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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457886/janus-gradient-meshes-for-continuous-separation-and-collection-of-flowing-oils-under-water
#1
Ning Li, Cunlong Yu, Yifan Si, Meirong Song, Zhichao Dong, Lei Jiang
Gradient meshes with Janus wettabilities are fabricated to stably separate and collect spilled oils from a range of flowing oily wastewater. Here, we demonstrate an overflow with separation methodology, which combines selective oil overflow and membrane separation, to separate low content oils from dynamic flowing oil-water mixtures by a curved gradient mesh that covered on a solid edge. The microscaled air-oil-water-solid four-phase wetting state during the oil-water separation process is visualized and demonstrated...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457730/cryo-spectroscopy-studies-of-intact-light-harvesting-antennas-reveal-empirical-electronic-energy-transitions-in-two-cyanobacteria-species
#2
Albert Collins Nganou Assonkeng, Noam Adir, Martin Mkandawire
Understanding of electronic energy transition (EET) mechanisms from the light-harvesting unit to the reaction centre in a natural system has been limited by; (a) the use of conventional transient time-resolved spectroscopy at room temperature, which result in high signal-to-noise ratio; and (b) examining extracts instead of intact light-harvesting units. Here, we report previously unknown differences and new insight in EET of two cyanobacteria species, Acaryochloris marina and Thermosynechoccocus vulvanus, which have been found only after using Uv-vis, hole-burning and fluorescence spectroscopy at ultra-low temperature and examining their intact light-harvesting unit, phycobilisomes (PBS)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457286/applicability-of-low-flow-apci-and-appi-mass-spectrometry-with-a-microfabricated-nebulizer-for-neutral-lipids
#3
Vladimír Vrkoslav, Barbora Rumlová, Timotej Strmeň, Pavlína Nekvasilová, Miloslav Šulc, Josef Cvačka
RATIONALE: Mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or photoionization (APPI) is widely used for neutral lipids involved in many fundamental processes in living organisms. Commercial APCI and APPI sources operate at high flow rates compatible with conventional HPLC. However, lipid analysis is often limited by a small amount of sample, which requires low-flow rate separations like capillary or micro-HPLC. Therefore, APCI and APPI suitable for microliter-per-minute flow rates need to be developed and applied for neutral lipids...
February 18, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456653/metformin-protects-against-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-induced-macrophage-apoptosis-and-inhibits-lipid-uptake
#4
Ning Huangfu, Yong Wang, Jingsong Cheng, Zhenyu Xu, Shenghuang Wang
Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced macrophage apoptosis contributes to the formation of atherosclerosis. Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, has been reported to attenuate lipid accumulation in macrophages. In this study, the effects of metformin on ox-LDL-induced macrophage apoptosis were investigated and the mechanisms involved in this process were examined. By performing flow cytometry analysis, it was demonstrated that metformin inhibited ox-LDL-induced macrophage apoptosis. Increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker proteins, including C/EBP-homologous protein, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A, and glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa, induced by ox-LDL was also reversed by metformin...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456535/liver-x-receptor-agonist-therapy-prevents-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage-in-murine-lupus-by-repolarizing-macrophages
#5
Shuhong Han, Haoyang Zhuang, Stepan Shumyak, Jingfan Wu, Chao Xie, Hui Li, Li-Jun Yang, Westley H Reeves
The generation of CD138+ phagocytic macrophages with an alternative (M2) phenotype that clear apoptotic cells from tissues is defective in lupus. Liver X receptor-alpha (LXRα) is an oxysterol-regulated transcription factor that promotes reverse cholesterol transport and alternative (M2) macrophage activation. Conversely, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1α) promotes classical (M1) macrophage activation. The objective of this study was to see if lupus can be treated by enhancing the generation of M2-like macrophages using LXR agonists...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456268/evidence-for-ubiquitous-preferential-particle-orientation-in-representative-oceanic-shear-flows
#6
Aditya R Nayak, Malcolm N McFarland, James M Sullivan, Michael S Twardowski
In situ measurements were undertaken to characterize particle fields in undisturbed oceanic environments. Simultaneous, co-located depth profiles of particle fields and flow characteristics were recorded using a submersible holographic imaging system and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter, under different flow conditions and varying particle concentration loads, typical of those found in coastal oceans and lakes. Nearly one million particles with major axis lengths ranging from ∼14 μm to 11.6 mm, representing diverse shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios were characterized as part of this study...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455849/relationship-between-proximal-aorta-morphology-and-progression-rate-of-aortic-stenosis
#7
Romain Capoulade, Jonathan G Teoh, Philipp E Bartko, Eliza Teo, Jan-Erik Scholtz, Lionel Tastet, Mylene Shen, Christos G Mihos, Yong H Park, Julio Garcia, Eric Larose, Eric M Isselbacher, Thoralf M Sundt, Thomas E MacGillivray, Serguei Melnitchouk, Brian B Ghoshhajra, Philippe Pibarot, Judy Hung
