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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914045/achievements-and-challenges-in-computational-protein-design
#1
Ilan Samish
Computational protein design (CPD), a yet evolving field, includes computer-aided engineering for partial or full de novo designs of proteins of interest. Designs are defined by a requested structure, function, or working environment. This chapter describes the birth and maturation of the field by presenting 101 CPD examples in a chronological order emphasizing achievements and pending challenges. Integrating these aspects presents the plethora of CPD approaches with the hope of providing a "CPD 101". These reflect on the broader structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics field and include: (1) integration of knowledge-based and energy-based methods, (2) hierarchical designated approach towards local, regional, and global motifs and the integration of high- and low-resolution design schemes that fit each such region, (3) systematic differential approaches towards different protein regions, (4) identification of key hot-spot residues and the relative effect of remote regions, (5) assessment of shape-complementarity, electrostatics and solvation effects, (6) integration of thermal plasticity and functional dynamics, (7) negative design, (8) systematic integration of experimental approaches, (9) objective cross-assessment of methods, and (10) successful ranking of potential designs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913724/novel-application-of-steroid-eluting-stents-in-choanal-atresia-repair-a-case-series
#2
John N Bangiyev, Nandini Govil, Anthony Sheyn, Michael Haupert, Prasad John Thottam
PURPOSE: To describe the application of mometasone furoate eluting sinus stent technology in the treatment of choanal atresia (CA) in the hopes of preventing postsurgical stenosis. METHODS: We analyzed 3 consecutive patients aged 4 days to 16 years undergoing repair of CA at a tertiary pediatric hospital. Mometasone furoate eluting sinus stents were placed intraoperatively. Postoperative need for revision surgery as well as routine surveillance endoscopy were used to determine success of surgery...
January 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913574/intended-and-unintended-consequences-of-abortion-law-reform-perspectives-of-abortion-experts-in-victoria-australia
#3
L A Keogh, D Newton, C Bayly, K McNamee, A Hardiman, A Webster, M Bismark
INTRODUCTION: In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. METHODS: Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912789/dynamics-of-antigenemia-and-transmission-intensity-of-wuchereria-bancrofti-following-cessation-of-mass-drug-administration-in-a-formerly-highly-endemic-region-of-mali
#4
Yaya I Coulibaly, Siaka Y Coulibaly, Housseini Dolo, Siaka Konate, Abdallah A Diallo, Salif S Doumbia, Lamine Soumaoro, Michel E Coulibaly, Ilo Dicko, Moussa B Sangare, Benoit Dembele, Modibo Sangare, Massitan Dembele, Yeya T Touré, Louise Kelly-Hope, Katja Polman, Dominique Kyelem, Sekou F Traore, Moses Bockarie, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman
BACKGROUND: After seven annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) in six Malian villages highly endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti (overall prevalence rate of 42.7%), treatment was discontinued in 2008. Surveillance was performed over the ensuing 5 years to detect recrudescence. METHODS: Circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was measured using immunochromatographic card tests (ICT) and Og4C3 ELISA in 6-7 year-olds. Antibody to the W. bancrofti infective larval stage (L3) antigen, Wb123, was tested in the same population in 2012...
December 3, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911022/membrane-defects-and-genetic-redundancy-are-we-at-a-turning-point-for-dyt1-dystonia
#5
REVIEW
Ana Cascalho, Julie Jacquemyn, Rose E Goodchild
Heterozygosity for a 3-base pair deletion (ΔGAG) in TOR1A/torsinA is one of the most common causes of hereditary dystonia. In this review, we highlight current understanding of how this mutation causes disease from research spanning structural biochemistry, cell science, neurobiology, and several model organisms. We now know that homozygosity for ΔGAG has the same effects as Tor1a(KO) , implicating a partial loss of function mechanism in the ΔGAG/+ disease state. In addition, torsinA loss specifically affects neurons in mice, even though the gene is broadly expressed, apparently because of differential expression of homologous torsinB...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904919/-seasonal-differences-of-tympanogram-and-middle-ear-findings-in-children-german-version
#6
S Knopke, A Böttcher, P Chadha, H Olze, F Bast
BACKGROUND: It is a known fact that bacterial or viral acute otitis media occurs more frequently in the winter months. Only a few older studies on seasonal differences in middle ear findings are available. These studies are based solely on tympanography, without correlation to intraoperative middle ear findings. This study addresses the question of whether seasonal differences can be found in the preoperative tympanogram and in the corresponding intraoperative findings in children with chronic middle ear problems...
November 30, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903490/can-a-free-wearable-activity-tracker-change-behavior-the-impact-of-trackers-on-adults-in-a-physician-led-wellness-group
#7
Lisa Gualtieri, Sandra Rosenbluth, Jeffrey Phillips
BACKGROUND: Wearable activity trackers (trackers) are increasingly popular devices used to track step count and other health indicators. Trackers have the potential to benefit those in need of increased physical activity, such as adults who are older and face significant health challenges. These populations are least likely to purchase trackers and most likely to face challenges in using them, yet may derive educational, motivational, and health benefits from their use once these barriers are removed...
