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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079769/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-relapse-and-clitoral-reconstruction-after-female-genital-mutilation
#1
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Francesco Bianchi Demicheli, Alexia Willame, Nathalie Recordon, Patrick Petignat
BACKGROUND: Evidence on clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation is lacking. CASE: A woman with female genital mutilation experiencing clitoral pain during sex consulted to undergo clitoral reconstruction. The surgery was complicated by a wound infection responsible for severe postoperative pain. Such genital pain made our patient recall the traumatic experience of genital mutilation and experience a relapse of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077328/dissociation-between-working-memory-performance-and-proactive-interference-control-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Diane Swick, Julien Cayton, Victoria Ashley, And U Turken
Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062252/using-neuroimaging-to-individualize-tms-treatment-for-depression-toward-a-new-paradigm-for-imaging-guided-intervention
#3
Bruce M Luber, Simon Davis, Elisabeth Bernhardt, Andrada Neacsiu, Lori Kwapil, Sarah H Lisanby, Timothy J Strauman
The standard clinical technique for using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with limited efficacy to date. Such limited efficacy may be due to reliance on scalp-based targeting rather than state-of-the-science methods which incorporate fMRI-guided neuronavigation based on a specific model of neurocircuit dysfunction. In this review, we examine such a specific model drawn from regulatory focus theory, which postulates two brain/behavior systems, the promotion and prevention systems, underlying goal pursuit...
January 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008218/objective-assessment-of-a-preterm-infant-s-nutritive-sucking-from-initiation-of-feeding-through-hospitalization-and-discharge
#4
Gilson J Capilouto, Tommy J Cunningham
INTRODUCTION: In 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that an infant's ability to feed independently be considered a primary consideration for discharge home. To date, NICU healthcare teams have relied on clinical experience as well as descriptive scales to determine a high risk infant's ability to transition safely from tube feeding to oral feeding. The aim of the current case study was to illustrate the clinical utility of nfant(®) Feeding Solution as a noninvasive and objective instrument for determining a neonate's readiness to begin and advance oral feeding...
2016: Neonatal Intensive Care: the Journal of Perinatology-neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002832/acute-and-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-the-emergence-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-network-analysis
#5
Richard A Bryant, Mark Creamer, Meaghan O'Donnell, David Forbes, Alexander C McFarlane, Derrick Silove, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic
Importance: Little is understood about how the symptoms of posttraumatic stress develop over time into the syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective: To use a network analysis approach to identify the nature of the association between PTSD symptoms in the acute phase after trauma and the chronic phase. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study enrolled 1138 patients recently admitted with traumatic injury to 1 of 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia from March 13, 2004, to February 26, 2006...
December 14, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997672/caring-for-our-wounded-warriors-a-qualitative-examination-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-caregivers-of-individuals-with-military-related-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Noelle E Carlozzi, Tracey A Brickell, Louis M French, Angelle Sander, Anna L Kratz, David S Tulsky, Nancy D Chiaravalloti, Elizabeth A Hahn, Michael Kallen, Amy M Austin, Jennifer A Miner, Rael T Lange
The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework that captures aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for caregivers of individuals with military-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). We analyzed qualitative data from nine focus groups composed of caregivers of wounded warriors with a medically documented TBI. Focus group participants were recruited through hospital-based and/or community outreach efforts at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, the University of Michigan, and Hearts of Valor support groups (Tennessee and Washington)...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992885/ptsd-in-victims-of-terroristic-attacks-a-comparison-with-the-impact-of-other-traumatic-events-on-patients-lives
#7
Letizia Bossini, Casolaro Ilaria, Despoina Koukouna, Claudia Caterini, Miriam Olivola, Andrea Fagiolini
OBJECTIVES: To identify possible differences, in terms of duration and severity of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, between victims of terrorist attacks and subjects who underwent other types of traumatic events. METHODS: A sample of subjects suffering from PTSD was selected. After a clinical interview aimed at the collection of anamnestic data, CAPS to confirm the diagnosis of PTSD and DTS to assess frequency and severity of post-traumatic symptoms were administered...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936411/a-network-analysis-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-correlates-in-u-s-military-veterans
#8
Cherie Armour, Eiko I Fried, Marie K Deserno, Jack Tsai, Robert H Pietrzak
