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Dmitry V Burdin, Alexey A Kolobov, Chad Brocker, Alexey A Soshnev, Nikolay Samusik, Anton V Demyanov, Silke Brilloff, Natalia Jarzebska, Jens Martens-Lobenhoffer, Maren Mieth, Renke Maas, Stefan R Bornstein, Stefanie M Bode-Böger, Frank Gonzalez, Norbert Weiss, Roman N Rodionov
Elevated levels of circulating asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA and SDMA) predict and potentially contribute to end organ damage in cardiovascular diseases. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) regulates systemic levels of ADMA and SDMA, and also of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB)-a modulator of lipid metabolism. We identified a putative binding site for hepatic nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4α) in AGXT2 promoter sequence. In a luciferase reporter assay we found a 75% decrease in activity of Agxt2 core promoter after disruption of the HNF4α binding site...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiujun Zhang, Yinbo Qu, Yuqi Qin
BACKGROUND: Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1, homologue HepA in Penicillium oxalicum) binding is associated with a highly compact chromatin state accompanied by gene silencing or repression. HP1 loss leads to the derepression of gene expression. We investigated HepA roles in regulating cellulolytic enzyme gene expression, as an increasingly number of studies have suggested that cellulolytic enzyme gene expression is not only regulated by transcription factors, but is also affected by the chromatin status...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Meng-Hsien Chuang, Jinghua Tsai Chang, Li-Jin Hsu, Ming-Shiou Jan, Fung-Jou Lu
JC-001 is a Chinese medicine that has been used to treat liver disease; however, its significance in cancer treatment has not been characterized. In this study, we used an immunocompetent tumor model to characterize the antitumor activity of JC-001. A total of 48 Hepa 1-6 tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were randomly grouped into 4 groups and treated with H2O or JC-001 via oral administration. After hepatoma cell lines, including HepG2, Hep3B, SK-Hep-1, and Hepa 1-6, underwent 96 hours of JC-001 treatment, a low cytotoxic effect was observed...
October 3, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Yasuhiro Horibata, Hiromi Ando, Peixiang Zhang, Laurent Vergnes, Chieko Aoyama, Masahiko Itoh, Karen Reue, Hiroyuki Sugimoto
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major phospholipid of mitochondria, composing 40-50% of both the outer and the inner membranes. However, PC must be imported from its production organelles because mitochondria lack the enzymes essential for PC biosynthesis. In a previous study, we found that StarD7 mediates the intracellular transfer of PC to mitochondria. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the contribution of StarD7 to the maintenance of mitochondrial phospholipid content and function using siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) and knockout (KO) of the StarD7 gene in HEPA-1 cells...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jose J G Marin, Elisa Lozano, Maria J Perez
Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and autophagy activation are common events in tumors. Here we have investigated the effect of mitochondrial genome depletion on chemical hypoxia-induced autophagy in liver tumor cells. Human SK-Hep-1 wild-type and mtDNA-depleted (Rho) cells were exposed to the hypoxia mimetic agents CoCl2 and deferoxamine (DFO). Up-regulation of HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α was observed. The expression of several HIF-1α target genes was also found. In human SK-Hep-1 and mouse Hepa 1-6 liver tumor cells, but not in the counterpart Rho derived lines, chemical hypoxia increased the abundance of autophagosomes and autolysosomes...
