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Gabrielle Santangelo, Doran Mix, Ahmed Ghazi, Michael Stoner, G Edward Vates, Jonathan J Stone
BACKGROUND: Surgical education relies on operative exposure with live patients. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) demands an experienced surgeon with a very low complication rate. The high-risk nature of this procedure and the decline in number of CEAs performed annually has created a gap in residency training. OBJECTIVE: To develop a high-fidelity whole-task simulation for CEA that demonstrates content, construct, and face validity. METHODS: Anatomically accurate models of the human neck were created using multilayered poly-vinyl alcohol hydrogels...
September 27, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Martin Schweiger, Oliver Miera, Theo M M H de By, Michael Hübler, Felix Berger, Mustafa Özbaran, Antonio Loforte, Burkhardt Seifert, Gaetano Gargiulo, Jan Gummert, Paul Mohacsi
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about cerebral strokes in paediatric patients supported by intracorporeal continuous-flow ventricular assist devices. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated patients younger than 19 years of age who were treated with an intracorporeal continuous-flow ventricular assist device in the European Registry for Patients with Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS) database. The patients were stratified by body surface area in Group 1 [<1...
September 25, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
O Alonge, S Lin, T Igusa, D H Peters
System dynamics methods were used to explore effective implementation pathways for improving health systems performance through pay-for-performance (P4P) schemes. A causal loop diagram was developed to delineate primary causal relationships for service delivery within primary health facilities. A quantitative stock-and-flow model was developed next. The stock-and-flow model was then used to simulate the impact of various P4P implementation scenarios on quality and volume of services. Data from the Afghanistan national facility survey in 2012 was used to calibrate the model...
September 23, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
Wan Huai, Zhirui Deng, Wenshu Lin, Qin Chen
The bactericidal activities of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB), 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (BCDMH), and the combination of the two (designated as PB) were compared using Escherichia coli as the test organism. PB exhibited strong bactericidal activity: 10 mg/L PHMB combined with 8 mg/L BCDMH resulted in approximately 5.74 log10 reduction (LR), whereby 320 mg/L PHMB or 20 mg/L BCDMH was about 5.53 and 6.56 LR, respectively. Analyses using scanning electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that PB, PHMB, and BCDMH disrupted cell membranes and changed membrane structure and permeability, resulting in the leakage of intracellular soluble proteins and ions...
October 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Javier Ramos, Juan Manuel Monteagudo, Teresa González-Alujas, María Eugenia Fuentes, Marta Sitges, María Luisa Peña, Fernando Carrasco-Chinchilla, Tomás Echeverría, Alberto Bouzas, José Francisco Forteza Alberti, Dolores Mesa, Jesús María De La Hera, José Luis Zamorano
Aims: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent valvular disease in developed countries. As society grows older, the prevalence of AS increases. However, the real burden, current aetiology, severity distribution, and echocardiographic patterns of AS are not fully clear. The aim of the present study is to provide an accurate overall picture of AS, focusing on its epidemiology, aetiology, and echocardiographic features. Methods and results: A total of 29 502 consecutive echocardiograpies were prospectively included in this multicentre study...
September 28, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
J Spaeth, T Schweizer, A Schmutz, H Buerkle, S Schumann
Background: The anaesthesia ventilator represents the key equipment for intraoperative respiratory care. Improper operation of this device may threaten a patient's health. A self-explanatory interface facilitates handling and decreases the risk of operating errors. This study systematically evaluates the usability of user interfaces in four modern anaesthesia ventilators. Methods: Twenty naïve operators were asked to execute 20 tasks on each of four different anaesthesia ventilators (Avance CS2™, GE Healthcare; Flow-i™, Maquet; and Perseus™ and Primus™, Dräger) in a randomized order...
