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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431249/macrophages-facilitate-electrical-conduction-in-the-heart
#1
Maarten Hulsmans, Sebastian Clauss, Ling Xiao, Aaron D Aguirre, Kevin R King, Alan Hanley, William J Hucker, Eike M Wülfers, Gunnar Seemann, Gabriel Courties, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Yuan Sun, Andrej J Savol, Hendrik B Sager, Kory J Lavine, Gregory A Fishbein, Diane E Capen, Nicolas Da Silva, Lucile Miquerol, Hiroko Wakimoto, Christine E Seidman, Jonathan G Seidman, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Kamila Naxerova, Richard N Mitchell, Dennis Brown, Peter Libby, Ralph Weissleder, Filip K Swirski, Peter Kohl, Claudio Vinegoni, David J Milan, Patrick T Ellinor, Matthias Nahrendorf
Organ-specific functions of tissue-resident macrophages in the steady-state heart are unknown. Here, we show that cardiac macrophages facilitate electrical conduction through the distal atrioventricular node, where conducting cells densely intersperse with elongated macrophages expressing connexin 43. When coupled to spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes via connexin-43-containing gap junctions, cardiac macrophages have a negative resting membrane potential and depolarize in synchrony with cardiomyocytes. Conversely, macrophages render the resting membrane potential of cardiomyocytes more positive and, according to computational modeling, accelerate their repolarization...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428008/force-development-and-intracellular-ca-2-in-intact-cardiac-muscles-from-gravin-mutant-mice
#2
Zhitao Li, Sonal Singh, Santosh V Suryavanshi, Wengang Ding, Xiaoxu Shen, Cori S Wijaya, Wei Dong Gao, Bradley K McConnell
Gravin (AKAP12) is an A-kinase-anchoring-protein that scaffolds protein kinase A (PKA), β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), protein phosphatase 2B and protein kinase C. Gravin facilitates β2-AR-dependent signal transduction through PKA to modulate cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and its removal positively affects cardiac contraction. Trabeculae from the right ventricles of gravin mutant (gravin-t/t) mice were employed for force determination. Simultaneously, corresponding intracellular Ca(2+) transient ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured...
April 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425587/hybrid-finite-difference-finite-element-immersed-boundary-method
#3
Boyce E Griffith, Xiaoyu Luo
The immersed boundary method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses a Lagrangian description of the structural deformations, stresses, and forces along with an Eulerian description of the momentum, viscosity, and incompressibility of the fluid-structure system. The original immersed boundary methods described immersed elastic structures using systems of flexible fibers, and even now, most immersed boundary methods still require Lagrangian meshes that are finer than the Eulerian grid. This work introduces a coupling scheme for the immersed boundary method to link the Lagrangian and Eulerian variables that facilitates independent spatial discretizations for the structure and background grid...
April 20, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421409/six-minute-walk-test-for-assessing-physical-functional-capacity-in-chronic-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Huiyun Du, Parichat Wonggom, Jintana Tongpeth, Robyn A Clark
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a submaximal exercise test for evaluating physical functional capacity. This review aims to report the research on the use of the 6MWT in chronic heart failure (CHF) that has been published in the past 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: The 6MWT distance does not accurately reflect peak VO2. Minimal clinically important difference in the 6MWT distance, and additional measurements, such as heart rate recovery, can assist in the interpretation of the 6MWT distance, so management decisions can be made...
April 18, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421035/antiepileptic-drugs-impair-shortening-of-isolated-cardiomyocytes
#5
Johanna Hulbert, Christian E Elger, Rainer Meyer, Rainer Surges
BACKGROUND: Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) inhibit seizure generation by acting on voltage-dependent ion channels. Voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels are commonly expressed in brain and heart, suggesting that AEDs may have considerable cardiodepressive effects, thereby facilitating sudden cardiac death as a potential cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Here, we investigated the effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), lamotrigine (LTG), and levetiracetam (LEV) alone and in combination on the shortening properties of isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes of wild-type mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419897/nurse-mentor-perceptions-in-the-delivery-of-a-home-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-program-to-support-patients-living-in-rural-areas-an-interpretive-study
#6
Terence J Frohmader, Frances Lin, Wendy P Chaboyer
Home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs improve health outcomes for people diagnosed with heart disease. Mentoring of patients by nurses trained in CR has been proposed as an innovative model of cardiac care. Little is known however, about the experience of mentors facilitating such programs and adapting to this new role. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore nurse mentor perceptions of their role in the delivery of a home-based CR program for rural patients unable to attend a hospital or outpatient CR program...
