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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417968/rational-development-of-a-protective-p-vivax-vaccine-evaluated-with-transgenic-rodent-parasite-challenge-models
#1
Ahmed M Salman, Eduardo Montoya-Díaz, Heather West, Amar Lall, Erwan Atcheson, Cesar Lopez-Camacho, Jai Ramesar, Karolis Bauza, Katharine A Collins, Florian Brod, Fernando Reis, Leontios Pappas, Lilia González-Cerón, Chris J Janse, Adrian V S Hill, Shahid M Khan, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval
Development of a protective and broadly-acting vaccine against the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, will be a major step towards malaria elimination. However, a P. vivax vaccine has remained elusive by the scarcity of pre-clinical models to test protective efficacy and support further clinical trials. In this study, we report the development of a highly protective CSP-based P. vivax vaccine, a virus-like particle (VLP) known as Rv21, able to provide 100% sterile protection against a stringent sporozoite challenge in rodent models to malaria, where IgG2a antibodies were associated with protection in absence of detectable PvCSP-specific T cell responses...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359340/world-malaria-report-time-to-acknowledge-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria
#2
Bridget E Barber, Giri S Rajahram, Matthew J Grigg, Timothy William, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. MAIN TEXT: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia...
March 31, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213436/host-cell-tropism-and-adaptation-of-blood-stage-malaria-parasites-challenges-for-malaria-elimination
#3
Caeul Lim, Selasi Dankwa, Aditya S Paul, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax account for most of the mortality and morbidity associated with malaria in humans. Research and control efforts have focused on infections caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax, but have neglected other malaria parasite species that infect humans. Additionally, many related malaria parasite species infect nonhuman primates (NHPs), and have the potential for transmission to humans. For malaria elimination, the varied and specific challenges of all of these Plasmodium species will need to be considered...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179404/a-plasmodium-vivax-plasmid-dna-and-adenovirus-vectored-malaria-vaccine-encoding-blood-stage-antigens-ama1-and-msp142-in-a-prime-boost-heterologous-immunization-regimen-partially-protects-aotus-monkeys-against-blood-stage-challenge
#4
Nicanor Obaldia, Michael G Stockelman, William Otero, Jennifer A Cockrill, Harini Ganeshan, Esteban N Abot, Jianfeng Zhang, Keith Limbach, Yupin Charoenvit, Denise L Doolan, De-Chu C Tang, Thomas L Richie
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which are transmitted to humans by the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. After the elimination of Plasmodium falciparum, it is predicted that Plasmodium vivax will remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality outside Africa, stressing the importance of developing a vaccine against P. vivax malaria. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two P. vivax antigens, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142) in a plasmid recombinant DNA prime/adenoviral (Ad) vector boost regimen in Aotus monkeys...
April 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179403/evaluation-of-plasmodium-vivax-cell-traversal-protein-for-ookinetes-and-sporozoites-as-a-preerythrocytic-p-vivax-vaccine
#5
Eduardo Alves, Ahmed M Salman, Fabiana Leoratti, Cesar Lopez-Camacho, Martha Eva Viveros-Sandoval, Amar Lall, Aadil El-Turabi, Martin F Bachmann, Adrian V S Hill, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval
Four different vaccine platforms, each targeting the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PvCelTOS), were generated and assessed for protective efficacy. These platforms consisted of a recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral vector 63 (ChAd63) expressing PvCelTOS (Ad), a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing PvCelTOS (MVA), PvCelTOS conjugated to bacteriophage Qβ virus-like particles (VLPs), and a recombinant PvCelTOS protein expressed in eukaryotic HEK293T cells (protein)...
