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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735462/effect-of-decreased-bcaa-synthesis-through-disruption-of-ilvc-gene-on-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#1
Gyu-Lee Kim, Seungyeop Lee, Truc Thanh Luong, Cuong Thach Nguyen, Sang-Sang Park, Suhkneung Pyo, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. It causes a variety of life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. In bacterial physiology, the metabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) plays an important role in virulence. Nonetheless, the function of IlvC, one of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of BCAAs, in S. pneumoniae remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that downregulation of BCAA biosynthesis by ilvC ablation can diminish BCAA concentration and expression of pneumolysin (Ply) and LytA, and subsequently attenuate virulence...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734034/protein-features-as-determinants-of-wild-type-glycoside-hydrolase-thermostability
#2
Henrik Marcus Geertz-Hansen, Lars Kiemer, Morten Nielsen, Kiril Stanchev, Nikolaj Blom, Søren Brunak, Thomas Nordahl Petersen
Thermostable enzymes for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels have significant advantages over enzymes with more moderate themostability due to the challenging application conditions. Experimental discovery of thermostable enzymes is highly cost intensive, and the development of in-silico methods guiding the discovery process would be of high value. To develop such an in-silico method and provide the data foundation of it, we determined the melting temperatures of 602 fungal glycoside hydrolases from the families GH5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 43 and AA9 (formerly GH61)...
July 22, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733388/improving-plant-nitrogen-use-efficiency-through-alteration-of-amino-acid-transport-processes
#3
Molly Perchlik, Mechthild Tegeder
Improving the efficiency of nitrogen (N) uptake and utilization in plants could potentially increase crop yields, while reducing N fertilization and, subsequently, environmental pollution. Within most plants, N is primarily transported as amino acids. In this study, pea plants overexpressing amino acid permease1 (AAP1) were used to determine if and how genetic manipulation of amino acid transport from source-to-sink affects plant N use efficiency. The modified plants were grown under low, moderate or high N fertilization regimes...
July 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733212/the-peroxyl-radical-induced-oxidation-of-escherichia-coli-ftsz-and-its-single-tryptophan-mutant-y222w-modifies-specific-side-chains-generates-protein-cross-links-and-affects-biological-function
#4
Elizabeth Escobar-Álvarez, Fabian Leinisch, Gissela Araya, Octavio Monasterio, Lasse G Lorentzen, Eduardo Silva, Michael J Davies, Camilo López-Alarcón
FtsZ (filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z) is a key protein in bacteria cell division. The wild-type Escherichia coli FtsZ sequence (FtsZwt) contains three tyrosine (Tyr, Y) and sixteen methionine (Met, M) residues. The Tyr at position 222 is a key residue for FtsZ polymerization. Mutation of this residue to tryptophan (Trp, W; mutant Y222W) inhibits GTPase activity resulting in an extended time in the polymerized state compared to FtsZwt. Protein oxidation has been highlighted as a determinant process for bacteria resistance and consequently oxidation of FtsZwt and the Y222W mutant, by peroxyl radicals (ROO•) generated from AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) was studied...
July 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733203/in-silico-pharmacogenetic-approach-the-natalizumab-case-study
#5
Francesca Cavaliere, Enrico Montanari, Andrew Emerson, Annamaria Buschini, Pietro Cozzini
Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to α4β1 integrin and is approved for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. In patients there is a great variation in drug response and there is much evidence that genetic contributors play an important role in defining an individual's susceptibility. Natalizumab binds to α4-residues Gln-152, Lys-201, Lys256, and these seem to be essential for its activity. Studies on a range of species in disease model have showed a loss of reactivity when any one of those three residues were different to human...
