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Boris Wawrik, Christopher R Marks, Irene A Davidova, Michael J McInerney, Shane Pruitt, Kathleen E Duncan, Joseph M Suflita, Amy V Callaghan
Anaerobic microbial biodegradation of recalcitrant, water-insoluble substrates, such as paraffins, presents unique metabolic challenges. To elucidate this process, a methanogenic consortium capable of mineralizing long-chain n-paraffins (C28 -C50 ) was enriched from San Diego Bay sediment. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated the dominance of Syntrophobacterales (43%) and Methanomicrobiales (26%). Metagenomic sequencing allowed draft genome assembly of dominant uncultivated community members belonging to the bacterial genus Smithella and the archaeal genera Methanoculleus and Methanosaeta...
September 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Ali Munaim Yousif, Michele Minopoli, Katia Bifulco, Vincenzo Ingangi, Gioconda Di Carluccio, Francesco Merlino, Maria Letizia Motti, Paolo Grieco, Maria Vincenza Carriero
The receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) is a widely recognized master regulator of cell migration and uPAR88-92 is the minimal sequence required to induce cell motility. We and others have previously documented that the uPAR88-92 sequence, even in the form of synthetic linear peptide (SRSRY), interacts with the formyl peptide receptor type 1 (FPR1), henceforth inducing cell migration of several cell lines, including monocytes. FPR1 is mainly expressed by mammalian phagocytic leukocytes and plays a crucial role in chemotaxis...
2015: PloS One
Shahira M Ezzat, Mouchira A Choucry, Zeinab A Kandil
CONTEXT: Despite the traditional use of Bergia ammannioides Henye ex Roth. (Elatinaceae) for the treatment of wounds in India, there is a scarcity of scientific data supporting this use. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess wound-healing potentiality of the plant, to study pharmacological activities that may contribute in eliminating wound complications, and to investigate the biologically active fractions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ethanolic extract (EtOH) of the aerial parts was fractionated to obtain n-hexane (HxFr), chloroform (ClFr), ethyl acetate (EtFr), and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions...
2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Shahira M Ezzat, Amira Abdel Motaal
The sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the aqueous (AqEx) and ethanolic (AlEx) extracts, respectively, of the aerial parts of Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del. against two human cancer cell lines, breast (MCF7) and colon (HCT116) adenocarcinoma. AqEx exhibited higher cytotoxic activity, thus its four subfractions, namely n-hexane (HxFr), chloroform (ClFr), ethyl acetate (EtFr), and n-butanol (BuFr) fractions, were also tested. Purification of the more active ClFr and EtFr yielded nine compounds...
May 2012: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
A Abdel Motaal, S M Ezzat, P S Haddad
The antidiabetic activities of the aqueous (AqEx) and ethanolic (AlEx) extracts of Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., were tested in cultured C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. An 18-h treatment with the AqEx increased basal glucose uptake by 33% [insulin equivalent (IE)=1.3±0.04] in muscle cells comparable to a 25.5% increase caused by 100 nM insulin (IE=1±0.03). Fractionation of the tested AqEx yielded hexane (HxFr), chloroform (ClFr) and ethyl acetate (EtFr) fractions which exerted 38, 52 and 35% increase in the glucose uptake corresponding to an IE of 1...
December 15, 2011: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Teckla L Webb, Robert C Burnett, Anne C Avery, Christine S Olver
BACKGROUND: Characterization of anemia in horses presents a challenge, as they do not release reticulocytes into peripheral blood. Transferrin receptor (TfR) expression is highest on erythroid cells in people and rats, and measurement of a soluble serum form (sTfR) is used to quantify erythropoiesis in these species. We hypothesized that equine TfR (eTfR) expression is similar in quantity and distribution to that in these other species and thus has potential for characterization of the regenerative response in anemic horses...
