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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622786/dairy-cow-disability-weights
#1
Craig S McConnel, Ashleigh A McNeil, Joleen C Hadrich, Jason E Lombard, Franklyn B Garry, Jane Heller
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591673/the-windmill-technique-avoids-manual-removal-of-the-retained-placenta-a-new-solution-for-an-old-problem
#2
Larry Hinkson, Mia Amelie Suermann, Susan Hinkson, Wolfgang Henrich
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to assess the reduction in manual removal of placenta with the Windmill technique of placenta delivery in patients with retained placenta. DESIGN: The Windmill technique involves the application of continuous 360° umbilical cord traction and rotation in such a manner as to be perpendicular to the direction of the birth canal at the level of the introitus. This rotation through 360° is repeated slowly with movement akin to the motion of the blades of a windmill...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588954/-women-and-babies-are-dying-but-not-of-ebola-the-effect-of-the-ebola-virus-epidemic-on-the-availability-uptake-and-outcomes-of-maternal-and-newborn-health-services-in-sierra-leone
#3
Susan A Jones, Somasundari Gopalakrishnan, Charles A Ameh, Sarah White, Nynke R van den Broek
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the impact of the Ebola virus epidemic on the availability, uptake and outcome of routine maternity services in Sierra Leone. METHODS: The number of antenatal and postnatal visits, institutional births, availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC), maternal deaths and stillbirths were assessed by month, by districts and by level of healthcare for 10 months during, and 12 months prior to, the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573410/depressed-polymorphonuclear-cell-functions-in-periparturient-cows-that-develop-postpartum-reproductive-diseases
#4
Rafiqul Islam, Harendra Kumar, Gyanendra Singh, Binsila B Krishnan, Sahadeb Dey
The study was planned to see if there is any important and significant changes in the PMN function in cows suffering from postpartum reproductive diseases (PRD). Blood sampling was done from 41 pregnant cows on 15 days prepartum (-15d), calving day (0d), 15 days (15d) and 30 days (30d) postpartum and thorough gynaecological examination was performed on 0d, 15d, 30d and 45d for diagnosis of PRD like retained placenta (RP), clinical metritis (CM), clinical endometritis (CE) and delayed involution of uterus (DIU)...
June 1, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559354/rna-seq-reveals-conservation-of-function-among-the-yolk-sacs-of-human-mouse-and-chicken
#5
Tereza Cindrova-Davies, Eric Jauniaux, Michael G Elliot, Sungsam Gong, Graham J Burton, D Stephen Charnock-Jones
The yolk sac is phylogenetically the oldest of the extraembryonic membranes. The human embryo retains a yolk sac, which goes through primary and secondary phases of development, but its importance is controversial. Although it is known to synthesize proteins, its transport functions are widely considered vestigial. Here, we report RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data for the human and murine yolk sacs and compare those data with data for the chicken. We also relate the human RNA-seq data to proteomic data for the coelomic fluid bathing the yolk sac...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550453/exchange-of-genetic-sequences-between-viruses-and-hosts
#6
Robin A Weiss
Although genetic transfer between viruses and vertebrate hosts occurs less frequently than gene flow between bacteriophages and prokaryotes, it is extensive and has affected the evolution of both parties. With retroviruses, the integration of proviral DNA into chromosomal DNA can result in the activation of adjacent host gene expression and in the transduction of host transcripts into retroviral genomes as oncogenes. Yet in contrast to lysogenic phage, there is little evidence that viral oncogenes persist in a chain of natural transmission or that retroviral transduction is a significant driver of the horizontal spread of host genes...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529976/de-novo-generation-and-characterization-of-new-zika-virus-isolate-using-sequence-data-from-a-microcephaly-case
#7
Yin Xiang Setoh, Natalie A Prow, Nias Peng, Leon E Hugo, Gregor Devine, Jessamine E Hazlewood, Andreas Suhrbier, Alexander A Khromykh
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged and is the etiological agent of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), a spectrum of congenital abnormalities arising from neural tissue infections in utero. Herein, we describe the de novo generation of a new ZIKV isolate, ZIKVNatal, using a modified circular polymerase extension reaction protocol and sequence data obtained from a ZIKV-infected fetus with microcephaly. ZIKVNatal thus has no laboratory passage history and is unequivocally associated with CZS. ZIKVNatal could be used to establish a fetal brain infection model in IFNAR(-/-) mice (including intrauterine growth restriction) without causing symptomatic infections in dams...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497735/-endogenous-retroviral-sequences-in-the-human-genome-can-play-a-physiological-or-pathological-role
#8
Julie Medina, Benjamin Charvet, Pascal Leblanc, Raphaële Germi, Branka Horvat, Patrice N Marche, