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Edward J Alessi, Sarilee Kahn, Rebecca Van Der Horn
Progress in analyzing and interpreting the concepts of sexual orientation and gender identity in the context of refugee law has contributed to a rise in individuals seeking asylum in such countries as the United States and Canada. However, few studies have examined the victimization experiences of sexual- and gender-identity forced migrants prior to their arrival in North America. This qualitative study used thematic analysis to explore the premigration adult victimization experiences of 26 lesbian, gay, and transgender individuals who obtained refugee, asylee, or withholding-of-removal status in the United States or Canada based on persecution for their sexual orientation and/or gender identity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
Elliot A Layden, John T Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo, Stefano F Cappa, Alessandra Dodich, Andrea Falini, Nicola Canessa
Perceived social isolation (PSI), colloquially known as loneliness, is associated with selectively altered attentional, cognitive, and affective processes in humans, but the neural mechanisms underlying these adjustments remain largely unexplored. Behavioral, eye tracking, and neuroimaging research has identified associations between PSI and implicit hypervigilance for social threats. Additionally, selective executive dysfunction has been evidenced by reduced prepotent response inhibition in social Stroop and dichotic listening tasks...
September 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Jennifer Scheel, Reinhard Sittl, Norbert Griessinger, Marion Strupf, Andreas Parthum, Violeta Dimova, Claudia Horn-Hofmann, Falk Thiel, Matthias W Beckmann, Stefan Lautenbacher
OBJECTIVES: Psychological parameters have been shown to contribute significantly to the development of acute postoperative pain (APOP). For the prediction of APOP in chest malformation patients and cancer patients, we found pain-specific psychological predictors to be of higher relevance than general psychological predictors. The current study aims to further substantiate these findings. METHODS: In a sample of 73 middle-aged hysterectomy patients, three predictor sets were assessed 1 day before surgery: attentional biases (towards pain-related, social threat, and positive words in a dot-probe task), pain-related emotions and cognitions (pain anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and pain hypervigilance), and affective state variables (depression and somatization)...
September 17, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
Laura Jane Bry, Brian Mustanski, Robert Garofalo, Michelle Nicole Burns
Disclosure of a sexual or gender minority status has been associated with both positive and negative effects on wellbeing. Few studies have explored the disclosure and concealment process in young people. Interviews were conducted with 10 sexual and/or gender minority individuals, aged 18-22 years, of male birth sex. Data were analyzed qualitatively, yielding determinants and effects of disclosure and concealment. Determinants of disclosure included holding positive attitudes about one's identity and an implicit devaluation of acceptance by society...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Hannah E Berg, Elizabeth D Ballard, David A Luckenbaugh, Allison C Nugent, Dawn F Ionescu, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression have each been independently associated with impairments in emotional face recognition. However, little is known about the nature of these impairments when anxiety and depression co-occur. METHODS: This post-hoc analysis evaluated the relationship between anxiety status and performance on the Emotional Expression Multimorph Task within a clinical sample of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). RESULTS: Participants with anxious depression (n=14) and nonanxious depression (n=14) completed the Emotional Expression Multimorph Task...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Sarah R Horn, Robert H Pietrzak, Clyde Schechter, Evelyn J Bromet, Craig L Katz, Dori B Reissman, Roman Kotov, Michael Crane, Denise J Harrison, Robin Herbert, Benjamin J Luft, Jacqueline M Moline, Jeanne M Stellman, Iris G Udasin, Philip J Landrigan, Michael J Zvolensky, Steven M Southwick, Adriana Feder
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating and often chronic psychiatric disorder. Following the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, thousands of individuals were involved in rescue, recovery and clean-up efforts. While a growing body of literature has documented the prevalence and correlates of PTSD in WTC responders, no study has evaluated predominant typologies of PTSD in this population. Participants were 4352 WTC responders with probable WTC-related DSM-IV PTSD. Latent class analyses were conducted to identify predominant typologies of PTSD symptoms and associated correlates...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Muhammad H Zeb, T K Pandian, Moustafa M El Khatib, Nimesh D Naik, Abhishek Chandra, David S Morris, Rory L Smoot, David R Farley
BACKGROUND: We recently sensed an increase in the frequency of groin hematoma after inguinal hernia repair (IHR) at our institution. The aim of this study was to provide a more updated assessment of the risk factors inherent to this complication. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of all adult patients (age ≥ 18 y) who developed a groin hematoma after IHR at our institution between 2003 and 2015. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to assess for independent predictors for groin hematoma...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Michael Camilleri, Ibironke Oduyebo, Houssam Halawi
Several chemical and molecular factors are reported to be altered and to have a potentially significant role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), particularly in IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D). These include bile acids, short chain fatty acids, mucosal barrier proteins, mast cell products such as histamine, proteases and tryptase, enteroendocrine cell products, and mucosal mRNAs, proteins and micro-RNAs. This article reviews the current knowledge and unanswered questions in the pathobiology of the chemical and molecular factors in IBS...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Ida Wessing, Georg Romer, Markus Junghöfer
BACKGROUND: An altered pattern of threat processing is deemed critical for the development of anxiety disorders (AD). According to the hypervigilance-avoidance hypothesis, AD patients show hypervigilance to threat cues at early stages of processing but avoid threat cues at later stages of processing. Consistently, adults with AD show enhanced neurophysiological responses to threat in early time windows and reduced responses to threat in late time windows. The presence of such a hypervigilance-avoidance effect and its underlying neural sources remain to be determined in clinically anxious children...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Noa Herz, Inbal Reuveni, Abraham Goldstein, Tuvia Peri, Shaul Schreiber, Yuval Harpaz, Omer Bonne
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit hyper arousal symptoms and attention problems which were frequently investigated using the P3 event-related potentials (ERPs). Our study aimed at providing more precise knowledge of the functional significance of the P3 alteration seen in PTSD by revealing its spatio-temporal dynamics. METHODS: Fifteen PTSD patients and fifteen healthy trauma-exposed controls participated in a three-tone "oddball" task while their brain activity was recorded by magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Morgane Gindt, Lucile Chanquoy, René Garcia
In adults, pathologies of anxiety such as posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) involve deficits in information processing that may reflect hypervigilance and deficient inhibitory control, specifically for negative information. However, little is known about inhibitory processing in children, particularly regarding the inhibition of emotional information. This study investigated whether children with PTSS or anxiety show impairments in executive control in an inhibition task. A total of 45 children (M age = 9...