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the association between abnormal morphology of the proximal aorta and aortic stenosis (AS) progression rate. The main hypothesis was that morphologic changes of the proximal aorta, such as effacement of the sinotubular junction (STJ), result in increased biomechanical stresses and contribute to calcification and progression of AS. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2012, 426 patients with mild to moderate AS were included in this study...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455735/corrigendum-to-flow-cytometric-quantitation-of-platelet-phagocytosis-by-monocytes-using-a-ph-sensitive-dye-phrodo-se-journal-of-immunological-methods-447-2017-57-64
#8
Daisuke Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Fujihara, Toru Miyazaki, Keiji Matsubayashi, Shinichiro Sato, Hiroshi Azuma, Toshiaki Kato, Shuichi Kino, Hisami Ikeda, Shigeru Takamoto, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
Antibody-mediated phagocytosis of platelets using a flow cytometric monocyte-based phagocytosis assay (FMPA) has been shown to predict the outcome of platelet transfusion. The easy adherence between platelets and monocytes even in the absence of an antibody is regarded as one of limitations of the FMPA. To improve the FMPA for prediction of transfusion outcome, we used the pH-sensitive dye pHrodo succinimidyl ester (pHrodo-SE), which has weak fluorescence at neutral pH and has increased fluorescence intensity in low pH conditions such as in lysomes...
March 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455527/mechanical-division-of-cell-sized-liposomes
#9
Siddharth Deshpande, Willem Kasper Spoelstra, Marleen van Doorn, Jacob Kerssemakers, Cees Dekker
Liposomes, self-assembled vesicles with a lipid-bilayer boundary similar to cell membranes, are extensively used in both fundamental and applied sciences. Manipulation of their physical properties, such as growth and division, may significantly expand their use as model systems in cellular and synthetic biology. Several approaches have been explored to controllably divide liposomes, such as shape transformation through temperature cycling, incorporation of additional lipids, and the encapsulation of protein division machinery...
February 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455376/human-urine-extract-cell-differentiation-agent-2-protects-pc12-cells-from-serum-deprivation-induced-apoptosis-accompanied-with-priming-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-activation-and-differentiation-induction
#10
Chih-Jung Yao, Shuang-En Chuang, Ya-Yu Yang, Gi-Ming Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of human urine extract cell differentiation agent 2 (CDA-2) by the model of serum deprivation-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells and study the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Apoptosis of PC12 cells was induced by serum deprivation. CDA-2 at doses of 0.5-4 mg/mL was used to treat the serum-deprived PC12 cells. The cellular viability was measured by sulforhodamine B binding assay and the cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometer...
February 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455352/electrokinetic-fenton-remediation-of-organochlorine-pesticides-from-historically-polluted-soil
#11
Maofei Ni, Shulei Tian, Qifei Huang, Yanmei Yang
Soil contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) poses a great threat to historically polluted soil worldwide. In this study, soils were characterized, and organochlorine pesticides contained in the soils were identified and quantified. Individual electrokinetic (IE), EK-Fenton-coupled technologies (EF), and enhanced EK-Fenton treatment (E-1, E-2, and E-3) were applied to remediate soils contaminated with hexachloro-cyclohexane soprocide (HCH) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). Variation of pH, electrical conductivity, and electroosmotic flow was evaluated during the EK-Fenton process...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455350/analysing-the-accuracy-of-machine-learning-techniques-to-develop-an-integrated-influent-time-series-model-case-study-of-a-sewage-treatment-plant-malaysia
#12
Mozafar Ansari, Faridah Othman, Taher Abunama, Ahmed El-Shafie
The function of a sewage treatment plant is to treat the sewage to acceptable standards before being discharged into the receiving waters. To design and operate such plants, it is necessary to measure and predict the influent flow rate. In this research, the influent flow rate of a sewage treatment plant (STP) was modelled and predicted by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), nonlinear autoregressive network (NAR) and support vector machine (SVM) regression time series algorithms. To evaluate the models' accuracy, the root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2 ) were calculated as initial assessment measures, while relative error (RE), peak flow criterion (PFC) and low flow criterion (LFC) were calculated as final evaluation measures to demonstrate the detailed accuracy of the selected models...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455221/perioperative-lumbar-drain-utilization-in-transsphenoidal-pituitary-resection
#13
Shatha Alharbi, Griffith Harsh, Abdulrazag Ajlan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lumbar drain (LD) efficacy in transnasal resection of pituitary macroadenomas in preventing postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, technique safety, and effect on length of hospital stay. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective data review of pituitary tumor patients in our institution who underwent surgery between December 2006 and January 2013. All patients were operated on for complete surgical resection of pituitary macroadenoma tumors...