OBJECTIVE: Recent developments in psychometrics enable the application of network models to analyze psychological disorders, such as PTSD. Instead of understanding symptoms as indicators of an underlying common cause, this approach suggests symptoms co-occur in syndromes due to causal interactions. The current study has two goals: (1) examine the network structure among the 20 DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, and (2) incorporate clinically relevant variables to the network to investigate whether PTSD symptoms exhibit differential relationships with suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, physical functioning/quality of life (QoL), mental functioning/QoL, age, and sex...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876440/cannabis-alcohol-use-psychological-distress-and-decision-making-style
#9
James G Phillips, Rowan P Ogeil
INTRODUCTION: There have been suggestions of hypofrontality in cannabis users. To understand cannabis-related differences in decisional processes, Janis and Mann's conflict model of decision making was applied to recreational cannabis smokers who varied in their alcohol use and level of psychological distress. METHOD: An online sample of recreational substance users (114 male, 119 female) completed the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale (K10), and the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) for cannabis...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865628/the-genesis-and-presentation-of-anxiety-in-disorders-of-autonomic-overexcitation
#10
Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Valeria Iodice, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the genesis and presentation of previously-reported anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation in relation to interoception, body vigilance and trauma to test our hypothesis that patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), vasovagal syncope (VVS) and essential hyperhidrosis (EH) represent atypical anxiety phenotypes in whom affective symptoms are more related to apprehension and vigilance of physiological (interoceptive) feedback than neurotic or trauma-related factors...
October 19, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777375/reminders-of-social-connection-can-attenuate-anthropomorphism-a-replication-and-extension-of-epley-akalis-waytz-and-cacioppo-2008
#11
Jennifer A Bartz, Kristina Tchalova, Can Fenerci
It is a fundamental human need to secure and sustain a sense of social belonging. Previous research has shown that individuals who are lonely are more likely than people who are not lonely to attribute humanlike traits (e.g., free will) to nonhuman agents (e.g., an alarm clock that makes people get up by moving away from the sleeper), presumably in an attempt to fulfill unmet needs for belongingness. We directly replicated the association between loneliness and anthropomorphism in a larger sample (N = 178); furthermore, we showed that reminding people of a close, supportive relationship reduces their tendency to anthropomorphize...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774680/threat-and-fear-of-pain-induces-attentional-bias-to-pain-words-an-eye-tracking-study
#12
L Sharpe, M Brookes, E Jones, C Gittins, E Wufong, M K Nicholas
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of fear of pain (FOP) and threat on attentional biases, using eye-tracking methods. METHOD: One hundred and seven undergraduate students were randomized to receive threatening or reassuring information about the cold pressor task; and divided into high and low FOP groups. Participants completed the dot-probe task, while their eye movements were tracked. RESULTS: Results showed that those who received threatening information were less likely to have their first fixation on pain words, particularly affective pain words...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715333/a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-premigration-victimization-experiences-of-sexual-and-gender-minority-refugees-and-asylees-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#13
Edward J Alessi, Sarilee Kahn, Rebecca Van Der Horn
Progress in analyzing and interpreting the concepts of sexual orientation and gender identity in the context of refugee law has contributed to a rise in individuals seeking asylum in such countries as the United States and Canada. However, few studies have examined the victimization experiences of sexual- and gender-identity forced migrants prior to their arrival in North America. This qualitative study used thematic analysis to explore the premigration adult victimization experiences of 26 lesbian, gay, and transgender individuals who obtained refugee, asylee, or withholding-of-removal status in the United States or Canada based on persecution for their sexual orientation and/or gender identity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664824/perceived-social-isolation-is-associated-with-altered-functional-connectivity-in-neural-networks-associated-with-tonic-alertness-and-executive-control
#14
Elliot A Layden, John T Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo, Stefano F Cappa, Alessandra Dodich, Andrea Falini, Nicola Canessa
Perceived social isolation (PSI), colloquially known as loneliness, is associated with selectively altered attentional, cognitive, and affective processes in humans, but the neural mechanisms underlying these adjustments remain largely unexplored. Behavioral, eye tracking, and neuroimaging research has identified associations between PSI and implicit hypervigilance for social threats. Additionally, selective executive dysfunction has been evidenced by reduced prepotent response inhibition in social Stroop and dichotic listening tasks...
January 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648587/psychological-predictors-of-acute-postoperative-pain-after-hysterectomy-for-benign-causes
#15
Jennifer Scheel, Reinhard Sittl, Norbert Griessinger, Marion Strupf, Andreas Parthum, Violeta Dimova, Claudia Horn-Hofmann, Falk Thiel, Matthias W Beckmann, Stefan Lautenbacher
OBJECTIVES: Psychological parameters have been shown to contribute significantly to the development of acute postoperative pain (APOP). For the prediction of APOP in chest malformation patients and cancer patients, we found pain-specific psychological predictors to be of higher relevance than general psychological predictors. The current study aims to further substantiate these findings. METHODS: In a sample of 73 middle-aged hysterectomy patients, three predictor sets were assessed 1 day before surgery: attentional biases (towards pain-related, social threat, and positive words in a dot-probe task), pain-related emotions and cognitions (pain anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and pain hypervigilance), and affective state variables (depression and somatization)...
September 17, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633070/management-of-a-concealable-stigmatized-identity-a-qualitative-study-of-concealment-disclosure-and-role-flexing-among-young-resilient-sexual-and-gender-minority-individuals
#16
Laura Jane Bry, Brian Mustanski, Robert Garofalo, Michelle Nicole Burns
Disclosure of a sexual or gender minority status has been associated with both positive and negative effects on wellbeing. Few studies have explored the disclosure and concealment process in young people. Interviews were conducted with 10 sexual and/or gender minority individuals, aged 18-22 years, of male birth sex. Data were analyzed qualitatively, yielding determinants and effects of disclosure and concealment. Determinants of disclosure included holding positive attitudes about one's identity and an implicit devaluation of acceptance by society...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624417/recognition-of-emotional-facial-expressions-in-anxious-and-nonanxious-depression
#17
Hannah E Berg, Elizabeth D Ballard, David A Luckenbaugh, Allison C Nugent, Dawn F Ionescu, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression have each been independently associated with impairments in emotional face recognition. However, little is known about the nature of these impairments when anxiety and depression co-occur. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis evaluated the relationship between anxiety status and performance on the Emotional Expression Multimorph Task within a clinical sample of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). RESULTS: Participants with anxious depression (n=14) and nonanxious depression (n=14) completed the Emotional Expression Multimorph Task...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623049/latent-typologies-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-world-trade-center-responders
#18
Sarah R Horn, Robert H Pietrzak, Clyde Schechter, Evelyn J Bromet, Craig L Katz, Dori B Reissman, Roman Kotov, Michael Crane, Denise J Harrison, Robin Herbert, Benjamin J Luft, Jacqueline M Moline, Jeanne M Stellman, Iris G Udasin, Philip J Landrigan, Michael J Zvolensky, Steven M Southwick, Adriana Feder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating and often chronic psychiatric disorder. Following the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, thousands of individuals were involved in rescue, recovery and clean-up efforts. While a growing body of literature has documented the prevalence and correlates of PTSD in WTC responders, no study has evaluated predominant typologies of PTSD in this population. Participants were 4352 WTC responders with probable WTC-related DSM-IV PTSD. Latent class analyses were conducted to identify predominant typologies of PTSD symptoms and associated correlates...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620996/risk-factors-for-postoperative-hematoma-after-inguinal-hernia-repair-an-update
#19
Muhammad H Zeb, T K Pandian, Moustafa M El Khatib, Nimesh D Naik, Abhishek Chandra, David S Morris, Rory L Smoot, David R Farley
BACKGROUND: We recently sensed an increase in the frequency of groin hematoma after inguinal hernia repair (IHR) at our institution. The aim of this study was to provide a more updated assessment of the risk factors inherent to this complication. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of all adult patients (age ≥ 18 y) who developed a groin hematoma after IHR at our institution between 2003 and 2015. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to assess for independent predictors for groin hematoma...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609770/chemical-and-molecular-factors-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-current-knowledge-challenges-and-unanswered-questions
#20
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Ibironke Oduyebo, Houssam Halawi
Several chemical and molecular factors in the intestine are reported to be altered and to have a potentially significant role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), particularly in IBS with diarrhea. These include bile acids; short-chain fatty acids; mucosal barrier proteins; mast cell products such as histamine, proteases, and tryptase; enteroendocrine cell products; and mucosal mRNAs, proteins, and microRNAs. This article reviews the current knowledge and unanswered questions in the pathobiology of the chemical and molecular factors in IBS...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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