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Thomas P Garner, Denis E Reyna, Amit Priyadarshi, Hui-Chen Chen, Sheng Li, Yang Wu, Yogesh Tengarai Ganesan, Vladimir N Malashkevich, Emily H Cheng, Evripidis Gavathiotis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Molecular Cell
Aidan P Maartens, Jutta Wellmann, Emma Wictome, Benjamin Klapholz, Hannah Green, Nicholas H Brown
Vinculin is a highly conserved protein involved in cell adhesion and mechanotransduction, and both gain and loss of its activity causes defective cell behaviour. Here, we examine how altering vinculin activity perturbs integrin function within the context of Drosophila development. Whereas loss of vinculin produced relatively minor phenotypes, gain of vinculin activity, via a loss of head-tail autoinhibition, caused lethality. The minimal domain capable of inducing lethality is the talin-binding D1 domain, and this appears to require talin-binding activity, as lethality was suppressed by competition with single vinculin binding sites from talin...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Takehiko Ueyama, Yuzuru Ninoyu, Shin-Ya Nishio, Takushi Miyoshi, Hiroko Torii, Koji Nishimura, Kazuma Sugahara, Hideaki Sakata, Dean Thumkeo, Hirofumi Sakaguchi, Naoki Watanabe, Shin-Ichi Usami, Naoaki Saito, Shin-Ichiro Kitajiri
DIAPH1 encodes human DIA1, a formin protein that elongates unbranched actin. The c.3634+1G>T DIAPH1 mutation causes autosomal dominant nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss, DFNA1, characterized by progressive deafness starting in childhood. The mutation occurs near the C-terminus of the diaphanous autoregulatory domain (DAD) of DIA1, which interacts with its N-terminal diaphanous inhibitory domain (DID), and may engender constitutive activation of DIA1. However, the underlying pathogenesis that causes DFNA1 is unclear...
October 5, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Jingjin Ding, Kun Wang, Wang Liu, Yang She, Qi Sun, Jianjin Shi, Hanzi Sun, Da-Cheng Wang, Feng Shao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Nature
Mridula Dwivedi, Roland Winter
Phosphoinositols are an important class of phospholipids that are involved in a myriad of cellular processes, from cell signaling to motility and adhesion. Vinculin (Vn) is a major adaptor protein that regulates focal adhesions in conjunction with PIP2 in lipid membranes and other cytoskeletal components. The binding and unbinding transitions of Vn at the membrane interface are an important link to understanding the coordination of cell signaling and motility. Using different biophysical tools, including atomic force microscopy combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we studied the nanoscopic interactions of activated and autoinhibited states of Vn with lipid membranes...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Mariko Takayama, Chiaki Matsukura, Tohru Ariizumi, Hiroshi Ezura
The C-terminal extension region of SlGAD3 is likely involved in autoinhibition, and removing this domain increases GABA levels in tomato fruits. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a ubiquitous non-protein amino acid with several health-promoting benefits. In many plants including tomato, GABA is synthesized via decarboxylation of glutamate in a reaction catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which generally contains a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain. We previously generated transgenic tomato plants in which tomato GAD3 (SlGAD3) was expressed using the 35S promoter/NOS terminator expression cassette (35S-SlGAD3-NOS), yielding a four- to fivefold increase in GABA levels in red-ripe fruits compared to the control...