April 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174312/selective-whole-genome-amplification-is-a-robust-method-that-enables-scalable-whole-genome-sequencing-of-plasmodium-vivax-from-unprocessed-clinical-samples
#6
Annie N Cowell, Dorothy E Loy, Sesh A Sundararaman, Hugo Valdivia, Kathleen Fisch, Andres G Lescano, G Christian Baldeviano, Salomon Durand, Vince Gerbasi, Colin J Sutherland, Debbie Nolder, Joseph M Vinetz, Beatrice H Hahn, Elizabeth A Winzeler
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens from clinical samples is a highly sensitive tool used to gain a deeper understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and drug resistance mechanisms of many infections. However, WGS of organisms which exhibit low densities in their hosts is challenging due to high levels of host genomic DNA (gDNA), which leads to very low coverage of the microbial genome. WGS of Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed form of malaria, is especially difficult because of low parasite densities and the lack of an ex vivo culture system...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906962/population-density-climate-variables-and-poverty-synergistically-structure-spatial-risk-in-urban-malaria-in-india
#7
Mauricio Santos-Vega, Menno J Bouma, Vijay Kohli, Mercedes Pascual
BACKGROUND: The world is rapidly becoming urban with the global population living in cities projected to double by 2050. This increase in urbanization poses new challenges for the spread and control of communicable diseases such as malaria. In particular, urban environments create highly heterogeneous socio-economic and environmental conditions that can affect the transmission of vector-borne diseases dependent on human water storage and waste water management. Interestingly India, as opposed to Africa, harbors a mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi, which thrives in the man-made environments of cities and acts as the vector for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, making the malaria problem a truly urban phenomenon...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836912/biology-of-malaria-transmission
#8
Elamaran Meibalan, Matthias Marti
Understanding transmission biology at an individual level is a key component of intervention strategies that target the spread of malaria parasites from human to mosquito. Gametocytes are specialized sexual stages of the malaria parasite life cycle developed during evolution to achieve crucial steps in transmission. As sexual differentiation and transmission are tightly linked, a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular events defining this relationship is essential to combat malaria. Recent advances in the field are gradually revealing mechanisms underlying sexual commitment, gametocyte sequestration, and dynamics of transmissible stages; however, key questions on fundamental gametocyte biology still remain...
November 11, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799639/epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-peru
#9
Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Dionicia Gamboa, Paulo Manrique, Jan E Conn, Marta Moreno, Andres G Lescano, Juan F Sanchez, Hugo Rodriguez, Hermann Silva, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M Vinetz
Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708185/epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-indonesia
#10
Claudia Surjadjaja, Asik Surya, J Kevin Baird
Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706158/colorimetric-detection-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-urine-using-msp10-oligonucleotides-and-gold-nanoparticles
#11
Yossef Alnasser, Cusi Ferradas, Taryn Clark, Maritza Calderon, Alejandro Gurbillon, Dionicia Gamboa, Uri S McKakpo, Isabella A Quakyi, Kwabena M Bosompem, David J Sullivan, Joseph M Vinetz, Robert H Gilman
Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent cause of human malaria in the world and can lead to severe disease with high potential for relapse. Its genetic and geographic diversities make it challenging to control. P. vivax is understudied and to achieve control of malaria in endemic areas, a rapid, accurate, and simple diagnostic tool is necessary. In this pilot study, we found that a colorimetric system using AuNPs and MSP10 DNA detection in urine can provide fast, easy, and inexpensive identification of P. vivax...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688033/cloning-expression-molecular-characterization-and-preliminary-studies-on-immunomodulating-properties-of-recombinant-trypanosoma-congolense-calreticulin
#12
Geraldine Bossard, Pascal Grébaut, Sophie Thévenon, Martial Séveno, David Berthier, Philippe Holzmuller
Trypanosomes are bloodstream protozoan parasites, which are pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. Several mammalian species, including humans, can be infected by different species of the genus Trypanosoma (T. congolense, T. evansi, T. brucei, T. vivax) exhibiting more or less virulent and pathogenic phenotypes. A previous screening of the excreted-secreted proteins of T. congolense demonstrated an overexpression of several proteins correlated with the virulence and pathogenicity of the strain. Of these proteins, calreticulin (CRT) has shown differential expression between two T...
September 26, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590312/plasmodium-cynomolgi-infections-in-rhesus-macaques-display-clinical-and-parasitological-features-pertinent-to-modelling-vivax-malaria-pathology-and-relapse-infections
#13
Chester Joyner, Alberto Moreno, Esmeralda V S Meyer, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Jessica C Kissinger, John W Barnwell, Mary R Galinski
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infections in humans or in new world monkeys pose research challenges that necessitate the use of alternative model systems. Plasmodium cynomolgi is a closely related species that shares genetic and biological characteristics with P. vivax, including relapses. Here, the haematological dynamics and clinical presentation of sporozoite-initiated P. cynomolgi infections in Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaques) are evaluated over a 100-day period. METHODS: Five M...
