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Obesity in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346924/early-life-antibiotic-exposure-gut-microbiota-development-and-predisposition-to-obesity
#1
Meghan B Azad, Shirin Moossavi, Arthur Owora, Shadi Sepehri
Antibiotics are often prescribed inappropriately to infants and young children, with potentially adverse effects on the developing gut microbiota and related metabolic processes. We review evidence from 17 epidemiologic studies suggesting that antibiotic exposure during critical periods of early development may influence weight gain and the development of obesity. Complementary research in both humans and rodents indicates that gut microbiota play a key role in this process, although further research is needed to confirm and characterize the causal mechanisms involved...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346921/bacterial-colonization-of-the-newborn-gut-immune-development-and-prevention-of-disease
#2
W Allan Walker
We now know that the fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment but is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut which cross the placenta and infiltrate the amniotic fluid. This exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life, and it has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Cross talk with colonizing bacteria in the developing neonatal intestine helps in the initial adaptation of the infant to extrauterine life, particularly in acquiring immune homeostasis, and provides protection against disease expression (e...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346917/endocrine-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-optic-pathway-glioma%C3%A2
#3
Ilaria Sani, Assunta Albanese
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Children with optic pathway glioma (OPG) face sequelae related to tumour location and treatment modalities. We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunctions in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and OPG who did not receive radiotherapy or surgical resection. The causative role of tumour location on endocrinopathy development is investigated. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study of 40 children with NF1 and OPG evaluated between August 1996 and May 2015 was undertaken...
March 27, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344572/gut-colonization-by-methanogenic-archaea-is-associated-with-organic-dairy-consumption-in-children
#4
Jeroen A A van de Pol, Niels van Best, Catherine A Mbakwa, Carel Thijs, Paul H Savelkoul, Ilja C W Arts, Mathias W Hornef, Monique Mommers, John Penders
The gut microbiota represents a complex and diverse ecosystem with a profound impact on human health, promoting immune maturation, and host metabolism as well as colonization resistance. Important members that have often been disregarded are the methanogenic archaea. Methanogenic archaea reduce hydrogen levels via the production of methane, thereby stimulating food fermentation by saccharolytic bacteria. On the other hand, colonization by archaea has been suggested to promote a number of gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344119/acculturation-and-weight-change-in-asian-american-children-evidence-from-the-ecls-k-2011
#5
Cassandra S Diep, Tom Baranowski, Rachel T Kimbro
Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Secondary aims were to compare changes by Asian ethnic group and acculturation x socioeconomic status. Participants included 1200 Asian-American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, a longitudinal study of U...
March 23, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343882/a-contemporary-description-of-french-newborns-growth-using-the-efemeris-cohort
#6
A-B Beau, M Tauber, C Chollet, C Hurault-Delarue, C Bouilhac, J-L Montastruc, I Lacroix, C Damase-Michel
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity in childhood are a major concern in developed countries. Reference growth curves are used in current practice to identify children at risk, especially at risk of overweight or obesity. National reference growth curves were published 35 years ago from children born in the 1950s to study growth from birth to adulthood. Additionally, more recent national curves exist to study birth weight and height according to gestational age. The primary objective was to describe anthropometric measurements of French children born in the 2000s and to compare them with the French references...
March 23, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343413/development-and-implementation
#7
Teresa Schwendler, Cara Shipley, Nadine Budd, Angela Trude, Pamela J Surkan, Elizabeth Anderson Steeves, Priscila de Morais Sato, Thomas Eckmann, Hong Loh, Joel Gittelsohn
Higher rates of obesity and obesity-related chronic disease are prevalent in communities where there is limited access to affordable, healthy food. The B'More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) trial worked at multiple levels of the food environment including food wholesalers and corner stores to improve the surrounding community's access to healthy food. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implementation of BHCK's corner store and wholesaler interventions through formal process evaluation...