October 4, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Daniel W Summers, Daniel A Gibson, Aaron DiAntonio, Jeffrey Milbrandt
Axon injury in response to trauma or disease stimulates a self-destruction program that promotes the localized clearance of damaged axon segments. Sterile alpha and Toll/interleukin receptor (TIR) motif-containing protein 1 (SARM1) is an evolutionarily conserved executioner of this degeneration cascade, also known as Wallerian degeneration; however, the mechanism of SARM1-dependent neuronal destruction is still obscure. SARM1 possesses a TIR domain that is necessary for SARM1 activity. In other proteins, dimerized TIR domains serve as scaffolds for innate immune signaling...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
B Z Camurdanoglu, C Hrovat, G Dürnberger, M Madalinski, K Mechtler, R Herbst
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) forms when a motor neuron contacts a muscle fibre. A reciprocal exchange of signals initiates a cascade of signalling events that result in pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. At the centre of these signalling events stands muscle specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK activation, kinase activity and subsequent downstream signalling are crucial for NMJ formation as well as maintenance. Therefore MuSK kinase activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper NMJ development. We have identified a novel serine phosphorylation site at position 751 in MuSK that is increasingly phosphorylated upon agrin stimulation...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tito Calì, Martina Frizzarin, Laura Luoni, Francesco Zonta, Sergio Pantano, Carlos Cruz, Maria Cristina Bonza, Ilenia Bertipaglia, Maria Ruzzene, Maria Ida De Michelis, Nunzio Damiano, Oriano Marin, Ginevra Zanni, Giuseppe Zanotti, Marisa Brini, Raffaele Lopreiato, Ernesto Carafoli
The plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (PMCA pumps) have a long, cytosolic C-terminal regulatory region where a calmodulin-binding domain (CaM-BD) is located. Under basal conditions (low Ca(2+)), the C-terminal tail of the pump interacts with autoinhibitory sites proximal to the active center of the enzyme. In activating conditions (i.e., high Ca(2+)), Ca(2+)-bound CaM displaces the C-terminal tail from the autoinhibitory sites, restoring activity. We have recently identified a G1107D replacement within the CaM-BD of isoform 3 of the PMCA pump in a family affected by X-linked congenital cerebellar ataxia...
September 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tatiana B Stanishneva-Konovalova, Charlotte F Kelley, Tania L Eskin, Emily M Messelaar, Steven A Wasserman, Olga S Sokolova, Avital A Rodal
Membrane remodeling by Fes/Cip4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs167 (F-BAR) proteins is regulated by autoinhibitory interactions between their SRC homology 3 (SH3) and F-BAR domains. The structural basis of autoregulation, and whether it affects interactions of SH3 domains with other cellular ligands, remain unclear. Here we used single-particle electron microscopy to determine the structure of the F-BAR protein Nervous Wreck (Nwk) in both soluble and membrane-bound states. On membrane binding, Nwk SH3 domains do not completely dissociate from the F-BAR dimer, but instead shift from its concave surface to positions on either side of the dimer...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Li-Ching Fan, Hao-Wei Teng, Chung-Wai Shiau, Wei-Tien Tai, Man-Hsin Hung, Shung-Haur Yang, Jeng-Kai Jiang, Kuen-Feng Chen
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is well-known to evoke cancer invasion/metastasis, leading to a high frequency of mortality in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase)-targeted therapy has been identified as a novel cancer therapeutic. Previously, we proved that sorafenib with anti-EMT potency prevents TGF-β1-induced EMT/invasion by directly activating SH2-domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1)-dependent p-STAT3Tyr705 suppression in hepatocellular carcinoma...
August 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Xiaojiao Chen, Min Zhu, Lei Jiang, Wenyang Zhao, Jia Li, Jianyan Wu, Chun Li, Baohui Bai, Gang Lu, Hongyu Chen, Peter Moffett, Xiaorong Tao
The tomato resistance protein Sw-5b differs from the classical coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) resistance proteins by having an extra N-terminal domain (NTD). To understand how NTD, CC and NB-LRR regulate autoinhibition and activation of Sw-5b, we dissected the function(s) of each domain. When viral elicitor was absent, Sw-5b LRR suppressed the central NB-ARC to maintain autoinhibition of the NB-LRR segment. The CC and NTD domains independently and additively enhanced the autoinhibition of NB-LRR...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Eunju Im, Lang Yoo, Minju Hyun, Woo Hyun Shin, Kwang Chul Chung
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in aggregates called Lewy bodies. Several mutated genes have been found in familial PD patients, including SNCA (α-synuclein), PARK2 (parkin), PINK1, PARK7 (DJ-1), LRRK2 and ATP13A2 Many pathogenic mutations of PARK2, which encodes the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin, result in loss of function, leading to accumulation of parkin substrates and consequently contributing to dopaminergic cell death...