July 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729665/identification-of-proteins-that-specifically-recognize-and-bind-protofibrillar-aggregates-of-amyloid-%C3%AE
#6
Elisabet Wahlberg, M Mahafuzur Rahman, Hanna Lindberg, Elin Gunneriusson, Benjamin Schmuck, Christofer Lendel, Mats Sandgren, John Löfblom, Stefan Ståhl, Torleif Härd
Protofibrils of the 42 amino acids long amyloid-β peptide are transient pre-fibrillar intermediates in the process of peptide aggregation into amyloid plaques and are thought to play a critical role in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Hence, there is a need for research reagents and potential diagnostic reagents for detection and imaging of such aggregates. Here we describe an in vitro selection of Affibody molecules that bind to protofibrils of Aβ42cc, which is a stable engineered mimic of wild type Aβ42 protofibrils...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726092/homeotic-mads-box-genes-encoding-lemads-mc-orthologues-in-wild-tomato-species-genus-solanum
#7
M A Slugina, E Z Kochieva, K G Skryabin, A V Shchennikova
New full-length genes encoding the LeMADS-MC transcription factor orthologues were identified and functionally characterized in wild tomato species S. cheesmaniae and S. habrochaites. A comparative analysis of the encoded proteins and LeMADS-MC of the cultivated tomato species S. lycopersicum revealed two major amino acid residues substitutions: V155E in the K-domain of ShaMADS-MC (S. habrochaites) and S80L in the I-region of SchMADS-MC (S. cheesmaniae). Structural differences of the C-terminal regions of MC and the canonical euAP1 proteins indicate possible chromosomal rearrangements in the Solanoideae subfamily, which, however, did not change the main known conserved euAP1 functions...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725058/identification-of-a-flavonoid-glucosyltransferase-involved-in-7-oh-site-glycosylation-in-tea-plants-camellia-sinensis
#8
Xinlong Dai, Juhua Zhuang, Yingling Wu, Peiqiang Wang, Guifu Zhao, Yajun Liu, Xiaolan Jiang, Liping Gao, Tao Xia
Flavonol glycosides, which are often converted from aglycones in a process catalyzed by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), play an important role for the health of plants and animals. In the present study, a gene encoding a flavonoid 7-O-glycosyltransferase (CsUGT75L12) was identified in tea plants. Recombinant CsUGT75L12 protein displayed glycosyltransferase activity on the 7-OH position of multiple phenolic compounds. In relative comparison to wild-type seeds, the levels of flavonol-glucosides increased in Arabidopsis seeds overexpressing CsUGT75L12...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724629/abrogation-of-heat-shock-factor-1-hsf1-phosphorylation-deregulates-its-activity-and-lowers-activation-threshold-leading-to-obesity-in-mice
#9
Xiongjie Jin, Aijun Qiao, Demetrius Moskophidis, Nahid F Mivechi
Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) is transcriptionally activated following exposure of mammalian cells to environmental insults and pathological conditions. The function of Hsf1 as a protector of cells and organisms towards a range of stress stimuli has been well-documented. However, how different Hsf1 post-transcriptional modifications affect its function in vivo is not understood. Hsf1 transcriptional activity is in part regulated by phosphorylation. Hsf1 phosphorylation of amino acid residues at S303 and S307 has been shown to repress Hsf1 transcriptional activity under normal physiological growth conditions...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723063/using-cooperatively-folded-peptides-to-measure-interaction-energies-and-conformational-propensities
#10
Maziar S Ardejani, Evan T Powers, Jeffery W Kelly
The rates and equilibria of the folding of biopolymers are determined by the conformational preferences of the subunits that make up the sequence of the biopolymer and by the interactions that are formed in the folded state in aqueous solution. Because of the centrality of these processes to life, quantifying conformational propensities and interaction strengths is vitally important to understanding biology. In this Account, we describe our use of peptide model systems that fold cooperatively yet are small enough to be chemically synthesized to measure such quantities...
July 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717646/genetic-variation-and-its-reflection-on-posttranslational-modifications-in-frequency-clock-and-mating-type-a-1-proteins-in-sordaria-fimicola
#11
Rabia Arif, Faiza Akram, Tazeen Jamil, Hamid Mukhtar, Siu Fai Lee, Muhammad Saleem
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) occur in all essential proteins taking command of their functions. There are many domains inside proteins where modifications take place on side-chains of amino acids through various enzymes to generate different species of proteins. In this manuscript we have, for the first time, predicted posttranslational modifications of frequency clock and mating type a-1 proteins in Sordaria fimicola collected from different sites to see the effect of environment on proteins or various amino acids pickings and their ultimate impact on consensus sequences present in mating type proteins using bioinformatics tools...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717019/3-hydroxyisobutyryl-coa-hydrolase-involved-in-isoleucine-catabolism-regulates-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#12
Yufang Pan, Juan Yang, Yangmin Gong, Xiaolong Li, Hanhua Hu
Since methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase appears to be absent in the majority of photosynthetic organisms, including diatoms, (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA, the intermediate of isoleucine (Ile) catabolism, cannot be metabolized to (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA then to succinyl-CoA. In this study, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) RNAi silenced strains and 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) overexpression strains were constructed to elucidate the Ile degradation pathway and its influence on lipid accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum based on growth, neutral lipid content and metabolite profile analysis...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716708/functional-characteristics-of-a-novel-smad4-mutation-from-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-taa
#13
Lifei Wu
SMAD4 is as an essential mediator of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway, and dysregulated TGF-β signaling is linked with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs). In this study, we functionally characterized the Smad4 S271N mutation (the mutation c. 812G>A in Smad4 results in the amino acid substitution Ser271Asn) that was isolated from TAA individuals. We first constructed wild-type human Smad4 and Smad4 S271N plasmids. These constructs were then transiently transfected into HEK293T cells, and subsequent real-time PCR and western blotting demonstrated that wild-type Smad4 and Smad4 S271N were successfully expressed in 293T cells...
