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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913249/variations-in-the-viral-genome-and-biological-properties-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-wild-type-strains
#1
Hironobu Murakami, Jumpei Uchiyama, Chihiro Suzuki, Sae Nikaido, Kaho Shibuya, Reiichiro Sato, Yosuke Maeda, Michiko Tomioka, Shin-Nosuke Takeshima, Hajime Kato, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Hiroshi Sentsui, Yoko Aida, Kenji Tsukamoto
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which causes enormous economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. To reduce the economic loss caused by BLV infection, it is important to clarify the characters associated with BLV transmissibility and pathogenesis in cattle. In this study, we focused on viral characters and examined spontaneous mutations in the virus and viral properties by analyses of whole genome sequences and BLV molecular clones derived from cows with and without EBL...
June 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912917/investigation-of-amino-acid-specificity-in-the-cydx-small-protein-shows-sequence-plasticity-at-the-functional-level
#2
Jessica J Hobson, Austin S Gallegos, Benjamin W Atha, John P Kelly, Christina D Lein, Cailtin E VanOrsdel, John E Weldon, Matthew R Hemm
Small proteins are a new and expanding area of research. Many characterized small proteins are composed of a single hydrophobic α-helix, and the functional requirements of their limited amino acid sequence are not well understood. One hydrophobic small protein, CydX, has been shown to be a component of the cytochrome bd oxidase complex in Escherichia coli, and is required for enzyme function. To investigate small protein sequence specificity, an alanine scanning mutagenesis on the small protein CydX was conducted using mutant alleles expressed from the E...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911927/mutations-in-adnp-affect-expression-and-subcellular-localization-of-the-protein
#3
Elisa Cappuyns, Jolien Huyghebaert, Geert Vandeweyer, R Frank Kooy
Truncating de novo mutations in ADNP have been identified in patients with the Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome. However correlations between the distinct mutations and their impact on the protein have not been studied before. Here we report the effect of mutations in ADNP by examining the expression and subcellular localization of GFP-tagged mutant transcripts in transfected HEK293T cells. ADNP encloses a bipartite nuclear localization signal and we found mutations therein to stall the mutant protein within the cytoplasm...
June 18, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911157/molecular-evidence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-orf-virus-isolates-from-outbreaks-in-tripura-state-of-north-east-india
#4
Gnanavel Venkatesan, Ankan De, Sargam Arya, Amit Kumar, D Muthuchelvan, Bikas Ch Debnath, Tapan Kumar Dutta, Divakar Hemadri, A B Pandey
This study describes the first confirmed report of contagious ecthyma in Black Bengal goats from Tripura state, a North-Eastern state of India situated at the Indo-Bangladesh border. Outbreaks were characterized by the high rates of morbidity (58-67%), low mortality (8-10%) and case fatality (11-15%). The etiology of the outbreaks was confirmed as orf virus (ORFV) by standard virological/serological and molecular techniques including sequence analysis of B2L, a major envelop protein gene of genus Parapoxvirus ...
June 2018: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907151/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-produced-with-l-isoleucine-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum-wm001
#5
Wenjian Ma, Jianli Wang, Ye Li, Lianghong Yin, Xiaoyuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Co-production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and amino acids makes bacteria effective microbial cell factories by secreting amino acids outside while accumulating PHA granules inside. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is one of the PHAs with biocompatibility and fine mechanical properties, but its production is limited by the low level of intracellular propionyl-CoA. RESULTS: L-Isoleucine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strain WM001 were analyzed by genome and transcriptome sequencing...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906530/katg-plays-an-important-role-in-aeromonas-hydrophila-survival-in-fish-macrophages-and-escape-for-further-infection
#6
Meimei Zhang, Qingpi Yan, Leilei Mao, Suyun Wang, Lixing Huang, Xiaojin Xu, Yingxue Qin
The success of the pathogenic bacteria is partly attributable to their ability to thwart host innate immune responses, which includes resisting the antimicrobial functions of macrophages. And reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most effective antimicrobial components of macrophages to kill invading bacteria. Our previous studies found that Aeromonas hydrophila can survive in fish macrophages, which suggested that this bacterium might take fish macrophages as their shelters to resist drug killings and other immune damage...
June 12, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902009/polyvalent-hybrid-virus-like-nanoparticles-with-displayed-heparin-antagonist-peptides
#7
Justin M Choi, Valerie Bourassa, Kevin Hong, Michael Shoga, Elizabeth Lim, Andrew Park, Kazim Apaydin, Andrew K Udit
The potential applications for nanomaterials continue to grow as new materials are developed and environmental and safety concerns are more adequately addressed. Virus-like particles (VLPs) in particular have myriad applications in medicine and biology, exploiting both the reliable, symmetric self-assembly mechanism and the ability to take advantage of surface functionalities that may be appropriately modified through mutation or bioconjugation. Herein we describe the design and application of hybrid VLPs for use as potent heparin antagonists, providing an alternative to the toxic heparin antidote protamine...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900561/rage-dependent-vcam-1-expression-in-the-lung-endothelium-mediates-il-33-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation
#8
Timothy N Perkins, Elizabeth A Oczypok, Pavle S Milutinovic, Regina E Dutz, Tim D Oury
BACKGROUND: The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) has been implicated as a critical molecule in the pathogenesis of experimental asthma/allergic airway inflammation (AAI). It has been previously shown that RAGE acts both upstream of interleukin-33 (IL-33) release and downstream of IL-33 release via RAGE-dependent IL-33 induced accumulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lungs, which perpetuate type 2 inflammation and mucus metaplasia. However, the mechanism by which RAGE mediates downstream IL-33 induced type 2 inflammatory responses is unknown...
