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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931684/zika-virus-encoding-non-glycosylated-envelope-protein-is-attenuated-and-defective-in-neuroinvasion
#1
Arun S Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R Sahoo, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, David Steffen, Hiep L X Vu, Gustavo Delhon, Fernando A Osorio, Thomas M Petro, Shi-Hua Xiang, Asit K Pattnaik
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, responsible for sporadic outbreaks of mild and febrile illness in Africa and Asia, re-emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases including microcephaly, congenital malformations, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that genetic evolution may have led to enhanced virulence of ZIKV, experimental evidence supporting the role of specific genetic changes in virulence is currently outstanding. One sequence motif, VNDT, containing an N-linked glycosylation site in the envelope (E) protein, is polymorphic, being absent in many of the African isolates while present in all isolates from the recent outbreaks...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931411/topiramate-s-effectiveness-on-weight-reduction-in-overweight-obese-persons-with-schizophrenia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Miyuru Chandradasa, Layani Champika, Silumini de Silva, K A L A Kuruppuarachchi
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with a higher mortality than that of the general population. Most of the deaths are due to cardiovascular causes and are related to metabolic risks. This risk is due not only to antipsychotics but also to inherent factors of the disorder. Studies in the West have shown topiramate to be effective in schizophrenia to reduce weight gain and for symptomatic control. Whether this is effective for South Asians is not known. It is important because South Asians have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome...
September 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931025/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-enteric-fever-in-cambodia-2008-2015
#3
Laura M F Kuijpers, Thong Phe, Chhun H Veng, Kruy Lim, Sovann Ieng, Chun Kham, Nizar Fawal, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Erika Vlieghe, François-Xavier Weill, Jan Jacobs, Willy E Peetermans
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930164/liver-cancer-molecular-characterization-clonal-evolution-and-cancer-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi, Ugo Testa
Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (frequent in Asia and Africa), hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries)...
September 20, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928416/zika-virus-infection-confers-protection-against-west-nile-virus-challenge-in-mice
#5
Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Ana-Belén Blázquez, Estela Escribano-Romero, Teresa Merino-Ramos, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Nereida Jiménez de Oya
Flaviviruses are RNA viruses that constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Zika virus (ZIKV), which was initially reported to cause a mild disease, recently spread in the Americas, infecting millions of people. During this recent epidemic, ZIKV infection has been linked to serious neurological diseases and birth defects, specifically Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Because information about ZIKV immunity remains scarce, we assessed the humoral response of immunocompetent mice to infection with three viral strains of diverse geographical origin (Africa, Asia and America)...
September 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901578/irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-asia-pathogenesis-natural-history-epidemiology-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Kok-Ann Gwee, Uday Chand Ghoshal, Minhu Chen
Historically, the epidemiology of gastrointestinal diseases in Asia was different from that in Western countries. Early studies suggested a low prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asia. As the diagnosis of IBS is symptom-based, and as symptom perception, expression and interpretation, are influenced by sociocultural perspectives including language, the presentation of IBS is expected to vary in different communities. Furthermore, the pathogenesis is multifactorial with psychosocial (stress, illness, behavior, diet) and biological (infection, gut microbiota, immune activation) variables interacting, and so we can anticipate that the development of IBS will vary in different environments...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892959/prevalence-of-conventional-risk-factors-and-evaluation-of-baseline-indices-among-young-and-elderly-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Arsalan Majeed Adam, Aiman Rehan, Nageen Waseem, Unzela Iqbal, Hira Saleem, Muhammad Armughan Ali, Ali Tariq Shaikh, Ansab Godil
INTRODUCTION: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, manifesting in a variety of clinical spectrums such as an asymptomatic disease or acute coronary syndrome. It has become highly prevalent in Southeast Asia, including Pakistan. There has been little work done on the prevalence of traditional risk factors in different age groups and genders and there is a dire need to gauge the importance of baseline indices in CAD patients. AIM: To determine the prevalence of conventional risk factors and evaluate the variations in lipid profiles, electrolyte levels and haematological indices among patients with CAD in different age groups and gender...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892480/estimating-global-regional-and-national-rotavirus-deaths-in-children-aged-5-years-current-approaches-new-analyses-and-proposed-improvements
#8
Andrew Clark, Robert Black, Jacqueline Tate, Anna Roose, Karen Kotloff, Diana Lam, William Blackwelder, Umesh Parashar, Claudio Lanata, Gagandeep Kang, Christopher Troeger, James Platts-Mills, Ali Mokdad, Colin Sanderson, Laura Lamberti, Myron Levine, Mathuram Santosham, Duncan Steele
