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Hypervigilance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433107/alcohol-withdrawal-hallucinations-in-the-general-population-an-epidemiological-study
#1
Massoud Stephane, Bachaar Arnaout, Gihyun Yoon
Hallucinations are sometimes encountered in the course of alcohol withdrawal; however, both the factors predisposing to alcohol withdrawal hallucinations (AWH) and the implications of AWH with respect to the mechanisms of hallucinations remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the demographic correlates, alcohol-use clinical patterns, and psychiatric comorbidities in two groups: drinkers with and without a history of AWH...
February 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413142/biobehavioral-markers-of-attention-bias-modification-in-temperamental-risk-for-anxiety-a-randomized-control-trial
#2
Pan Liu, Bradley C Taber-Thomas, Xiaoxue Fu, Koraly E Pérez-Edgar
OBJECTIVE: Children with behavioral inhibition, a temperament characterized by biologically based hypervigilance to novelty and social withdrawal, are at high risk for developing anxiety. This study examined the effect of a novel attention training protocol, attention bias modification (ABM), on symptomatic, behavioral, and neural risk markers in children with behavioral inhibition. METHOD: Nine- to 12-year-old typically developing children identified as having behavioral inhibition (N = 84) were assigned to a 4-session active ABM training (n = 43) or placebo protocol (n = 41) using a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial approach...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409632/predictors-of-disability-and-absenteeism-in-workers-with-non-specific-low-back-pain-a-longitudinal-15-month-study
#3
Arnaud Lardon, Jean-Daniel Dubois, Vincent Cantin, Mathieu Piché, Martin Descarreaux
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify baseline predictors of disability and absenteeism in workers with a history of non-specific low back pain (LBP). METHODS: One hundred workers with a history of non-specific LBP participated in three evaluations (baseline, 7 and 15 months follow-up). Current and past history of LBP, clinical pain intensity, disability, absenteeism, fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, pain hypervigilance, work satisfaction and patient stratification based on "risk of poor clinical outcome assessment" (RPCO) were evaluated using questionnaires and interviews...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387990/hypervigilance-to-a-gluten-free-diet-and-decreased-quality-of-life-in-teenagers-and-adults-with-celiac-disease
#4
Randi L Wolf, Benjamin Lebwohl, Anne R Lee, Patricia Zybert, Norelle R Reilly, Jennifer Cadenhead, Chelsea Amengual, Peter H R Green
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Avoidance of gluten is critical for individuals with celiac disease (CD), but there is also concern that "extreme vigilance" to a strict gluten-free diet may increase symptoms such as anxiety and fatigue, and therefore, lower quality of life (QOL). We examined the associations of QOL with energy levels and adherence to, and knowledge about, a gluten-free diet. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional prospective study of 80 teenagers and adults, all with biopsy-confirmed CD, living in a major metropolitan area...
January 31, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379693/do-patients-with-chronic-unilateral-orofacial-pain-due-to-a-temporomandibular-disorder-show-increased-attending-to-somatosensory-input-at-the-painful-side-of-the-jaw
#5
Stefaan Van Damme, Charlotte Vanden Bulcke, Linda Van Den Berghe, Louise Poppe, Geert Crombez
Background: Patients with chronic orofacial pain due to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) display alterations in somatosensory processing at the jaw, such as amplified perception of tactile stimuli, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated one possible explanation, namely hypervigilance, and tested if TMD patients with unilateral pain showed increased attending to somatosensory input at the painful side of the jaw. Methods: TMD patients with chronic unilateral orofacial pain (n = 20) and matched healthy volunteers (n = 20) performed a temporal order judgment (TOJ) task indicated which one of two tactile stimuli, presented on each side of the jaw, they had perceived first...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364750/ptsd-latent-classes-and-class-transitions-predicted-by-distress-and-fear-disorders-in-disaster-exposed-adolescents
#6
Xing Cao, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Jianxin Zhang, Jon D Elhai
This study aimed to determine the population-based typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, the longitudinal patterns of transitions across these typologies, and the predictive effects of distress and fear disorder symptoms on these transitions in a frequently referred but scantly studied population of traumatized youth. A sample of 1,278 Chinese adolescents (54.0% girls) with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD = 0.8, range = 12-16) completed 2-wave surveys 2.5 and 3.5 years after a major disaster...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332753/cognitive-functional-therapy-cft-for-chronic-non-specific-neck-pain