March 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342363/war-during-childhood-the-long-run-effects-of-warfare-on-health
#8
Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel
This paper estimates the causal long-term consequences of an exposure to war in utero and during childhood on the risk of obesity and the probability of having a chronic health condition in adulthood. Using the plausibly exogenous city-by-cohort variation in the intensity of WWII destruction as a unique quasi-experiment, I find that individuals who were exposed to WWII destruction during the prenatal and early postnatal periods have higher BMIs and are more likely to be obese as adults. I also find an elevated incidence of chronic health conditions such as stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorder in adulthood among these wartime children...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341527/the-relationship-of-maternal-prepregnancy-body-mass-index-and-pregnancy-weight-gain-to-neurocognitive-function-at-age-10-years-among-children-born-extremely-preterm
#9
Elizabeth T Jensen, Jelske W van der Burg, Thomas M O'Shea, Robert M Joseph, Elizabeth N Allred, Tim Heeren, Alan Leviton, Karl C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of pregnancy weight gain in relation to neurocognitive function in school-aged children born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN: Study participants were 535 ten-year-old children enrolled previously in the prospective multicenter Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns cohort study who were products of singleton pregnancies. Soon after delivery, mothers provided information about prepregnancy weight...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341330/community-perspectives-on-the-use-of-regulation-and-law-for-obesity-prevention-in-children-a-citizens-jury
#10
Jackie M Street, Jana Sisnowski, Rebecca Tooher, Lucy C Farrell, Annette J Braunack-Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is a significant challenge for public health internationally. Regulatory and fiscal measures propagated by governments offer a potentially effective response to this issue. Fearing public criticism, governments are often reluctant to use such measures. In this study we asked a descriptively representative and informed group of Australians their views on the use of legislation and fiscal measures by governments to address childhood obesity. METHODS: A citizens' jury, held in South Australia in April 2015, was asked to consider the question: What laws, if any, should we have in Australia to address childhood obesity? RESULTS: The jury agreed that prevention of obesity was complex requiring multifaceted government intervention...
March 12, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341221/a-systematic-review-of-obesity-disparities-research
#11
REVIEW
Charlotte A Pratt, Catherine M Loria, Sonia S Arteaga, Holly L Nicastro, Maria Lopez-Class, Janet M de Jesus, Pothur Srinivas, Christine Maric-Bilkan, Lisa Schwartz Longacre, Josephine E A Boyington, Abera Wouhib, Nara Gavini
CONTEXT: A review of interventions addressing obesity disparities could reveal gaps in the literature and provide guidance on future research, particularly for populations with a high prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic risk. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of clinical trials in obesity disparities research that were published in 2011-2016 in PubMed/MEDLINE resulted in 328 peer-reviewed articles. Articles were excluded if they had no BMI, weight, or body composition measure as primary outcome or were foreign (n=201); were epidemiologic or secondary data analyses of clinical trials (n=12); design or protocol papers (n=54); systematic reviews (n=3); or retracted or duplicates (n=9)...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338874/does-fetal-growth-restriction-cause-later-obesity-pitfalls-in-analyzing-causal-mediators-as-confounders
#12
Michael S Kramer, Xun Zhang, Mourad Dahhou, Seungmi Yang, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Robert W Platt
Recent studies finding that small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth is associated with increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood have been based on analyses "adjusting" for height, weight, or body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) measured concurrently with the adiposity measurement. To assess the potential for bias due to overadjustment for a causal mediator, we compared 2 approaches to analyzing the association between SGA birth and adiposity outcomes (skinfold thicknesses and bioelectrical impedance measurement of body fat) at age 11...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338750/association-of-maternal-plasma-folate-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-pregnancy-with-elevated-blood-pressure-of-offspring-in-childhood
#13
Hongjian Wang, Noel T Mueller, Jianping Li, Ninglin Sun, Yong Huo, Fazheng Ren, Xiaobin Wang
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood elevated blood pressure (BP) has increased in the United States, particularly among African Americans. The influence of maternal plasma folate levels, alone or in combination with maternal cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and prepregnancy obesity), on child systolic BP (SBP) has not been examined in a prospective birth cohort. We hypothesize that adequate maternal folate levels can reduce the risk of elevated SBP in children born to mothers with cardiometabolic risk factors...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338403/personalized-mobile-health-intervention-for-health-and-weight-loss-in-postpartum-women-receiving-women-infants-and-children-benefit-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#14
L Anne Gilmore, Monica C Klempel, Corby K Martin, Candice A Myers, Jeffrey H Burton, Elizabeth F Sutton, Leanne M Redman
BACKGROUND: Prepregnancy maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy lead to significant morbidities in mothers and their children. Mothers who never return to their prepregnancy weight begin subsequent pregnancies at a greater weight and have a larger propensity for excess gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention. METHODS: In this pilot study, 40 postpartum women credentialed to receive postpartum women, infants, and children (WIC) service were randomized to usual care ("WIC Moms") or a personalized health intervention delivered via a SmartPhone ("E-Moms")...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337856/contribution-of-snacks-to-dietary-intakes-of-young-children-in-the-united-states
#15
Lenka H Shriver, Barbara J Marriage, Tama D Bloch, Colleen K Spees, Samantha A Ramsay, Rosanna P Watowicz, Christopher A Taylor
Nutritional quality of children's diets is a public health priority in the fight against childhood obesity and chronic diseases. The main purpose of this study was to determine contribution of snacks to energy and nutrient intakes and to identify leading snack food sources of energy, total fat, and added sugars amongst young children in the United States. Using the 2005-2012 NHANES data, dietary intakes of 2- to 5-year-old children were analysed from a parent-reported 24-hour dietary recall (n = 3,429). Snacking occasions were aggregated to determine the proportion of total food/beverage intake obtained from snacks, estimate energy, and nutrient intakes, and identify the leading snack food sources of energy, added sugars, and total fat...