October 3, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Artem E Akmalov, Alexander A Chistyakov, Olga I Dubkova, Gennadii E Kotkovskii, Alexei V Sychev
The approaches for increasing a contact-free sampling distance up to 40 cm for a field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer were investigated and implemented by use both the vortex flow made by a rotating impeller and the laser desorption of traces of low volatile explosives. The sampling device for a laser-based field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer including a high-speed rotating impeller was designed and built with help of computer simulation of vortex and analytical flows. The dependence of a signal of trinitrotoluene vapors on a rotational speed of an impeller was obtained...
August 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Qijie Mo, Nana Chen, Mengdie Deng, Lichun Yang, Qingsheng Gao
To advance hydrogen economy, noble-metal-free electrocatalysts with good efficiency are urgently demanded. They can be developed from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with abundant structure-variety, in which a controlled pyrolysis is desired to rationalize nanostructure and maximize catalytic activity. Herein, the efficient regulation is proposed for the first time on the carbon-shell of MOFs-derived Co@NC nanocomposites via varying temperature and flow-rate during pyrolysis, enabling the good accessibility and the electronic optimization of active Co cores...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Esmaeel Moghimi, Alan R Jacob, George Petekidis
A combination of experiments and Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations is utilized to examine internal stresses in colloidal gels brought to rest from steady shear at different shear rates. A model colloidal gel with intermediate volume fraction is chosen where attractions between particles are introduced by adding non-adsorbing linear polymer chains. After flow cessation, the gel releases the stress in two distinct patterns: at high shear rates, where shear forces dominate over attractive forces, the shear-melted gel behaves as a liquid and releases stresses to zero after flow cessation...
October 13, 2017: Soft Matter
Romain Savary, Frédéric G Masclaux, Tania Wyss, Germain Droh, Joaquim Cruz Corella, Ana Paula Machado, Joseph B Morton, Ian R Sanders
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Gomeromycota) associate with plants forming one of the most successful microbe-plant associations. The fungi promote plant diversity and have a potentially important role in global agriculture. Plant growth depends on both inter- and intra-specific variation in AMF. It was recently reported that an unusually large number of AMF taxa have an intercontinental distribution, suggesting long-distance gene flow for many AMF species, facilitated by either long-distance natural dispersal mechanisms or human-assisted dispersal...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
Zije Xia, Evan R Williams
Theta glass electrospray emitters can rapidly mix solutions to investigate fast reactions that occur as quickly as 1 μs, but emitters with submicron tips have the unusual properties of desalting protein ions and affecting the observed abundances of some proteins as a result of protein-surface interactions. The role of protein physical properties on ion signal was investigated using 1.7 ± 0.1 μm and 269 ± 7 nm emitters and 100 mM aqueous ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate solutions. Protein ion desalting occurs for both positive and negative ions...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Takor B Arrey-Mbi, Seth M Klusewitz, Todd C Villines
Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is a highly accurate test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), with its use guided by numerous contemporary appropriate use criteria and clinical guidelines. Unique among non-invasive tests for CAD, coronary CTA provides direct visualization of coronary atherosclerosis for the assessment of angiographic stenosis, as well as validated measures of plaque vulnerability. Long-term studies now clearly demonstrate that the absence of CAD on coronary CTA identifies a patient that is at very low risk for future cardiovascular events...
October 12, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Hongje Lee, Ho Won Lee, You La Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to optimize the dendritic cell (DC)-mediated T-cell activation using reporter gene imaging and flow cytometric analysis in living mice. PROCEDURES: A murine dendritic cell line (DC2.4) co-expressing effluc and Thy1.1 genes were established by transfection with retroviral vectors. Thy1.1 positive cells were sorted by magnetic bead separation system (DC2.4/effluc). Cell proliferation assay and phenotype analysis to determine the effects of gene transduction on the function of dendritic cells between parental DC2...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Ali Asghar Najafpoor, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad Hosseinzadeh, Reza Khani Jazani, Hasan Bargozin
Treatment with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a new and effective technology applied recently for conversion of gases for air pollution control. This research was initiated to optimize the efficient application of the NTP process in benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal. The effects of four variables including temperature, initial BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate on the BTEX elimination efficiency were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The constructed model was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA)...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fernanda Ginani, Diego Moura Soares, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha, Lélia Batista de Souza, Carlos Augusto Galvão Barboza
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the proliferation and viability of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Cells were irradiated or not (control) with an InGaAlP laser diode (660 nm, 30 mW, continuous action mode) using two different energy densities (0.5 J/cm(2)-16 s; 1.0 J/cm(2)-33 s). Irradiation was performed at 0 and 48 h, with the laser probe fixed at a distance of 0.5 cm from the cells. Cell proliferation was analyzed at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h by the Trypan blue exclusion method and MTT assay...