April 5, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419016/an-evaluation-of-a-new-debriefing-framework-reflect
#7
Lauren E Zinns, Paul C Mullan, Karen J OʼConnell, Leticia M Ryan, Angela T Wratney
BACKGROUND: Postresuscitation debriefing (PRD) is recommended by the American Heart Association guidelines but is infrequently performed. Prior studies have identified barriers for pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellows including lack of a standardized curriculum. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to create and assess the feasibility of a time-limited, structured PRD framework entitled REFLECT: Review the event, Encourage team participation, Focused feedback, Listen to each other, Emphasize key points, Communicate clearly, and Transform the future...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416818/large-scale-analyses-of-common-and-rare-variants-identify-12-new-loci-associated-with-atrial-fibrillation
#8
(no author information available yet)
Atrial fibrillation affects more than 33 million people worldwide and increases the risk of stroke, heart failure, and death. Fourteen genetic loci have been associated with atrial fibrillation in European and Asian ancestry groups. To further define the genetic basis of atrial fibrillation, we performed large-scale, trans-ancestry meta-analyses of common and rare variant association studies. The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) included 17,931 individuals with atrial fibrillation and 115,142 referents; the exome-wide association studies (ExWAS) and rare variant association studies (RVAS) involved 22,346 cases and 132,086 referents...
April 17, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415836/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-where-we-are-and-where-we-are-going
#9
Wang-Soo Lee, Jaetaek Kim
The global burden of diabetes mellitus and its related complications are currently increasing. Diabetes mellitus affects the heart through various mechanisms including microvascular impairment, metabolic disturbance, subcellular component abnormalities, cardiac autonomic dysfunction, and a maladaptive immune response. Eventually, diabetes mellitus can cause functional and structural changes in the myocardium without coronary artery disease, a disorder known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). There are many diagnostic tools and management options for DCM, although it is difficult to detect its development and effectively prevent its progression...
April 18, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414206/wenshen-zhuanggu-formula-effectively-suppresses-breast-cancer-bone-metastases-in-a-mouse-xenograft-model
#10
Jia-Jia Li, Wei-Ling Chen, Jian-Yi Wang, Qian-Wen Hu, Zhen-Ping Sun, Shuai Zhang, Sheng Liu, Xiang-Hui Han
Wenshen Zhuanggu formula (WSZG) is a traditional Chinese medicine used as an adjuvant for the prevention of bone metastases in breast cancer patients. In this study we investigated the efficacy of WSZG in preventing bone metastases and the potential mechanisms in a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer bone metastases. This model was established by injection of human MDA-MB-231BO-Luc breast cancer cells alone or a mixture of the cancer cells with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into left ventricle of the heart in female nude mice...
April 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413577/circadian-control-of-cardiac-metabolism-physiologic-roles-and-pathologic-implications
#11
Martin E Young
Over the course of the day, the heart is challenged with dramatic fluctuations in energetic demand and nutrient availability. It is therefore not surprising that rhythms in cardiac metabolism have been reported at multiple levels, including the utilization of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Evidence has emerged suggesting that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock is in large part responsible for governing cardiac metabolic rhythms. In doing so, the cardiomyocyte clock temporally partitions ATP generation for increased contractile function during the active period, promotes nutrient storage at the end of the active period, and facilitates protein turnover (synthesis and degradation) during the beginning of the sleep phase...
January 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413032/matrix-metalloproteinases-in-myocardial-infarction-and-heart-failure
#12
Kristine Y DeLeon-Pennell, Cesar A Meschiari, Mira Jung, Merry L Lindsey
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death, accounting for 600,000 deaths each year in the United States. In addition, heart failure accounts for 37% of health care spending. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) increase after myocardial infarction (MI) and correlate with left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure patients. MMPs regulate the remodeling process by facilitating extracellular matrix turnover and inflammatory signaling. Due to the critical role MMPs play during cardiac remodeling, there is a need to better understand the pathophysiological mechanism of MMPs, including the biological function of the downstream products of MMP proteolysis...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408809/assessment-of-effects-of-differences-in-trunk-posture-during-fowler-s-position-on-hemodynamics-and-cardiovascular-regulation-in-older-and-younger-subjects
#13
Satoshi Kubota, Yutaka Endo, Mitsue Kubota, Tomohiko Shigemasa
BACKGROUND: Downward shifts in blood volume with changing position generally cause tachycardic responses. Age-related decreases in vagal nerve activity could contribute to orthostatic hypotension in older individuals. Fowler's position is a reclined position with the back between 30° and 60°, used to facilitate breathing, eating, and other routine daily activities in frail and elderly patients. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether stroke volume (SV) was higher and heart rate (HR) lower in Fowler's position with an upright upper trunk than in Fowler's position with the whole trunk upright in both older and younger subjects, based on the assumption that lower HR would result from reduced sympathetic activation in older individuals...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408306/heart-failure-and-thermoregulatory-control-can-patients-with-heart-failure-handle-the-heat