November 30, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899496/hormonal-contraception-and-risk-of-thromboembolism-in-women-with-diabetes
#8
Sarah H O'Brien, Terah Koch, Sara K Vesely, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate safety of hormonal contraception with regard to thromboembolic events in women with type 1 or 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from 2002-2011 in Clinformatics Data Mart to identify women in the U.S., 14-44 years of age, with an ICD-9-CM code for diabetes and a prescription for a diabetic medication or device. We examined contraceptive claims and compared time to thromboembolism (venous thrombosis, stroke, or myocardial infarction) among women with diabetes dispensed hormonal contraception using a modification of Cox regression to control for age, smoking, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetic complications, and history of cancer; we excluded data for 3 months after women gave birth...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898666/algorithm-optimization-in-methylation-detection-with-multiple-rt-qpcr
#9
Lele Song, Yuemin Li, Jia Jia, Guangpeng Zhou, Jianming Wang, Qian Kang, Peng Jin, Jianqiu Sheng, Guoxiang Cai, Sanjun Cai, Xiaoliang Han
Epigenetic markers based on differential methylation of DNA sequences are used in cancer screening and diagnostics. Detection of abnormal methylation at specific loci by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been developed to enable high-throughput cancer screening. For tests that combine the results of multiple PCR replicates into a single reportable result, both individual PCR cutoff and weighting of the individual PCR result are essential to test outcome. In this opportunistic screening study, we tested samples from 1133 patients using the triplicate Epi proColon assay with various algorithms and compared it with the newly developed single replicate SensiColon assay that measures methylation status of the same SEPT9 gene sequence...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898188/modern-approaches-to-discovering-new-hydroxynitrile-lyases-for-biocatalysis
#10
REVIEW
Santosh Kumar Padhi
Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) have grown in importance from laboratory to industry due to their potential to catalyze stereoselective C-C bond-formation reactions in the synthesis of several chiral intermediates, such as enantiopure α-cyanohydrins, β-nitro alcohols, and their derivatives with multiple functional groups. With these wide applications, the demand for finding new HNLs has increased, and this has led to exploration not only of new HNLs but also of new ways to discover them. An exclusive review article on HNLs by Asano et al...
November 29, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897965/factors-associated-with-substance-use-in-older-homeless-adults-results-from-the-hope-home-study
#11
Matthew A Spinelli, Claudia Ponath, Lina Tieu, Emily E Hurstak, David Guzman, Margot Kushel
BACKGROUND: The median age of the single adult homeless population is 50 and rising. While the prevalence of substance use decreases as individuals age, older adults now have a higher prevalence of substance use than older adults did ten years ago. Homeless individuals have a higher prevalence of substance use disorders than the general population. However, little is known about substance use in older homeless adults. METHODS: We examined prevalence of and factors associated with substance use in a population-based sample (n = 350) of homeless individuals aged 50 and older in Oakland, CA...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896676/what-is-the-incidence-of-suicide-in-patients-with-bone-and-soft-tissue-cancer-suicide-and-sarcoma
#12
Brianna L Siracuse, George Gorgy, Jeremy Ruskin, Kathleen S Beebe
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer in the United States are estimated to have a suicide incidence that is approximately twice that of the general population. Patients with bone and soft tissue cancer often have physical impairments and activity limitations develop that reduce their quality of life, which may put them at high risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. To our knowledge, there have been no large studies determining incidence of suicide among patients with bone and soft tissue cancer; this information might allow screening of certain high-risk groups...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896250/clinical-efficacy-of-photodynamic-therapy
#13
Ye-Kyu Park, Choong-Hak Park
OBJECTIVE: The management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and early invasive cancer of the uterine cervix is very difficult to approach, especially in case of young woman who wants to preserve her fertility. Conization of the cervix may have various kinds of disadvantage. The objective of this clinical retrospective study is to investigate the therapeutic effects and clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) including combined chemo-photodynamic therapy in patients with pre-malignant CIN and malignant invasive cervical cancer...
November 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891784/characterizing-facial-features-in-individuals-with-craniofacial-microsomia-a-systematic-approach-for-clinical-research
#14
Carrie L Heike, Erin Wallace, Matthew L Speltz, Babette Siebold, Martha M Werler, Anne V Hing, Craig B Birgfeld, Brent R Collett, Brian G Leroux, Daniela V Luquetti
BACKGROUND: Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is a congenital condition with wide phenotypic variability, including hypoplasia of the mandible and external ear. We assembled a cohort of children with facial features within the CFM spectrum and children without known craniofacial anomalies. We sought to develop a standardized approach to assess and describe the facial characteristics of the study cohort, using multiple sources of information gathered over the course of this longitudinal study and to create case subgroups with shared phenotypic features...