September 26, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ming-Xing Zhou, Xuan Wei, Ai-Ling Li, Ai-Min Wang, Ling-Zi Lu, Yue Yang, Dong-Mei Ren, Xiao-Ning Wang, Xue-Sen Wen, Hong-Xiang Lou, Tao Shen
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem and gives arise to severe chronic morbidity and mortality in the world. Inflammatory response and oxidative stress play dominant roles in the pathological mechanism of COPD, and have been regarded to be two important targets for the COPD therapy. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) possess satisfying curative effects on COPD under guidance of the TCM theory in China, and merit in-depth investigations as a resource of lead compounds...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Binglan Yu, Aron H Blaesi, Noel Casey, Grigory Raykhtsaum, Luca Zazzeron, Rosemary Jones, Alexander Morrese, Danil Dobrynin, Rajeev Malhotra, Donald B Bloch, Lee E Goldstein, Warren M Zapol
Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) produces selective pulmonary vasodilation without dilating the systemic circulation. However, the current NO/N2 cylinder delivery system is cumbersome and expensive. We developed a lightweight, portable, and economical device to generate NO from air by pulsed electrical discharge. The objective of this study was to investigate and optimize the purity and safety of NO generated by this device. By using low temperature streamer discharges in the plasma generator, we produced therapeutic levels of NO with very low levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone...
August 31, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jianbang Xiang, Charles J Weschler, Jinhan Mo, Drew Day, Junfeng Zhang, Yinping Zhang
This study investigates the impacts of outdoor and indoor ozone concentrations, ESP operation and occupancy on particle number concentrations within a modern office in Changsha, China. The office's one-pass air handling system contains a mini-bag filter (MERV 12) followed by an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Over a five-week period the system was operated either without the ESP (Stage 1, first-third week) or with the ESP (Stage 2, fourth and fifth week). Ozone and particle number concentrations were measured on working days...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
A B Cecala, J A Organiscak, J D Noll, J A Zimmer
Significant strides have been made in optimizing the design of filtration and pressurization systems used on the enclosed cabs of mobile mining equipment to reduce respirable dust and provide the best air quality to the equipment operators. Considering all of the advances made in this area, one aspect that still needed to be evaluated was a comparison of the efficiencies of the different filters used in these systems. As high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filters provide the highest filtering efficiency, the general assumption would be that they would also provide the greatest level of protection to workers...
August 2016: Mining Engineering
T L Croston, A P Nayak, A R Lemons, W T Goldsmith, J K Gu, D R Germolec, D H Beezhold, B J Green
BACKGROUND: Personal exposure to fungal bioaerosols derived from contaminated building materials or agricultural commodities may induce or exacerbate a variety of adverse health effects. The genomic mechanisms that underlie pulmonary immune responses to fungal bioaerosols have remained unclear. OBJECTIVE: The impact of fungal viability on the pulmonary microRNA and messenger RNA profiles that regulate murine immune responses was evaluated following subchronic inhalation exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hajime Shigeto, Keisuke Nakatsuka, Takeshi Ikeda, Ryuichi Hirota, Akio Kuroda, Hisakage Funabashi
This letter discusses the feasibility of continuously monitoring specific mRNA expression responses in a living cell with a probe structured as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based DNA nano-tweezer (DNA-NT). The FRET-based DNA-NT, self-assembled from three single-stranded DNAs, alters its structure from an open state to a closed state in recognition of a target mRNA, resulting in the closing of the distal relation of previously modified FRET-paired fluorescent dyes and generating a FRET signal...
August 16, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Syed A Sattar, Richard J Kibbee, Bahram Zargar, Kathryn E Wright, Joseph R Rubino, M Khalid Ijaz
BACKGROUND: Although indoor air can spread many pathogens, information on the airborne survival and inactivation of such pathogens remains sparse. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were nebulized separately into an aerobiology chamber (24.0 m(3)). The chamber's relative humidity and air temperature were at 50% ± 5% and 20°C ± 2°C, respectively. The air was sampled with a slit-to-agar sampler. Between tests, filtered air purged the chamber of any residual airborne microbes...
June 30, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Tiago Gomes Araújo, Alexandre Gabarra Oliveira, Juliana Falcato Vecina, Rodrigo Miguel Marin, Eryvelton Souza Franco, Mario J Abdalla Saad, Maria Bernadete de Sousa Maia
Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Caesalpiniaceae) is a traditional ethnomedicine and has been used for the empiric treatment of hyperglycemia, without scientific background. Mechanistic analyses at molecular level from the antioxidant mechanism observed by P. aculeata are required. Herein the effects of the treatment by hydroethanolic extract partitioned with ethyl acetate of P. aculeata aerial parts (HEPa/EtOAc) in mice fed a high-fat diet that share many obesity phenotypes with humans were evaluated. The animals were treated orally with HEPa/EtOAc (125 and 250 mg/kg/day) and pioglitazone (5 mg/kg/day), for 16 days...
August 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Caitlin L Maikawa, Naomi Zimmerman, Khaled Rais, Mittal Shah, Brie Hawley, Pallavi Pant, Cheol-Heon Jeong, Juana Maria Delgado-Saborit, John Volckens, Greg Evans, James S Wallace, Krystal J Godri Pollitt
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ekaterina Anatolevna Naumenko, Barbara Ahlemeyer, Eveline Baumgart-Vogt
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive substance and its toxicity is still of interest as it persisted in polluted areas. TNT is metabolized in hepatocytes which are prone to its toxicity. Since analysis of the human liver or hepatocytes is restricted due to ethical reasons, we investigated the effects of TNT on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, peroxisome proliferation, and antioxidative enzymes in human (HepG2), mouse (Hepa 1-6), and rat (H4IIEC3) hepatoma cell lines...
June 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Abigail Hankin-Wei, David B Rein, Alfonso Hernandez-Romieu, Mallory J Kennedy, Lisa Bulkow, Eli Rosenberg, Monica Trigg, Noele P Nelson
BACKGROUND: Since 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination routinely for children aged 12-23months to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However, a substantial proportion of US children are unvaccinated and susceptible to infection. We present results of economic modeling to assess whether a one-time catch-up HepA vaccination recommendation would be cost-effective. METHODS: We developed a Markov model of HAV infection that followed a single cohort from birth through death (birth to age 95years)...
July 29, 2016: Vaccine
Yulin Ren, P Annécie Benatrehina, Ulyana Muñoz Acuña, Chunhua Yuan, Hee-Byung Chai, Tran Ngoc Ninh, Esperanza J Carcache de Blanco, Djaja D Soejarto, A Douglas Kinghorn
Three new rotenoids (1-3), two new isoflavonoids (4 and 5), and six known analogues (6-11) were isolated from an n-hexane partition of a methanol extract of the fruits of Millettia caerulea, with the structures of the new compounds elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The relative configurations of the rotenoids were determined by interpretation of their NMR spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were established using electronic circular dichroism spectra and specific rotation values...
July 2016: Planta Medica
P Donnarumma, F Presaghi, R Tarantino, M Fragale, M Rullo, R Delfini
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of pelvic balance, physical activity, and fear-avoidance in a cohort of patients undergoing decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study includes consecutive patients undergoing decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar stenosis by one main surgeon from January 2014 to January 2015. Patients were interviewed by a psychologist and underwent standing whole spine X-ray...
June 7, 2016: European Spine Journal
Xiang-Hua Zhang, Li-Jun Zhang, Jing-Jian Sun, Yi-Jia Yan, Li-Xin Zhang, Na Chen, Zhi-Long Chen
This paper reports the antitumor activity of a chlorophyll-a derivative, 2-[1-hydroxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HEPa). Photophysical characteristics of HEPa were measured. And its cytotoxicity, intracellular localization, biodistribution, efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT), histological analysis were investigated using human bile duct carcinoma cells (QBC-939) and QBC-939 tumor bearing BABL/c nude mice as animal model. The results showed that HEPa was localized mainly within the cytoplasmic region and partially in lysosome...
July 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
P Thakur, B G Lemons, C R White
After almost fifteen years of successful waste disposal operations, the first unambiguous airborne radiation release from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was detected beyond the site boundary on February 14, 2014. It was the first accident of its kind in the 15-year operating history of the WIPP. The accident released moderate levels of radioactivity into the underground air. A small but measurable amount of radioactivity also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected above ground...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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