March 23, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337615/longer-duration-of-obesity-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-urinary-angiotensinogen-in-prepubertal-children
#16
Manuela Morato, Liane Correia-Costa, Teresa Sousa, Dina Cosme, Franz Schaefer, José Carlos Areias, António Guerra, Alberto Caldas Afonso, Henrique Barros, Ana Azevedo, António Albino-Teixeira
BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the impact of obesity on urinary excretion of angiotensinogen (U-AGT) in prepubertal children, focusing on the duration of obesity and gender. Also, we aimed to evaluate whether plasma angiotensinogen (P-AGT) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) play a role in the putative association. METHODS: Cross-sectional evaluation of 305 children aged 8-9 years (160 normal weight, 86 overweight, and 59 obese). Anthropometric measurements and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337087/medication-dosage-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#17
Kelly L Matson, Evan R Horton, Amanda C Capino
Approximately 31.8% of U.S. children ages 2 to 19 years are considered overweight or obese. This creates significant challenges to dosing medications that are primarily weight based (mg/kg) and in predicting pharmacokinetics parameters in pediatric patients. Obese individuals generally have a larger volume of distribution for lipophilic medications. Conversely, the Vd of hydrophilic medications may be increased or decreased due to increased lean body mass, blood volume, and decrease percentage of total body water...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336101/metabolic-syndrome-hepatic-steatosis-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-children
#18
Irene Rutigliano, Roberta Vinci, Gianpaolo De Filippo, Monica Mancini, Luca Stoppino, Maria d'Apolito, Ida Giardino, Luca Macarini, Massimo Pettoello Mantovani, Angelo Campanozzi
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a well-recognized entity; however, there is no consensus on its exact value in predicting long-term cardiovascular (CV) risk. Hepatic steatosis (HS) is another emerging condition associated with pediatric obesity, and data have been reported suggesting a possible role of HS in CV risk linked to MetS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of HS and MetS cluster in predicting CV risk linked to pediatric obesity. METHODS: We studied 803 overweight and obese children (395 girls and 408 boys, mean age 9...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335749/women-s-perceptions-of-discussions-about-gestational-weight-gain-with-health-care-providers-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-a-qualitative-study
#19
Hara Nikolopoulos, Maria Mayan, Jessica MacIsaac, Terri Miller, Rhonda C Bell
BACKGROUND: Maternal body weight is an indicator of the health of a mother and her developing fetus. Risks of poor maternal and fetal health issues increase when women gain too little or too much weight during pregnancy. A study of 600 women from Alberta, Canada, reported approximately 30, 46, 80, and 80% of underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese women, respectively, gained in excess of Health Canada gestational weight gain guidelines. Behavioural interventions during pregnancy have shown to be effective at supporting women achieve gestational weight gain (GWG) recommendations and return to their pre-pregnancy weight postpartum, yet few women are counseled about weight gain during pregnancy...
March 24, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335639/a-teachers-training-program-accompanying-the-school-fruit-scheme-fruit-distribution-improves-children-s-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-an-italian-trial
#20
Romana Roccaldo, Laura Censi, Laura D'Addezio, Sibilla Berni Canani, Laura Gennaro
The effects of a nutrition education program, led by trained teachers within the Italian School Fruit Scheme, were evaluated. Pre-post intervention children's adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) was assessed by the KIDMED test. A representative cluster sample of 494 fourth grade students from thirteen Italian schools in the three areas of low (North), medium (Centre) and high (South) prevalence of overweight and obesity was investigated. Within the same schools, the intervention group (n = 395) received the program, the control group (n = 99) did not...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
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