July 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716422/development-of-imidazolinone-herbicide-tolerant-borage-borago-officinalis-l
#14
Dongyan Song, Guohai Wu, Patricia Vrinten, Xiao Qiu
Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb that produces a high level of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in its seed oil. Due to the recognized health benefits of GLA, borage is now commercially cultivated worldwide. However, an herbicide-tolerant variety for effective weed management has not yet been developed. Here we report the generation and characterization of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced borage mutant lines tolerant to the herbicide imidazolinone. An EMS-mutagenized borage population was generated by using a series of concentrations of EMS to treat mature borage seeds...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714902/fluorescence-modulation-of-green-fluorescent-protein-using-fluorinated-unnatural-amino-acids
#15
Jordan K Villa, Hong-Anh Tran, Megha Vipani, Stephanie Gianturco, Konark Bhasin, Brent L Russell, Elizabeth J Harbron, Douglas D Young
The ability to modulate protein function through minimal perturbations to amino acid structure represents an ideal mechanism to engineer optimized proteins. Due to the novel spectroscopic properties of green fluorescent protein, it has found widespread application as a reporter protein throughout the fields of biology and chemistry. Using site-specific amino acid mutagenesis, we have incorporated various fluorotyrosine residues directly into the fluorophore of the protein, altering the fluorescence and shifting the pKa of the phenolic proton associated with the fluorophore...
July 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711799/efficient-production-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-in-escherichia-coli-by-a-trade-off-between-its-expression-and-biomass-using-n-terminal-modification
#16
Junxian Zheng, Taowei Yang, Junping Zhou, Meijuan Xu, Xian Zhang, Zhiming Rao, Shangtian Yang
Native d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) that is expressed mostly as inclusion body and its toxicity for E. coli hamper efficient heterologous expression. In this study, the soluble expression of DAAO from Rhodosporidium toruloides (RtDAAO) was improved in E. coli through N-terminal modification, but the cell biomass was decreased. Then a trade-off between DAAO expression and biomass was achieved to obtain the highest volumetric activity of DAAO through regulated the number of N-terminus histidine residues. When variant (2)H(3)G was fused with three N-terminus histidine residues, the volumetric activity was increased by 3...
July 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711442/association-of-ev71-3c-polymorphisms-with-clinical-severity
#17
Hsuan-Yin Ma, Chun-Yi Lu, Kuo-Chien Tsao, Hsiu-Ming Shih, Ai-Ling Cheng, Li-Min Huang, Luan-Yin Chang
OBJECTIVES: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) may cause neurological and fatal cases. EV71 3C plays an important role on viral replication and possess proteolysis activity. To delineate pathogenesis of EV71 virulence, we studied EV71 3C genetics, protease activity and correlated the results with clinical severity. METHODS: EV71 cases were collected; 3C of EV71 was sequenced and linked with clinical severity. 3C protease activity, viral replication rates of EV71 infectious clones with different 3C and 3C interaction with host proteins were analyzed...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710470/deviation-of-the-typical-aaa-substrate-threading-pore-prevents-fatal-protein-degradation-in-yeast-cdc48
#18
Masatoshi Esaki, Md Tanvir Islam, Naoki Tani, Teru Ogura
Yeast Cdc48 is a well-conserved, essential chaperone of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activity (AAA) proteins, which recognizes substrate proteins and modulates their conformations to carry out many cellular processes. However, the fundamental mechanisms underlying the diverse pivotal roles of Cdc48 remain unknown. Almost all AAA proteins form a ring-shaped structure with a conserved aromatic amino acid residue that is essential for proper function. The threading mechanism hypothesis suggests that this residue guides the intrusion of substrate proteins into a narrow pore of the AAA ring, thereby becoming unfolded...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706522/expressed-centromere-specific-histone-3-cenh3-variants-in-cultivated-triploid-and-wild-diploid-bananas-musa-spp
#19
Kariuki S Muiruri, Anne Britt, Nelson O Amugune, Edward K Nguu, Simon Chan, Leena Tripathi
Centromeres are specified by a centromere specific histone 3 (CENH3) protein, which exists in a complex environment, interacting with conserved proteins and rapidly evolving satellite DNA sequences. The interactions may become more challenging if multiple CENH3 versions are introduced into the zygote as this can affect post-zygotic mitosis and ultimately sexual reproduction. Here, we characterize CENH3 variant transcripts expressed in cultivated triploid and wild diploid progenitor bananas. We describe both splice- and allelic-[Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)] variants and their effects on the predicted secondary structures of protein...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705680/characterization-of-significant-molecular-determinants-of-virulence-of-enterovirus-71-sub-genotype-b4-in-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells
#20
Pinn Tsin Isabel Yee, Reham Ahmed Hashim Mohamed, Seng-Kai Ong, Kuan Onn Tan, Chit Laa Poh
One of the leading causes of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), displaying symptoms such as fever and ulcers in children but some strains can produce cardiopulmonary oedema which leads to death. There is no FDA-approved vaccine for prevention of severe HFMD. The molecular determinants of virulence for EV-A71 are unclear. It could be a single or a combination of amino acids that determines virulence in different EV-A71 genotype/sub-genotypes. Several EV-A71 strains bearing single nucleotide (nt) mutations were constructed and the contribution of each mutation to virulence was evaluated...
July 10, 2017: Virus Research
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