#7
Ney Meziat-Filho, Maicom Lima, Jessica Fernandez, Felipe J J Reis
This case report presents the effect of Cognitive Functional Therapy (CFT) in a patient with chronic non-specific neck pain. The patient believed that pain signified tissue damage, and demonstrated pain catastrophizing, hypervigilance, stress sensitivity, and movement impairment of the neck, during extension and rotation. The CFT intervention integrated a cognitive approach with manual therapy and active exercises to encourage the patient to trust her neck again. One month after the first appointment, the patient had recovered confidence, and the pain and disability had disappeared almost entirely...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326231/linked-networks-for-learning-and-expressing-location-specific-threat
#8
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, John A King, Daniel S Pine, Neil Burgess
Learning locations of danger within our environment is a vital adaptive ability whose neural bases are only partially understood. We examined fMRI brain activity while participants navigated a virtual environment in which flowers appeared and were "picked." Picking flowers in the danger zone (one-half of the environment) predicted an electric shock to the wrist (or "bee sting"); flowers in the safe zone never predicted shock; and household objects served as controls for neutral spatial memory. Participants demonstrated learning with shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance increases for flowers in the danger zone...
January 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322673/attentional-bias-towards-sleep-related-stimuli-in-insomnia-disorder-a-behavioural-and-erp-study
#9
Ningning Zhou, Chuanwen Zhao, Ting Yang, Sha Du, Meng Yu, Heyong Shen
Many studies have used behavioural experiments to show an attentional bias towards sleep-related stimuli in people with insomnia disorder. A measurement of event-related potential is needed to investigate the cognitive processing mechanism of the attentional process. The present study used the emotional Stroop paradigm and event-related potentials to measure attentional bias towards sleep-negative, sleep-positive and sleep-unrelated neutral words. The study comprised 16 participants with insomnia disorder and 15 participants who were good sleepers...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306226/does-fibromyalgia-have-an-effect-on-hearing-loss-in-women
#10
Zeliha Kapusuz Gencer, Özlem Balbaloğlu, Mahmut Özkırış, Levent Saydam
Background/aim: Fibromyalgia (FM) patients may have several neuroendocrine dysfunctions, resulting in a hypervigilant sensory output that may be responsible for sensorineural complaints. In this study, we evaluated the audiological findings of a cohort of female fibromyalgia patients. Materials and methods: Between 1 September 2012 and 1 June 2013, 35 female FM patients, followed by the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Bozok University, were recruited for the study. The patients were referred to the Department of Otolaryngology for routine otolaryngological and audiological evaluations...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303037/placebo-effects-in-spider-phobia-an-eye-tracking-experiment
#11
Andreas Gremsl, Daniela Schwab, Carina Höfler, Anne Schienle
Several eye-tracking studies have revealed that spider phobic patients show a typical hypervigilance-avoidance pattern when confronted with images of spiders. The present experiment investigated if this pattern can be changed via placebo treatment. We conducted an eye-tracking experiment with 37 women with spider phobia. They looked at picture pairs (a spider paired with a neutral picture) for 7 s each in a retest design: once with and once without a placebo pill presented along with the verbal suggestion that it can reduce phobic symptoms...
January 5, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294783/the-effect-of-hypervigilance-on-the-relationship-between-sexual-victimization-and-gait
#12
Lindsay Fulham, Angela S Book, Julie Blais, Mary B Ritchie, Nathalie Y Gauthier, Kimberly Costello
Two studies investigated the relationship between hypervigilance, vulnerable gait cues, and a history of sexual victimization. In Study 1 ( N = 130), gait was coded for traits relating to vulnerability where half of the sample was unaware of being videotaped (Unaware condition) and the other half was aware (Aware condition) to induce hypervigilance (between-subjects design). Gait was associated with a history of victimization, but only in the Unaware condition. A mediation analysis found that perceived impact of victimization mediated the association between victimization and vulnerable gait...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282872/psychotic-spectrum-symptoms-cumulative-adversity-exposure-and-substance-use-among-high-risk-girls
#13
Amy E Lansing, Wendy Y Plante, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Shahrokh Golshan, Audrey N Beck
AIM: Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors...
