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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239851/sawfishes-stealth-revealed-using-computational-fluid-dynamics
#1
D R Bradney, A Davidson, S P Evans, B E Wueringer, D L Morgan, P D Clausen
Detailed computational fluid dynamics simulations for the rostrum of three species of sawfish (Pristidae) revealed that negligible turbulent flow is generated from all rostra during lateral swipe prey manipulation and swimming. These results suggest that sawfishes are effective stealth hunters that may not be detected by their teleost prey's lateral line sensory system during pursuits. Moreover, during lateral swipes, the rostra were found to induce little velocity into the surrounding fluid. Consistent with previous data of sawfish feeding behaviour, these data indicate that the rostrum is therefore unlikely to be used to stir up the bottom to uncover benthic prey...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239722/transient-inhomogeneous-flow-patterns-in-supercooled-liquids-under-shear
#2
Ingo Fuereder, Patrick Ilg
Supercooled liquids and other soft glassy systems show characteristic spatial inhomogeneities in their local dynamical properties. Using detailed molecular dynamics simulations, we find that for sufficiently low temperatures and sufficiently high shear rates supercooled liquids also show transient inhomogeneous flow patterns (shear banding) in the start-up of steady shear flow, similar to what has already been observed for many other soft glassy systems. We verify that the onset of transient shear banding coincides quite well with the appearance of a stress overshoot for temperatures in the supercooled regime...
February 27, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239654/flow-virometric-sorting-and-analysis-of-hiv-quasispecies-from-plasma
#3
Thomas Musich, Jennifer C Jones, Brandon F Keele, Lisa M Miller Jenkins, Thorsten Demberg, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan, Marjorie Robert-Guroff
Flow cytometry is utilized extensively for cellular analysis, but technical limitations have prevented its routine application for characterizing virus. The recent introduction of nanoscale fluorescence-activated cytometric cell sorting now allows analysis of individual virions. Here, we demonstrate staining and sorting of infectious HIV. Fluorescent antibodies specific for cellular molecules found on budding virions were used to label CCR5-tropic Bal HIV and CXCR4-tropic NL4.3 HIV Env-expressing pseudovirions made in THP-1 cells (monocyte/macrophage) and H9 cells (T cells), respectively...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238588/rest-stress-limb-perfusion-imaging-in-humans-with-contrast-ultrasound-using-intermediate-power-imaging-and-microbubbles-resistant-to-inertial-cavitation
#4
Brian P Davidson, James Hodovan, J Todd Belcik, Federico Moccetti, Aris Xie, Azzdine Y Ammi, Jonathan R Lindner
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) limb perfusion imaging is a promising approach for evaluating peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, low signal enhancement in skeletal muscle has necessitated high-power intermittent imaging algorithms, which are not clinically feasible. We hypothesized that CEU using a combination of intermediate power and a contrast agent resistant to inertial cavitation would allow real-time limb stress perfusion imaging. METHODS: In normal volunteers, CEU of the calf skeletal muscle was performed on separate days with Sonazoid, Optison, or Definity...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238432/impact-of-irrigation-based-sugarcane-cultivation-on-the-chiredzi-and-runde-rivers-quality-zimbabwe
#5
Tamuka Nhiwatiwa, Tatenda Dalu, Luc Brendonck
Agriculture is vital in sustaining human livelihoods. However, agriculture as it is currently practiced, is contributing to the degradation of freshwater ecosystems globally. We investigated impacts of irrigation return flows from sugarcane farming on water quality and health status of the Chiredzi and Runde Rivers, a biodiversity hotspot region in south-eastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe. The water quality at inlets from the crop field into the wetland system; wetland outlets into the river systems; and river sites upstream and downstream of wetland outlets were monitored during the dry and wet seasons...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238401/flavin-containing-enzymes-as-a-source-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-hema-induced-apoptosis
#6
Helmut Schweikl, Marialucia Gallorini, Markus Forstner, Christine Petzel, Carola Bolay, Karl-Anton Hiller, Amelia Cataldi, Stephanie Krifka, Wolfgang Buchalla
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress induced by compounds of dental composites like 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) due to excess formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) disturbs vital cell functions leading to apoptosis. The sources of ROS in cells exposed to resin monomers are unknown. The present study investigates functions of flavin-containing ROS and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) producing enzymes in cells exposed to HEMA. METHODS: The formation of oxidative stress in RAW264...