January 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455038/mechanical-and-degradation-property-improvement-in-a-biocompatible-mg-ca-sr-alloy-by-thermomechanical-processing
#14
Hunter B Henderson, Vidhya Ramaswamy, Alexander E Wilson-Heid, Michael S Kesler, Josephine B Allen, Michele V Manuel
Magnesium-based alloys have attracted interest as a potential material to comprise biomedical implants that are simultaneously high-strength and temporary, able to provide stabilization before degrading safely and able to be excreted by the human body. Many alloy systems have been evaluated, but this work reports on improved properties through hot extrusion of one promising alloy: Mg-1.0 wt% Ca-0.5 wt%Sr. This alloy has previously demonstrated promising toxicity and degradation properties in the as-cast and rolled conditions...
February 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454933/effects-of-resting-state-condition-on-reliability-trait-specificity-and-network-connectivity-of-brain-function-measured-with-arterial-spin-labeled-perfusion-mri
#15
Zhengjun Li, Marta Vidorreta, Natalie Katchmar, David C Alsop, Daniel H Wolf, John A Detre
Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) provides imaging biomarkers of task-independent brain function that can be associated with clinical variables or modulated by interventions such as behavioral training or pharmacological manipulations. These biomarkers include time-averaged regional brain function as manifested by regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI and correlated temporal fluctuations of function across brain networks with either ASL or blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454905/relationships-between-surface-coverage-ratio-and-powder-mechanics-of-binary-adhesive-mixtures-for-inhalation
#16
Jonas Rudén, Göran Frenning, Tobias Bramer, Kyrre Thalberg, Göran Alderborn
The aim of this paper was to study relationships between the content of fine particles and the powder mechanics of binary adhesive mixtures and link these relationships to the blend state. Mixtures with increasing amounts of fine particles (increasing surface coverage ratios (SCR)) were prepared using Lactopress SD as carrier and micro particles of lactose as fines (2.7 µm). Indicators of unsettled bulk density, compressibility and flowability were derived and the blend state was visually examined by imaging...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454799/identification-of-genomic-variants-causing-sperm-abnormalities-and-reduced-male-fertility
#17
REVIEW
Jeremy F Taylor, Robert D Schnabel, Peter Sutovsky
Whole genome sequencing has identified millions of bovine genetic variants; however, there is currently little understanding about which variants affect male fertility. It is imperative that we begin to link detrimental genetic variants to sperm phenotypes via the analysis of semen samples and measurement of fertility for bulls with alternate genotypes. Artificial insemination (AI) bulls provide a useful model system because of extensive fertility records, measured as sire conception rates (SCR). Genetic variants with moderate to large effects on fertility can be identified by sequencing the genomes of fertile and subfertile or infertile sires identified with high or low SCR as adult AI bulls or yearling bulls that failed Breeding Soundness Evaluation...
February 10, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454193/revealing-metabolic-storage-processes-in-electrode-respiring-bacteria-by-differential-electrochemical-mass-spectrometry
#18
F Kubannek, U Schröder, U Krewer
In this work we employ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) in combination with static and dynamic electrochemical techniques for the study of metabolic processes of electrochemically active bacteria. CO 2 production during acetate oxidation by electrode respiring bacteria was measured, in-vivo and online with a sensitivity of 6.5 ⋅ 10 -13 mol/s. The correlation of ion current and electrical current provides insight into the interaction of metabolic processes and extra-cellular electron transfer...
February 8, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454188/modified-two-step-emulsion-solvent-evaporation-technique-for-fabricating-biodegradable-rod-shaped-particles-in-the-submicron-size-range
#19
Hanieh Safari, Reheman Adili, Michael Holinstat, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
HYPOTHESIS: Though the emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) technique has been previously modified to produce rod-shaped particles, it cannot generate small-sized rods for drug delivery applications due to the inherent coupling and contradicting requirements for the formation versus stretching of droplets. The separation of the droplet formation from the stretching step should enable the creation of submicron droplets that are then stretched in the second stage by manipulation of the system viscosity along with the surface-active molecule and oil-phase solvent...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453928/cd4-cd25-cd127low-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-crohn-s-disease
#20
Ali Khalili, Soheil Ebrahimpour, Iradj Maleki, Saeid Abediankenari, Mousa Mohammadnia Afrouzi
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cell play a key role in autoimmune diseases. We evaluated the regulatory function and frequency of Treg cells and secreted IL-10, IL-35 concentration in Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CD and 25 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study. We analysed the alteration of Tregs frequency using flow cytometry for CD4, CD25, CD127 and FoxP3 markers. Surface expression of CD4, CD25 and CD127 markers were used for isolation of a relatively pure Treg cells...
February 16, 2018: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
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