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a leading cause of diarrhoeal mortality in children but there is considerable disagreement about how many deaths occur each year. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared CHERG, GBD and WHO/CDC estimates of age under 5 years (U5) rotavirus deaths at the global, regional and national level using a standard year (2013) and standard list of 186 countries. The global estimates were 157,398 (CHERG), 122,322 (GBD) and 215,757 (WHO/CDC). The three groups used different methods: (i) to select data points for rotavirus-positive proportions; (ii) to extrapolate data points to individual countries; (iii) to account for rotavirus vaccine coverage; (iv) to convert rotavirus-positive proportions to rotavirus attributable fractions; and (v) to calculate uncertainty ranges...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888842/evidence-refuting-the-existence-of-autoimmune-autoinflammatory-syndrome-induced%C3%A2-by-adjuvants-asia
#9
Rohan Ameratunga, David Gillis, Michael Gold, Allan Linneberg, J Mark Elwood
Autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) was described in 2011. Over time the condition and its triggers have broadened to include several autoimmune disorders, the macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, the Gulf war syndrome, the sick building syndrome, siliconosis, and the chronic fatigue syndrome. The aluminum-containing adjuvants in the hepatitis B vaccine and the human papillomavirus vaccine in particular have been stated to be the major causes of the disorder. Here, we review the specificity of the diagnostic criteria for ASIA...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886185/clinical-features-and-seasonality-of-parechovirus-infection-in-an-asian-subtropical-city-hong-kong
#10
Grace P K Chiang, Zigui Chen, Martin C W Chan, Simon H M Lee, Angela K Kwok, Apple C M Yeung, E Anthony S Nelson, Kam Lun Hon, Ting Fan Leung, Paul K S Chan
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of human parechovirus (HPeV) in Asia remains obscure. We elucidated the prevalence, seasonality, type distribution and clinical presentation of HPeV among children in Hong Kong. METHODS: A 24-month prospective study to detect HPeV in children ≤36 months hospitalized for acute viral illnesses. RESULTS: 2.3% of the 3911 children examined had HPeV infection, with most (87.5%) concentrated in September-January (autumn-winter)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883979/review-chronic-and-persistent-diarrhea-with-a-focus-in-the-returning-traveler
#11
REVIEW
Christopher A Duplessis, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Chad K Porter
BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea is a common malady afflicting up to 50% of travelers after a 2-week travel period. An appreciable percentage of these cases will become persistent or chronic. We summarized the published literature reporting persistent/chronic diarrhea in travelers elucidating current understanding of disease incidence, etiology and regional variability. METHODS: We searched electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Cochrane database of clinical trials) from 1990 to 2015 using the following terms: "chronic or persistent diarrh* and (returning) travel* or enteropathogen, GeoSentinel, and travel-associated infection...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874226/an-updated-review-of-avian-origin-tembusu-virus-a-newly-emerging-avian-flavivirus
#12
Wei Zhang, Shun Chen, Suresh Mahalingam, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng
Tembusu virus (TMUV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) was first isolated in 1955 from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In April 2010, duck TMUV was first identified as the causative agent of egg-drop syndrome, characterized by a substantial decrease in egg laying and depression, growth retardation and neurological signs or death in infected egg-laying and breeder ducks, in the People's Republic of China. Since 2010, duck TMUV has spread to most of the duck-producing regions in China, including many of the coastal provinces, neighbouring regions and certain Southeast Asia areas (i...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870583/a-new-infectious-encephalopathy-syndrome-clinically-mild-encephalopathy-associated-with-excitotoxicity-meex
#13
Nozomi Hirai, Daisuke Yoshimaru, Yoko Moriyama, Kumi Yasukawa, Jun-Ichi Takanashi
Acute infectious encephalopathy is often observed in children in East Asia including Japan. More than 40% of the patients remain unclassified into specific syndromes. To investigate the underlying pathomechanisms in those with unclassified encephalopathy, we evaluated brain metabolism by MR spectroscopy. Among seven patients with acute encephalopathy admitted to our hospital from June 2016 to May 2017, three were classified into acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD). The other four showed consciousness disturbance lasting more than three days with no parenchymal lesion visible on MRI, which led to a diagnosis of unclassified encephalopathy...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870047/-expert-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-gitelman-syndrome
#14
(no author information available yet)
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive, salt-losing tubulopathy caused by inactivating mutations in the SLC12A3 gene that encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). GS is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. GS is one of the most common inherited renal tubulopathy with a prevalence estimated at about one to ten per 40 000 people. The prevalence of GS is even higher in Asia than other countries. The majority of GS patients present mild and nonspecific symptoms during adolescence or adulthood...