September 2, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555313/a-novel-erythrocyte-binding-protein-of-plasmodium-vivax-suggests-an-alternate-invasion-pathway-into-duffy-positive-reticulocytes
#14
Francis B Ntumngia, Richard Thomson-Luque, Letícia de Menezes Torres, Karthigayan Gunalan, Luzia H Carvalho, John H Adams
UNLABELLED: Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is essential for blood-stage development and an important determinant of host range. In Plasmodium vivax, the interaction between the Duffy binding protein (DBP) and its cognate receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), on human erythrocytes is central to blood-stage infection. Contrary to this established pathway of invasion, there is growing evidence of P. vivax infections occurring in Duffy blood group-negative individuals, suggesting that the parasite might have gained an alternative pathway to infect this group of individuals...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432121/reticulocyte-preference-and-stage-development-of-plasmodium-vivax-isolates
#15
Caeul Lim, Ligia Pereira, Kathryn Shaw Saliba, Anjali Mascarenhas, Jennifer N Maki, Laura Chery, Edwin Gomes, Pradipsinh K Rathod, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, is restricted to reticulocytes, limiting its asexual proliferation. In recent years, cases of severe and high-level P. vivax parasitemia have been reported, challenging the assumption that all isolates are equally restricted. In this article, we analyze the reticulocyte preference of a large number of Indian P. vivax isolates. Our results show that P. vivax isolates significantly vary in their level of reticulocyte preference. In addition, by carefully staging the parasites, we find that P...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430544/key-knowledge-gaps-for-plasmodium-vivax-control-and-elimination
#16
Quique Bassat, Mar Velarde, Ivo Mueller, Jessica Lin, Toby Leslie, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai, J Kevin Baird
There is inadequate understanding of the biology, pathology, transmission, and control of Plasmodium vivax, the geographically most widespread cause of human malaria. During the last decades, study of this species was neglected, in part due to the erroneous belief that it is intrinsically benign. In addition, many technical challenges in culturing the parasite also hampered understanding its fundamental biology and molecular and cellular responses to chemotherapeutics. Research on vivax malaria needs to be substantially expanded over the next decade to accelerate its elimination and eradication...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402513/global-epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax
#17
Rosalind E Howes, Katherine E Battle, Kamini N Mendis, David L Smith, Richard E Cibulskis, J Kevin Baird, Simon I Hay
Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria, putting 2.5 billion people at risk of infection. Its unique biological and epidemiological characteristics pose challenges to control strategies that have been principally targeted against Plasmodium falciparum Unlike P. falciparum, P. vivax infections have typically low blood-stage parasitemia with gametocytes emerging before illness manifests, and dormant liver stages causing relapses. These traits affect both its geographic distribution and transmission patterns...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381764/out-of-africa-origins-and-evolution-of-the-human-malaria-parasites-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax
#18
REVIEW
Dorothy E Loy, Weimin Liu, Yingying Li, Gerald H Learn, Lindsey J Plenderleith, Sesh A Sundararaman, Paul M Sharp, Beatrice H Hahn
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax account for more than 95% of all human malaria infections, and thus pose a serious public health challenge. To control and potentially eliminate these pathogens, it is important to understand their origins and evolutionary history. Until recently, it was widely believed that P. falciparum had co-evolved with humans (and our ancestors) over millions of years, whilst P. vivax was assumed to have emerged in southeastern Asia following the cross-species transmission of a parasite from a macaque...
February 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244953/viability-and-infectivity-of-cryopreserved-plasmodium-vivax-sporozoites
#19
Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, Kaewta Lerdpanyangam, Rachaneeporn Jenwithisuk, Siriwan Rungin, Rachasak Boonhok, Apisak Duangmanee, Narathatai Yimamnuaychok, Jetsumon Sattabongkot
Plasmodium vivax presents a great challenge to malaria control because of the ability of its dormant form in the liver, the hypnozoite, to cause relapse in otherwise fully recovered patient. Research efforts to better understand P. vivax hypnozoite biology have been hampered by the limited availability of its sporozoite form responsible for liver infection. Thus, the ability to cryopreserve and recover P. vivax sporozoites is an essential procedure. In this study, protective effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) alone and in combination with other cryoprotectants on P...
March 2016: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206924/challenges-for-malaria-elimination-in-brazil
#20
REVIEW
Marcelo U Ferreira, Marcia C Castro
Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99...
2016: Malaria Journal
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