie Swartz, Arne H Eide, Lars Lien, Edvard Hauff
PURPOSE: This study investigates the prevalence of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and examines exposure to potentially traumatic events and other relevant risk factors for PLEs in the general population of a conflict-affected, low-income country. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional community based study of four Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan (n = 1200). The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was applied to investigate exposure to potentially traumatic events...
July 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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