September 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867493/taking-the-defensive-immune-control-of-zika-virus-infection
#15
REVIEW
James R Bowen, Matthew G Zimmerman, Mehul S Suthar
ZIKV is a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently emerged in the Americas and is a pathogen of significant public health concern across the world. ZIKV was first isolated in Uganda in 1947 and remained dormant in Africa and Asia for decades, with sporadic outbreaks characterized by a mild self-limiting disease in humans. The emergence of ZIKV in the Americas corresponded with enhanced disease severity and congenital Zika syndrome, a phenotype characterized by severe microcephaly, brain anomalies, ocular anomalies, congenital contractures and neurological impairments...
September 1, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864425/functional-rna-during-zika-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Giel P Göertz, Sandra R Abbo, Jelke J Fros, Gorben P Pijlman
Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus) is a pathogenic mosquito-borne RNA virus that currently threatens human health in the Americas, large parts of Asia and occasionally elsewhere in the world. ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic but can cause severe symptoms including congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The positive single-stranded RNA genome of the mosquito-borne ZIKV requires effective replication in two evolutionary distinct hosts - mosquitoes and primates. In addition to some of the viral proteins, the ZIKV genomic RNA and functional RNAs produced thereof aid in the establishment of productive infection and the evasion of host cell antiviral responses...
August 31, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852249/where-lies-the-fault-in-diagnosing-dhat-syndrome-among-females-understanding-through-a-case-study
#17
Sujita Kumar Kar, Amit Singh
Dhat syndrome is a culture-bound syndrome of South-East Asia, common in young men. However, similar entity has also been described in female patients who attribute their symptoms to nonpathological or physiological vaginal discharge. The current diagnostic system for psychiatric illnesses does not encompass Dhat syndrome in females, and so these group of patients receive alternative diagnoses such as somatoform disorder or depression. As a result of which the focus of unique Dhat syndrome-centered management gets weakened, affecting the clinical outcome...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846194/spectrum-of-biopsy-proven-renal-disease-in-south-asian-children-two-decades-at-a-tropical-tertiary-care-centre
#18
Anjali Mohapatra, Shailesh Kakde, Vellaichamy M Annapandian, Anna T Valson, Neelaveni Duhli, Anila Korula, Smita Mary Matthai, Anna B Pulimood, Vinoi G David, Suceena Alexander, Shibu Jacob, Santosh Varughese, Basu Gopal, Tamilarasi Veerasamy, George T John
AIM: We report findings from a large single centre paediatric renal biopsy cohort in South Asia. METHODS: We analyzed all renal biopsies performed on children aged ≤18 years between 1996 and 2015 at our centre. The clinical characteristics and histological diagnosis pertaining to each case, distribution of renal diseases in children with various clinical presentations, and changes in the pattern of kidney disease during the study period were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1740 paediatric kidney biopsies were performed during the study period...
August 28, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845876/-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-italian-born-patients-and-immigrants-a-population-based-observational-study-using-health-administrative-data-of-the-emilia-romagna-region
#19
Jacopo Lenzi, Maria Pia Fantini, Vera Maria Avaldi, Maria Giovanna Pallotti, Paola Rucci, Angelo Fioritti, Giuseppe Di Pasquale
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in relation to country of origin. METHODS: The study population included patients living in the Emilia-Romagna Region and discharged from 2012 to 2014 with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (with [STEMI] and without ST-elevation). The study outcomes were: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 48 hours of admission for STEMI, 30-day all-cause mortality, 1-year all-cause mortality, 1-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and adherence to post-infarction medications...
September 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829730/clinical-characteristics-of-severe-japanese-encephalitis-a-case-series-from-south-korea
#20
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Jangsup Moon, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of devastating viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. Although a successful vaccination program led to its near-elimination over three decades in South Korea, the incidence of JE has increased since 2010. The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and factors affecting neurological outcomes of reemerging JE. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of laboratory-confirmed JE patients who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at three tertiary hospitals between 2010 and 2015...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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