December 2010: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Youhong Cui, Xinwei Hou, Juan Chen, Lianying Xie, Lang Yang, Yingying Le
The reaction of human leukocytes to chemoattractants is an important component of the host immune response and also plays a crucial role in the development of inflammation. Sesamin has been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation and regulate cytokine production. In this study, we examined the effect of sesamin on inflammatory responses elicited by the bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) in vitro and in vivo and explored the mechanisms involved. fMLF is recognized by a human G protein-coupled receptor formyl peptide receptor (FPR) on phagocytic leukocytes...
February 2010: Journal of Nutrition
Jingjing Zhu, Oumei Wang, Lingfei Ruan, Xinwei Hou, Youhong Cui, Ji Ming Wang, Yingying Le
Although green tea polyphenol catechin is considered as a potential anti-inflammatory agent, its effect on bacterial component-induced inflammation has been poorly investigated. We examined the capacity of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to regulate leukocyte responses to bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF), which is recognized by a human G protein-coupled receptor FPR on phagocytic leukocytes. Pretreatment of human monocytic cells or FPR-transfected rat basophilic leukemia cells (ETFR cells) with EGCG significantly inhibited fMLF-induced chemotaxis...
August 2009: International Immunopharmacology
Xavier Dray, Samuel A Giday, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Kathleen L Gabrielson, Sergey V Kantsevoy, Priscilla Magno, Lia Assumpcao, Eun J Shin, Susan K Reddings, Kevin E Woods, Michael R Marohn, Anthony N Kalloo
INTRODUCTION: The utility of the greater omentum has not been assessed in transluminal access closure after natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of omentoplasty for gastrotomy closure. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Survival experiments in 9 female 40-kg pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups: group A, endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) for transgastric access and peritoneoscopy without closure; group B, ETFR and peritoneoscopy with omentoplasty (flap of omentum is pulled into the stomach and attached to the gastric mucosa with clips but no clips are used for gastrotomy closure itself); group C, balloon dilation for opening and peritoneoscopy followed by omentoplasty for closure...
July 2009: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Tomoji Maeda, Joseph R Mazzulli, Iain K G Farrance, Alexandre F R Stewart
alpha(1)-Adrenergic signaling in cardiac myocytes activates the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene through an MCAT cis-element, the binding site of the transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) family of transcription factors. TEF-1 accounts for more than 85% of the MCAT binding activity in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Other TEF-1 family members account for the rest. Although TEF-1 itself has little effect on the alpha(1)-adrenergic activation of skeletal muscle alpha-actin, the related factor RTEF-1 augments the response and is a target of alpha(1)-adrenergic signaling...
July 5, 2002: Journal of Biological Chemistry
M Yasunami, K Suzuki, H Ohkubo
We cloned two novel types of TEA domain-containing transcription factor (ETFR-1 and -2) cDNAs. Amino acid sequences deduced for ETFR-1 and -2 as well as those of other known proteins of the same family, TEF-1 and ETF, exhibited significant identity (63-75% overall) to each other not only in the TEA DNA binding domain but also in the C-terminal regions. Northern blot analysis revealed that both the mRNAs were expressed in embryos as well as in many adult tissues, although their levels of expression varied. The results demonstrate that the mammalian TEA domain-containing transcription factor family consists of at least four distinct members, TEF-1, ETF, ETFR-1, and ETFR-2, which exhibit overlapping but differing spatiotemporal expression patterns, suggesting their redundant yet unique roles involved in not only developmental control but also tissue-specific regulation...
November 12, 1996: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
T C Lehman, C Thorpe
Mammalian electron-transferring flavoproteins have previously been reported to form the red anionic semiquinone on 1-electron reduction. This work describes a new form of electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETFB) from pig kidney which yields the blue neutral semiquinone upon photochemical, dithionite, or enzymatic reduction. ETFB appears in varying amounts as part of an established purification scheme for ETF. Both the normal form of ETF (ETFR) and ETFB show small differences in the spectra of their oxidized flavins, but no detectable differences in molecular weight or subunit composition...
February 1, 1992: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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