October 12, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Huiyun Xu, Jing Duan, Li Ren, Pengfei Yang, Ruixin Yang, Wenbin Li, Dongdong Zhao, Peng Shang, Jean X Jiang
This study constructed an in situ cell culture, real-time observation system based originally on a microfluidic channel, and reported the morphological changes of late osteoblast-like IDG-SW3 cells in response to flow shear stress (FSS). The effects of high (1.2 Pa) and low (0.3 Pa) magnitudes of unidirectional FSS and three concentrations of extracellular Type I collagen (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL) coating on cell morphology were investigated. IDG-SW3 cells were cultured in polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic channels...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Michael J Phang, Douglas J Courtemanche, Marija Bucevska, Claudia Malic, Jugpal S Arneja
INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic malformations are benign, low-flow vascular malformations that typically present at or near birth. Due to morbidity associated with operative treatment, nonoperative treatment with injection of sclerosant has become the mainstay of therapy. Over the past 15 years, several patients at our centre with macrocystic (>2 cm cyst size) lymphatic malformations have seen their lesions resolve spontaneously while awaiting treatment. In this study, we review features of these patients that may contribute to spontaneous resolution...
February 2017: Plastic Surgery
Ahmad Badee Nezhad, Mohammad Mahdi Emamjomeh, Mahdi Farzadkia, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Mehrab Sayadi, Amir Hossein Davoudian Talab
BACKGROUND: Nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) contaminations of groundwater are considered as one of the major health challenges in recent decades. This study aimed to evaluate the nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the drinking groundwater of Shiraz, South-central Iran by statistical models. METHODS: From 43 active wells of Shiraz drinking water supplies, 344 samples were collected in the high and low precipitation seasons from 2010 to 2014. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were tested by a DR6000 spectrophotometer, and the results were analyzed by different software, including SPSS ver...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Charlotte Nicolas, Amélie Le Gouge, Louis d'Alteroche, Jean Ayoub, Monica Georgescu, Vincent Vidal, Denis Castaing, Jean-Pierre Cercueil, Patrick Chevallier, Jérôme Roumy, Hervé Trillaud, Louis Boyer, Vincent Le Pennec, Christophe Perret, Bruno Giraudeau, Jean-Marc Perarnau, Stic-Tips Group
AIM: To prospectively evaluate the performance of Doppler-ultrasonography (US) for the detection of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) dysfunction within a multicenter cohort of cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This study was conducted in 10 french teaching hospitals. After TIPS insertion, angiography and liver Doppler-US were carried out every six months to detect dysfunction (defined by a portosystemic gradient ≥ 12 mmHg and/or a stent stenosis ≥ 50%)...
September 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
María José Martínez-Bravo, Berta Sánchez, José Manuel Sousa, María José Acevedo, Miguel Angel Gómez-Bravo, Antonio Núñez-Roldán, Isabel Aguilera
AIM: To investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase T1 donor-specific T lymphocytes in plasma cell-rich rejection of liver allografts. METHODS: The study group included 22 liver transplant patients. Among them, 18 patients were mismatched for the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) alleles (don+/rec-), and 4 were matched (don+/rec+). Seven of the mismatched patients produced anti-GSTT1 antibodies and developed plasma cell-rich rejection (former de novo immune hepatitis)...
September 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
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