February 18, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238364/design-and-performance-of-subgrade-biogeochemical-reactors
#7
Jeff Gamlin, Doug Downey, Brad Shearer, Paul Favara
Subgrade biogeochemical reactors (SBGRs), also commonly referred to as in situ bioreactors, are a unique technology for treatment of contaminant source areas and groundwater plume hot spots. SBGRs have most commonly been configured for enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) applications for chlorinated solvent treatment. However, they have also been designed for other contaminant classes using alternative treatment media. The SBGR technology typically consists of removal of contaminated soil via excavation or large-diameter augers, and backfill of the soil void with gravel and treatment amendments tailored to the target contaminant(s)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238204/combining-hydrodynamic-modelling-with-genetics-can-passive-larval-drift-shape-the-genetic-structure-of-baltic-mytilus-populations
#8
Heiko Stuckas, Loreen Knöbel, Hanna Schade, Corinna Breusing, Hans-Harald Hinrichsen, Manuela Bartel, Klaudia Langguth, Frank Melzner
While secondary contact between Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus in North America results in mosaic hybrid zone formation, both species form a hybrid swarm in the Baltic. Despite pervasive gene flow, Baltic Mytilus species maintain substantial genetic and phenotypic differentiation. Exploring mechanisms underlying the contrasting genetic composition in Baltic Mytilus species will allow insights into processes such as speciation or adaptation to extremely low salinity. Previous studies in the Baltic indicated that only weak interspecific reproductive barriers exist and discussed the putative role of adaptation to environmental conditions...
February 26, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237954/what-is-the-influence-of-single-entry-models-on-access-to-elective-surgical-procedures-a-systematic-review
#9
Zaheed Damani, Barbara Conner-Spady, Tina Nash, Henry Tom Stelfox, Tom W Noseworthy, Deborah A Marshall
BACKGROUND: Single-entry models (SEMs) for the management of patients awaiting elective surgical services are designed to increase access and flow through the system of care. We assessed scope of use and influence of SEMs on access (waiting times/throughput) and patient-centredness (patient/provider acceptability). METHODS: Systematic review of articles published in 6 relevant electronic databases included studies from database inception to July 2016. Included studies needed to (1) report on the nature of the SEM; (2) specify elective service and (3) address at least 1 of 3 research questions related to (1) scope of use of SEMs; (2) influence on timeliness and access; (3) patient-centredness and acceptability...
February 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237222/evaluation-of-low-impact-development-approach-for-mitigating-flood-inundation-at-a-watershed-scale-in-china
#10
Maochuan Hu, Takahiro Sayama, Xingqi Zhang, Kenji Tanaka, Kaoru Takara, Hong Yang
Low impact development (LID) has attracted growing attention as an important approach for urban flood mitigation. Most studies evaluating LID performance for mitigating floods focus on the changes of peak flow and runoff volume. This paper assessed the performance of LID practices for mitigating flood inundation hazards as retrofitting technologies in an urbanized watershed in Nanjing, China. The findings indicate that LID practices are effective for flood inundation mitigation at the watershed scale, and especially for reducing inundated areas with a high flood hazard risk...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237004/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-cardiology
#11
REVIEW
Ornella Milanesi, Giovanni Stellin, Pietro Zucchetta
Accurate cardiovascular imaging is essential for the successful management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Echocardiography and angiography have been for long time the most important imaging modalities in pediatric cardiology, but nuclear medicine has contributed in many situations to the comprehension of physiological consequences of CHD, quantifying pulmonary blood flow symmetry or right-to-left shunting. In recent times, remarkable improvements in imaging equipments, particularly in multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have led to the progressive integration of high resolution modalities in the clinical workup of children affected by CHD, reducing the role of diagnostic angiography...
March 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236931/technical-aspects-of-transcarotid-artery-revascularization-using-the-enroute-transcarotid-neuroprotection-and-stent-system
#12
Mahmoud B Malas, Jose Leal, Vikram Kashyap, Richard Paul Cambria, Christopher J Kwolek, Enrique Criado
Transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) with the ENROUTE transcarotid neuroprotection and stent system (Silk Road Medical, Inc, Sunnyvale, Calif) combines surgical principles of neuroprotection with less invasive endovascular techniques to treat high grade stenosis in the carotid artery. The ENROUTE Neuroprotection System allows the surgeon to directly access the common carotid artery to initiate high rate temporary blood flow reversal to protect the brain while performing carotid angioplasty and stenting...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236850/intermittent-hypoxia-as-a-means-to-improve-aerobic-capacity-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
R J Leone, S Lalande
Physical inactivity and a low maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) strongly predict morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Patients with T2D have a reduced VO2max when compared with healthy individuals of similar age, weight, and physical activity levels, and this lower aerobic capacity is usually attributed to a reduced oxygen delivery to the working muscles. The oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, as well as increases in cardiac output and blood flow, contribute to the delivery of oxygen to the active muscles during exercise...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236814/diet-induced-milk-fat-depression-is-associated-with-alterations-in-ruminal-biohydrogenation-pathways-and-formation-of-novel-fatty-acid-intermediates-in-lactating-cows
#14
Laura Ventto, Heidi Leskinen, Piia Kairenius, Tomasz Stefański, Ali R Bayat, Johanna Vilkki, Kevin J Shingfield
The biohydrogenation theory of milk fat depression (MFD) attributes decreases in milk fat in cows to the formation of specific fatty acids (FA) in the rumen. Trans-10, cis-12-CLA is the only biohydrogenation intermediate known to inhibit milk fat synthesis, but it is uncertain if increased ruminal synthesis is the sole explanation of MFD. Four lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 35-d experimental periods to evaluate the effect of diets formulated to cause differences in ruminal lipid metabolism and milk fat synthesis on the flow of FA and dimethyl acetal at the omasum...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236333/on-the-way-to-a-trisanionic-cu3o2-core-for-oxidase-catalysis-evidence-of-an-asymmetric-trinuclear-precursor-stabilised-by-perfluoropinacolate-ligands
#15
Steven F Hannigan, Amanda I Arnoff, Sarah E Neville, June S Lum, James A Golen, Arnold L Rheingold, Nicole Orth, Ivana Ivanović-Burmazović, Patricia Liebhäuser, Thomas Rösener, Julia Stanek, Alexander Hoffmann, Sonja Herres-Pawlis, Linda H Doerrer
Cu(I) complexes of the form A[(R3P)Cu(pinF)] were synthesized and characterized, in which (pinF)2- is the bidentate, oxygen-donating, ligand perfluoropinacolate. Low temperature oxygenation of the A[(R3P)Cu(pinF)] species resulted in a trisanionic bis(μ3-oxo) trinuclear Cu(II,II,III) core that was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy (λmax, nm (ε, M-1 cm-1)) = (330, 535 (19), 630 (33)), cryospray-ionization mass spectrometry (CSI-MS), and X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (derivative resonance at 3300 G, Δms = 2 at 1500 G)...