June 14, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899096/directed-evolution-of-an-influenza-reporter-virus-to-restore-replication-and-virulence-and-enhance-non-invasive-bioluminescence-imaging-in-mice
#9
Hui Cai, Meisui Liu, Charles J Russell
Reporter viruses provide a powerful tool to study infection, yet incorporating a non-essential gene often results in virus attenuation and genetic instability. Here, we used directed evolution of a luciferase-expressing pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) 2009 influenza A virus in mice to restore replication kinetics and virulence, increase the bioluminescence signal, and maintain reporter gene expression. An unadapted pH1N1 virus with NanoLuc luciferase inserted into the 5' end of the PA gene segment grew to titers 10-fold less than wild-type in MDCK cells and in DBA/2 mice and was less virulent...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898665/modelling-the-metabolism-of-protein-secretion-through-the-tat-route-in-streptomyces-lividans
#10
José R Valverde, Sonia Gullón, Rafael P Mellado
BACKGROUND: Streptomyces lividans has demonstrated its value as an efficient host for protein production due to its ability to secrete functional proteins directly to the media. Secretory proteins that use the major Sec route need to be properly folded outside the cell, whereas secretory proteins using the Tat route appear outside the cell correctly folded. This feature makes the Tat system very attractive for the production of natural or engineered Tat secretory proteins. S. lividans cells are known to respond differently to overproduction and secretion of Tat versus Sec proteins...
June 14, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897456/%C3%AE-glucan-induced-cooperative-oligomerization-of-dectin-1-c-type-lectin-like-domain
#11
Hari P Dulal, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno, Yoshiki Yamaguchi
Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin-like pattern recognition receptor that recognizes β(1-3)-glucans present on non-self pathogens. It is of great importance in innate immunity to understand the mechanism whereby Dectin-1 senses β(1-3)-glucans and induces intracellular signaling. In this study, we characterize the ligand binding and ligand-induced oligomerization of murine Dectin-1 using its C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Interaction of CTLD with laminarin, a β-glucan ligand, induced a tetramer of CTLD, as evidenced by size exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering...
April 20, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895309/very-high-intact-protein-formula-successfully-provides-protein-intake-according-to-nutritional-recommendations-in-overweight-critically-ill-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#12
Arthur R H van Zanten, Laurent Petit, Jan De Waele, Hans Kieft, Janneke de Wilde, Peter van Horssen, Marianne Klebach, Zandrie Hofman
BACKGROUND: Optimal energy and protein provision through enteral nutrition is essential for critically ill patients. However, in clinical practice, the intake achieved is often far below the recommended targets. Because no polymeric formula with sufficient protein content is available, adequate protein intake can be achieved only by supplemental amino acids or semi-elemental formula administration. In the present study, we investigated whether protein intake can be increased with a new, very high intact-protein formula (VHPF) for enteral feeding...
June 12, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895130/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-xrcc3-gene-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-relationship-with-clinicopathological-features
#13
Elena-Roxana Avadanei, Simona-Eliza Giusca, Lucian Negura, Irina-Draga Caruntu
Recent studies support the involvement of XRCC3 gene polymorphisms in carcinogenesis. Our study focuses on the identification of polymorphic variants of XRCC3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and an analysis of the relationship between these polymorphic variants and clinicopathological (including the genotype specific risk) and survival characteristics. Fifty cases of HCC were genotyped using molecular biology techniques for Thr241Met, rs861539 (c.722C>T) and 5'-UTR, rs1799796 (c.562-14A>G) polymorphisms...
2018: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894735/characterization-and-safety-evaluation-of-hppd-w336-a-modified-4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase-protein-and-the-impact-of-its-expression-on-plant-metabolism-in-herbicide-tolerant-mst-fg%C3%A3-72-2-soybean
#14
Rozemarijn Dreesen, Annabelle Capt, Regina Oberdoerfer, Isabelle Coats, Kenneth Edward Pallett
By transgenic expression technology, a modified 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase enzyme (HPPD W336) originating from Pseudomonas fluorescens is expressed in MST-FGØ72-2 soybean to confer tolerance to 4-benzoyl isoxazole and triketone type of herbicides1F. Characterization and safety assessment of HPPD W336 were performed. No relevant sequence homologies were found with known allergens or toxins. Although sequence identity to known toxins showed identity to HPPD proteins annotated as hemolysins, the absence of hemolytic activity of HPPD W336 was demonstrated in vitro...