December 28, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273344/the-effects-of-oxytocin-on-social-cognition-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
A Servan, J Brunelin, E Poulet
INTRODUCTION: Deficits in social cognition and interpersonal difficulties are key features in borderline personality disorder. Social cognition refers to the function of perceiving and adequately dealing with social signals, leading to the establishment and maintenance of healthy and positive social relationships. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT) may improve social cognition and human social behavior. Recently, several studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of oxytocin in several psychiatric conditions involving social cognition deficits such as schizophrenia, autism or social phobia...
December 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211117/adaptation-and-validation-of-the-melbourne-decision-making-questionnaire-to-brazilian-portuguese
#15
Charles Cotrena, Laura Damiani Branco, Rochele Paz Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Decision making (DM) is among the most important abilities for everyday functioning. However, the most widely used measures of DM come from behavioral paradigms, whose ecological validity and standalone use has been criticized in the literature. Though these issues could be addressed by the use of DM questionnaires as a complementary assessment method, no such instruments have been validated for use in Brazilian Portuguese. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct the translation and validation of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) for use in a Brazilian population...
December 4, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172593/internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-versus-psychoeducation-control-for-illness-anxiety-disorder-and-somatic-symptom-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Jill M Newby, Jessica Smith, Shivani Uppal, Elizabeth Mason, Alison E J Mahoney, Gavin Andrews
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of an Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (iCBT) program for health anxiety compared to an active psychoeducation control group. METHOD: Individuals (N = 86, mean age: 30 years, 87% female) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) diagnosis of illness anxiety disorder or somatic symptom disorder with health anxiety were randomized to either a 6-lesson clinician-guided iCBT program for health anxiety (n = 45) or an active control group who received anxiety psychoeducation, clinical support, and monitoring (control, n = 41) over a 12-week period...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157845/face-perception-in-social-anxiety-visuocortical-dynamics-reveal-propensities-for-hypervigilance-or-avoidance
#17
Lisa M McTeague, Marie-Claude Laplante, Hailey W Bulls, Joshua R Shumen, Peter J Lang, Andreas Keil
BACKGROUND: Theories of aberrant attentional processing in social anxiety, and anxiety disorders more broadly, have postulated an initial hypervigilance or facilitation to clinically relevant threats and consequent defensive avoidance. However, existing objective measurements utilized to explore this phenomenon lack the resolution to elucidate attentional dynamics, particularly covert influences. METHODS: We utilized a continuous measure of visuocortical engagement, the steady-state visual evoked potential in response to naturalistic angry, fearful, happy, and neutral facial expressions...
October 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156434/we-prefer-what-we-fear-a-response-preference-bias-mimics-attentional-capture-in-spider-fear
#18
Anke Haberkamp, Melanie Biafora, Thomas Schmidt, Katharina Weiß
The extent to which emotionally significant stimuli capture visual attention remains elusive because a preference for reporting or choosing emotionally significant stimuli could mimic attentional capture by these stimuli. We conducted two prior-entry experiments to disentangle whether phobic and fear-relevant stimuli capture attention or merely produce a response bias in spider-fearful participants. Prior entry denotes the effect that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli as indicated by temporal order judgments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109521/enhanced-attentional-bias-variability-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-relationship-to-more-general-impairments-in-cognitive-control
#19
Diane Swick, Victoria Ashley
Hypervigilance towards threat is one of the defining features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This symptom predicts that individuals with PTSD will be biased to attend to potential dangers in the environment. However, cognitive tasks designed to assess visual-spatial attentional biases have shown mixed results. A newer proposal suggests that attentional bias is not a static phenomenon, but rather is characterized by fluctuations towards and away from threat. Here, we tested 28 combat Veterans with PTSD and 28 control Veterans on a dot probe task with negative-neutral word pairs...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072188/body-dysmorphic-disorder-latest-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-findings
#20
K Tasios, I Michopoulos
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in physical appearance that is not observable or appears slight to others. It leads to severe distress and functional impairment. Cognitive-behavioural and neurobiological similarities to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have led to its newly conceived classification as an obsessive compulsive related disorder (OCRD). In the process of investigating the neurobiology of BDD, neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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