February 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236050/endovascular-treatment-of-intracranial-aneurysms-with-the-p64-flow-diverter-stent-mid-term-results-in-35-patients-with-41-intracranial-aneurysms
#16
Ricardo Morais, Benjamin Mine, Pierre Julien Bruyère, Gilles Naeije, Boris Lubicz
INTRODUCTION: The p64 flow diverter (FD) device is a fully resheathable and detachable stent dedicated for endovascular treatment (EVT) of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). We report our mid-term experience with this device. METHODS: Between January 2015 and February 2016, we retrospectively identified, in our prospectively maintained database, all patients treated with p64 FDs in two institutions. Independent clinical follow-up was performed by a vascular neurologist...
February 24, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235997/centrifugeless-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-based-on-salting-out-phenomenon-as-an-efficient-method-for-determination-of-phenolic-compounds-in-environmental-samples
#17
Ehsan Mirparizi, Maryam Rajabi, Mohammad Bazregar, Alireza Asghari
A new centrifugeless dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method was applied for the convenient extraction of some phenolic compounds from environmental samples. After dispersing the extracting solvent into the sample solution (10.0 mL), the mixture was passed through a small column filled with 5 g sodium chloride. As a result, phase separation was achieved via the salting-out phenomenon, and the extracting solvent was suspended on top of the sample solution. Using a low-toxic and solidifiable extracting solvent (1-dodecanol), after immersing the column into an ice bath, the extracting solvent was solidified, collected easily, and injected into an HPLC-UV instrument...
February 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230878/multifunctional-hybrid-porous-filters-with-hierarchical-structures-for-simultaneous-removal-of-indoor-vocs-dusts-and-microorganisms
#18
Yang Zhao, Ze-Xian Low, Shasha Feng, Zhaoxiang Zhong, Yong Wang, Zhong Yao
Air purification often requires multiple layers of filters with different functions to remove various air pollutants, which lead to high pressure drop, high air flow path and frequent filter replacement. In this work, a novel multifunctional Ag@MWCNTs/Al2O3 hybrid filter with a depth-type hierarchical structure for simultaneous removal of fine particles, microorganisms and VOCs was designed and fabricated. The novel hybrid air filter showed leading air purification performances to date, achieving 82.24% degradation of formaldehyde at room temperature, 99...
February 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230793/dynamic-fluid-in-a-porous-transducer-based-angular-accelerometer
#19
Siyuan Cheng, Mengyin Fu, Meiling Wang, Li Ming, Huijin Fu, Tonglei Wang
This paper presents a theoretical model of the dynamics of liquid flow in an angular accelerometer comprising a porous transducer in a circular tube of liquid. Wave speed and dynamic permeability of the transducer are considered to describe the relation between angular acceleration and the differential pressure on the transducer. The permeability and streaming potential coupling coefficient of the transducer are determined in the experiments, and special prototypes are utilized to validate the theoretical model in both the frequency and time domains...
February 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229950/development-of-a-model-to-simulate-groundwater-inundation-induced-by-sea-level-rise-and-high-tides-in-honolulu-hawaii
#20
Shellie Habel, Charles H Fletcher, Kolja Rotzoll, Aly I El-Kadi
Many of the world's largest cities face risk of sea-level rise (SLR) induced flooding owing to their limited elevations and proximities to the coastline. Within this century, global mean sea level is expected to reach magnitudes that will exceed the ground elevation of some built infrastructure. The concurrent rise of coastal groundwater will produce additional sources of inundation resulting from narrowing and loss of the vertical unsaturated subsurface space. This has implications for the dense network of buried and low-lying infrastructure that exists across urban coastal zones...
February 20, 2017: Water Research
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