November 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890231/soft-tissue-regeneration-incorporating-3-dimensional-biomimetic-scaffolds
#15
REVIEW
Gaurav Shah, Bernard J Costello
Soft tissue replacement and repair is crucial to the ever-developing field of reconstructive surgery as trauma, pathology, and congenital deficits cannot be adequately restored if soft tissue regeneration is deficient. Predominant approaches were sometimes limited to harvesting autografts, but through regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, the hope of fabricating custom constructs is now a feasible and fast-approaching reality. The breadth of this field includes tissues ranging from skin, mucosa, muscle, and fat and hopes to not only provide construct to replace a tissue but also to replace its function...
February 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889630/1-2-3-triazolyl-ester-of-ketorolac-a-click-chemistry-based-highly-potent-pak1-blocking-cancer-killer
#16
Binh Cao Quan Nguyen, Hideaki Takahashi, Yoshihiro Uto, M D Shahinozzaman, Shinkichi Tawata, Hiroshi Maruta
An old anti-inflammatory/analgesic drug called Toradol is a racemic form of Ketorolac (50% R-form and 50% S-form) that blocks the oncogenic RAC-PAK1-COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) signaling, through the direct inhibition of RAC by the R-form and of COX-2 by the S-form, eventually down-regulating the production of prostaglandins. However, due to its COOH moiety which is clearly repulsive to negatively-charged phospholipid-based plasma membrane, its cell-permeability is rather poor (the IC50 against the growth of human cancer cells such as A549 is around 13 μM)...
November 20, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888517/differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neutrophil-granulocytes-from-common-marmoset-monkey-callithrix-jacchus
#17
Christopher Schrimpf, Christoph Wrede, Silke Glage, Jan Hegermann, Samantha Backhaus, Rainer Blasczyk, Hans-Gert Heuft, Thomas Müller
BACKGROUND: Inherited and acquired marrow failure syndromes most commonly lead to defect in myeloid and/or neutrophil differentiation and/or function. Besides this, neutropenia induced by cancer-adjusted chemotherapy is a frequent clinical problem. In both cases, cell replacement therapy is a well-established, but due to necessity of donors limited and perilous procedure. Therefore, autologous cell replacement from patients' own marrow-derived cells lowers risk and bares new possibilities for therapy...
November 25, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888273/upward-ballooning-of-the-third-ventricle-floor-in-a-patient-with-slit-ventricle-syndrome-a-unique-magnetic-resonance-imaging-finding
#18
Junya Yamaguchi, Tadashi Watanabe, Yuichi Nagata, Tetuya Nagatani, Yukio Seki
Slit ventricle syndrome (SVS) is a well-known chronic complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement. In this report, we describe a unique anatomical change that we observed on the magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain acquired from a patient with SVS. The patient was a 40-year-old woman who had undergone VPS placement at 3 months of age. A computed tomography scan of her brain revealed a slit-like ventricle. In addition, an MR image of her brain revealed upward ballooning of the third ventricle floor, which returned to normal after a lumbar puncture...
November 25, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887654/proportion-of-children-meeting-recommendations-for-24-hour-movement-guidelines-and-associations-with-adiposity-in-a-12-country-study
#19
Blanca Roman-Viñas, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Mikael Fogelholm, Estelle V Lambert, Carol Maher, Jose Maia, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The Canadian 24-h movement guidelines were developed with the hope of improving health and future health outcomes in children and youth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to the 3 recommendations most strongly associated with health outcomes in new 24-h movement guidelines and their relationship with adiposity (obesity and body mass index z-score) across countries participating in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE)...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885469/nepa-a-fixed-oral-combination-of-netupitant-and-palonosetron-improves-control-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-cinv-over-multiple-cycles-of-chemotherapy-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-phase-3-trial-versus-oral-palonosetron
#20
Matti Aapro, Meinolf Karthaus, Lee Schwartzberg, Igor Bondarenko, Tomasz Sarosiek, Cristina Oprean, Servando Cardona-Huerta, Vincent Hansen, Giorgia Rossi, Giada Rizzi, Maria Elisa Borroni, Hope Rugo
PURPOSE: Antiemetic guidelines recommend co-administration of targeted prophylactic medications inhibiting molecular pathways involved in emesis. NEPA is a fixed oral combination of a new NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), netupitant (NETU 300 mg), and palonosetron (PALO 0.50 mg), a pharmacologically distinct 5-HT3 RA. NEPA showed superior prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) compared with oral PALO in a single chemotherapy cycle; maintenance of efficacy/safety over continuing cycles is the objective of this study...
November 24, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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