June 9, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894500/role-of-the-tomato-tagl1-gene-in-regulating-fruit-metabolites-elucidated-using-rna-sequence-and-metabolomics-analyses
#15
Xiaodan Zhao, Xinyu Yuan, Sha Chen, Lanhuan Meng, Daqi Fu
Fruit ripening is a complex biological process affecting fruit quality. In tomato the fruit ripening process is delicately regulated by transcription factors (TFs). Among these, the TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE 1 (TAGL1) gene plays an important role in both the development and ripening of fruit. In this study, the TAGL1 gene was successfully silenced by virus-induced gene silencing technology (VIGS), and the global gene expression and metabolites profiles of TAGL1-silenced fruits were analyzed by RNA-sequence analysis (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894152/engineering-heterodimeric-kinesins-through-genetic-incorporation-of-noncanonical-amino-acids
#16
Andrew R Popchock, Subhashis Jana, Ryan A Mehl, Weihong Qiu
Kinesins are commonly homodimers with two identical heavy chains (protomers) and play indispensable roles in many intracellular processes. Engineered heterodimeric kinesins with two distinct protomers are important tools for dissecting coordination and regulation of naturally occurring kinesin homodimers. Here, we report a chemical-biology-based approach that generates kinesin heterodimers by combining genetic incorporation of reactive noncanonical amino acids and small-molecule-based cross-linking. We verified using yeast kinesin-8/Kip3 as a model system that our method yields kinesin heterodimers of desired properties without introducing unintended motility disruption...
June 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893971/purifying-selection-in-the-toll-like-receptors-of-song-sparrows-melospiza-melodia
#17
Martha J Nelson-Flower, Ryan R Germain, Elizabeth A MacDougall-Shackleton, Sabrina S Taylor, Peter Arcese
Variation in immune gene sequences is known to influence resistance to infectious diseases and parasites, and hence survival and mate choice, across animal taxa. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise one essential gene family in the vertebrate innate immune system, and recognize evolutionarily conserved structures from all major microorganism classes. However, the causes and consequences of TLR variation in passerine birds remain largely unexplored. We examined seven TLR genes in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), a species that is studied across North America...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892505/restriction-digest-screening-facilitates-efficient-detection-of-site-directed-mutations-introduced-by-crispr-in-c-albicans-ume6
#18
Ben A Evans, Olivia L Smith, Ethan S Pickerill, Mary K York, Kristen J P Buenconsejo, Antonio E Chambers, Douglas A Bernstein
Introduction of point mutations to a gene of interest is a powerful tool when determining protein function. CRISPR-mediated genome editing allows for more efficient transfer of a desired mutation into a wide range of model organisms. Traditionally, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing is used to determine if isolates contain the intended mutation. However, mutation efficiency is highly variable, potentially making sequencing costly and time consuming. To more efficiently screen for correct transformants, we have identified restriction enzymes sites that encode for two identical amino acids or one or two stop codons...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892096/significance-of-ns5b-substitutions-in-genotype-1b-hepatitis-c-virus-evaluated-by-bioinformatics-analysis
#19
Yoshihito Uchida, Shugo Nakamura, Jun-Ichi Kouyama, Kayoko Naiki, Daisuke Motoya, Kayoko Sugawara, Mie Inao, Yukinori Imai, Nobuaki Nakayama, Tomoaki Tomiya, Charlotte Hedskog, Diana Brainard, Hongmei Mo, Satoshi Mochida
To evaluate the effects of HCV NS5B amino acid substitutions on treatment outcome in Ledipasvir (LDV)/Sofosbuvir (SOF) for Japanese patients with genotype 1b HCV infection, NS5B sequences were examined in i) seven patients experiencing virologic failure after LDV/SOF in real-world practice, ii) 109 SOF-naïve patients, iii) 165 patients enrolled in Phase-3 LDV/SOF trial. A218S and C316N were detected in all patients with viral relapse; the percentages of these substitutions in SOF-naïve patients were 64.2% and 55...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891831/-ltbsg1-a-new-allele-of-brd2-regulates-panicle-and-grain-development-in-rice-by-brassinosteroid-biosynthetic-pathway
#20
Ran Qin, Dongdong Zeng, Chengcong Yang, Delara Akhter, Md Alamin, Xiaoli Jin, Chunhai Shi
Panicle architecture and grain size are two important agronomic traits which determine grain yield directly in rice. In the present study, a mutant named ltbsg1 ( longer top branch and shorter grain 1 ) was isolated from the cultivar “Zhenong 34” ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica ) by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis. The target gene was studied through phenotype observation, genetic analysis, map-based cloning and functional analysis. The histocytological analysis indicated that the elongated top branch and shorter grain of mutant ltbsg1 were caused from the defects of cell elongation...
June 11, 2018: Genes
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