August 2016: Open Biology
Nandish Khanra, Paolo Rossi, Anastassios Economou, Charalampos G Kalodimos
The flagellum is a complex bacterial nanomachine that requires the proper assembly of several different proteins for its function. Dedicated chaperones are central in preventing aggregation or undesired interactions of flagellar proteins, including their targeting to the export gate. FliT is a key flagellar chaperone that binds to several flagellar proteins in the cytoplasm, including its cognate filament-capping protein FliD. We have determined the solution structure of the FliT chaperone in the free state and in complex with FliD and the flagellar ATPase FliI...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shinsuke Niwa, David M Lipton, Manatsu Morikawa, Charles Zhao, Nobutaka Hirokawa, Hang Lu, Kang Shen
Kinesin motor proteins transport intracellular cargoes throughout cells by hydrolyzing ATP and moving along microtubule tracks. Intramolecular autoinhibitory interactions have been shown for several kinesins in vitro; however, the physiological significance of autoinhibition remains poorly understood. Here, we identified four mutations in the stalk region and motor domain of the synaptic vesicle (SV) kinesin UNC-104/KIF1A that specifically disrupt autoinhibition. These mutations augment both microtubule and cargo vesicle binding in vitro...
August 23, 2016: Cell Reports
Yi-Chun Kuo, Xuewu Zhang
The regulation of the guidance receptor plexin is incompletely understood. In this issue, Kong et al. (2016) present crystal structures of the full-length extracellular region of class A plexins, revealing its dual role in both autoinhibition and activation.
August 3, 2016: Neuron
Lori Buetow, Danny T Huang
Covalent attachment (conjugation) of one or more ubiquitin molecules to protein substrates governs numerous eukaryotic cellular processes, including apoptosis, cell division and immune responses. Ubiquitylation was originally associated with protein degradation, but it is now clear that ubiquitylation also mediates processes such as protein-protein interactions and cell signalling depending on the type of ubiquitin conjugation. Ubiquitin ligases (E3s) catalyse the final step of ubiquitin conjugation by transferring ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) to substrates...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Sarah Bianchi, Wilhelmina E van Riel, Sebastian H W Kraatz, Natacha Olieric, Daniel Frey, Eugene A Katrukha, Rolf Jaussi, John Missimer, Ilya Grigoriev, Vincent Olieric, Roger M Benoit, Michel O Steinmetz, Anna Akhmanova, Richard A Kammerer
Tight regulation of kinesin activity is crucial and malfunction is linked to neurological diseases. Point mutations in the KIF21A gene cause congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) by disrupting the autoinhibitory interaction between the motor domain and a regulatory region in the stalk. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the misregulation of KIF21A activity in CFEOM1 is not understood. Here, we show that the KIF21A regulatory domain containing all disease-associated substitutions in the stalk forms an intramolecular antiparallel coiled coil that inhibits the kinesin...
2016: Scientific Reports
Soni Kaundal, Manju Uttam, Krishan Gopal Thakur
Contact dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is the phenomenon where CDI+ bacterial strain (inhibitor) inhibits the growth of CDI-strain (target) by direct cell to cell contact. CDI is mediated by cdiBAI gene cluster where CdiB facilitates the export of CdiA, an exotoxin, on the cell surface and CdiI acts as an immunity protein to protect CDI+ cells from autoinhibition. CdiA-CT, the C-terminal region of the toxin CdiA, from uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536 (UPEC536) is a latent tRNase that requires binding of a biosynthetic enzyme CysK (O-acetylserine sulfyhydrylase) for activation in the target cells...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
Activity of the proapoptotic BAX protein is regulated by formation of inactive cytosolic dimers.
September 2016: Cancer Discovery
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