August 23, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Carolyn Berryman, Vikki Wise, Tasha R Stanton, Alexander McFarlane, G Lorimer Moseley
OBJECTIVE: Somatic hypervigilance describes a clinical presentation in which people report more, and more intense, bodily sensations than is usual. Most explanations of somatic hypervigilance implicate altered information processing, but strong empirical data are lacking. Attention and working memory are critical for information processing, and we aimed to evaluate brain activity during attention/working memory tasks in people with and without somatic hypervigilance. METHOD: Data from 173 people with somatic hypervigilance and 173 controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and years of education were analyzed...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Marcia S Stevens, Susan O'Conner-Von
Adolescents who struggle with trichotillomania (TTM; hairpulling disorder) are not alone, their parents also struggle. The focus of this qualitative study was to identify what parents (N = 30) perceive as stressful about parenting an adolescent with TTM and how they cope with these stressors. Parents described uncertainty about the course of the disorder and powerlessness in the ability to protect their adolescent from the reactions of others or assist them in curtailing the hairpulling as very distressing...
July 25, 2016: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
Natania A Crane, Lisanne M Jenkins, Catherine Dion, Kortni K Meyers, Anne L Weldon, Laura B Gabriel, Sara J Walker, David T Hsu, Douglas C Noll, Heide Klumpp, K Luan Phan, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders often co-occur, with poorer treatment response and long-term outcomes. However, little is known about the shared and distinct neural mechanisms of comorbid MDD and anxiety (MDD+Anx). This study examined how MDD and MDD+Anx differentially impact cognitive control. METHODS: Eighteen MDD, 29 MDD+Anx, and 54 healthy controls (HC) completed the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG) during fMRI, including Target, Commission, and Rejection trials...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Philippe Yves Rémy Simon, Pierre-François Rousseau
OBJECTIVE: The present review aims to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of the α-1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin as primary pharmacologic treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: A systematic review was performed using keywords (i.e., prazosin, α-1-adrenergic antagonist, α-1-blocker, post-traumatic stress disorder) in the databases PubMed/Medline (1966-May 2016), Embase (1966-May 2016), ScienceDirect (1823-May 2016), OvidSP (1946-May 2016) and Nature (1845-May 2016)...
July 18, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Krysta J Trevis, Neil M McLachlan, Sarah J Wilson
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of chronic tinnitus has been proposed to result from a vicious cycle of hypervigilance occurring when a phantom sound is associated with anxiety and limbic system overactivity. Depression, obsessive-compulsiveness, illness attitudes and coping strategies are known to impact tinnitus, but their relationship with the vicious cycle is unknown. As such, we aimed to identify psychological mediators of the vicious cycle. We also examined the relationship between coping strategies and any identified mediators to facilitate the translation of our research to treatment settings...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Matthias J Wieser, Philipp Reicherts, Georgiana Juravle, Andreas von Leupoldt
Fear is elicited by imminent threat and leads to phasic fear responses with selective attention, whereas anxiety is characterized by a sustained state of heightened vigilance due to uncertain danger. In the present study, we investigated attention mechanisms in fear and anxiety by adapting the NPU-threat test to measure steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs). We investigated ssVEPs across no aversive events (N), predictable aversive events (P), and unpredictable aversive events (U), signaled by four-object arrays (30s)...
June 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Renée M Visser, Pia Haver, Robert J Zwitser, H Steven Scholte, Merel Kindt
A core symptom of anxiety disorders is the tendency to interpret ambiguous information as threatening. Using electroencephalography and blood oxygenation level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), several studies have begun to elucidate brain processes involved in fear-related perceptual biases, but thus far mainly found evidence for general hypervigilance in high fearful individuals. Recently, multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) has become popular for decoding cognitive states from distributed patterns of neural activation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Erika Wauthia, Mandy Rossignol
Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jarosław M Michałowski, Jacek Matuszewski, Dawid Droździel, Wojciech Koziejowski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Katarzyna Jednoróg, Artur Marchewka
In the present simultaneous EEG/ECG-fMRI study we compared the temporal and spatial characteristics of the brain responses and the cardiac activity during fear picture processing between spider, blood-injection-injury (BII) and social fearful as well as healthy (non-fearful) volunteers. All participants were presented with two neutral and six fear-related blocks of pictures: two social, two spider and two blood/injection fear blocks. In a social fear block neutral images were occasionally interspersed with photographs of angry faces and social exposure scenes...
May 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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