#14
REVIEW
Bryce N Balmain, Surendran Sabapathy, Ollie Jay, Julie Adsett, Glenn M Stewart, Rohan Jayasinghe, Norman R Morris
Upon heat exposure, the thermoregulatory system evokes reflex increases in sweating and skin blood flow responses to facilitate heat dissipation and maintain heat balance to prevent the continuing rise in core temperature. These heat dissipating responses are mediated primarily by autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments; which if attenuated, may compromise thermoregulatory control. In patients with heart failure (HF), the neurohumoral and cardiovascular dysfunction that underpins this condition may potentially impair thermoregulatory responses and, consequently, place these patients at a greater risk of heat-related illness...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398917/emotion-regulation-and-perceptions-of-illness-coherence-and-controllability-on-regimen-adherence-and-negative-cardiac-health-events-in-african-american-women-with-heart-failure
#15
Kelly L Wierenga
BACKGROUND: African American women with heart failure (HF) have stressors that negatively impact HF self-management adherence and heighten the occurrence of negative cardiac health events. Perceptions of illness coherence and controllability and emotion regulation are known to facilitate self-management in the face of stressors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether difficulties with emotion regulation and negative perceptions of illness coherence and controllability are detrimental to adherence and increase negative cardiac health events in this patient population...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397699/restrictive-versus-liberal-blood-transfusion-for-gastrointestinal-bleeding-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#16
Ayodele Odutayo, Michael J R Desborough, Marialena Trivella, Adrian J Stanley, Carolyn Dorée, Gary S Collins, Sally Hopewell, Susan J Brunskill, Brennan C Kahan, Richard F A Logan, Alan N Barkun, Michael F Murphy, Vipul Jairath
BACKGROUND: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a leading indication for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion worldwide, although optimal thresholds for transfusion are debated. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and the Transfusion Evidence Library from inception to Oct 20, 2016, for randomised controlled trials comparing restrictive and liberal RBC transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Main outcomes were mortality, rebleeding, ischaemic events, and mean RBC transfusion...
May 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393272/heterozygous-hnrnpu-variants-cause-early-onset-epilepsy-and-severe-intellectual-disability
#17
Nuria C Bramswig, Hermann-Josef Lüdecke, Fadi F Hamdan, Janine Altmüller, Filippo Beleggia, Nursel H Elcioglu, Catharine Freyer, Erica H Gerkes, Yasemin Kendir Demirkol, Kelly G Knupp, Alma Kuechler, Yun Li, Daniel H Lowenstein, Jacques L Michaud, Kristen Park, Alexander P A Stegmann, Hermine E Veenstra-Knol, Thomas Wieland, Bernd Wollnik, Hartmut Engels, Tim M Strom, Tjitske Kleefstra, Dagmar Wieczorek
Pathogenic variants in genes encoding subunits of the spliceosome are the cause of several human diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. The RNA splicing process is facilitated by the spliceosome, a large RNA-protein complex consisting of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), and many other proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). The HNRNPU gene (OMIM *602869) encodes the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, which plays a crucial role in mammalian development. HNRNPU is expressed in the fetal brain and adult heart, kidney, liver, brain, and cerebellum...
April 9, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392040/the-effect-of-guided-reflection-on-heart-failure-self-care-maintenance-and-management-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Kristen A Sethares, Marilyn E Asselin
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of structured, guided reflection on patient descriptions of self-care maintenance and management. BACKGROUND: Inadequate HF self-care behaviors are linked to hospitalizations. Symptom monitoring and recognition are precursors to adequate HF self-care. Reflection on actions taken during HF exacerbations may lead to insights and future changes in HF self-care maintenance and management. METHODS: One-group mixed method pre-test/post-test design...
April 6, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391191/automatic-quality-assessment-of-echocardiograms-using-convolutional-neural-networks-feasibility-on-the-apical-four-chamber-view
#19
Amir Abdi, Christina Luong, Teresa Tsang, John Jue, Dale Hawley, Sarah Fleming, Kenneth Gin, Jody Swift, Robert Rohling, Purang Abolmaesumi
Echocardiography (echo) is a skilled technical procedure that depends on the experience of the operator. The aim of this work is to reduce user variability in data acquisition by automatically computing a score of echo quality for operator feedback. To do this, a deep convolutional neural network model, trained on a large set of samples, was developed for scoring apical four-chamber (A4C) echo. In this research, 6,916 end-systolic echo images were manually studied by an expert cardiologist and were assigned a score between 0 (not acceptable) and 5 (excellent)...
April 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386194/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-intervention-on-ddt-degradation-and-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#20
Kefeng Li, Xiaohua Zhu, Yuzhan Wang, Shuqian Zheng, Guijun Dong
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) reportedly causes extensively acute or chronic effects to human health. Exercise can generate positive stress. We evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise on DDT degradation and oxidative stress. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control (C), DDT without exercise training (D), and DDT plus exercise training (DE) groups. The rats were treated as follows: DDT exposure to D and DE groups at the first 2 weeks; aerobic exercise treatment only to the DE group from the 1st day until the rats are killed...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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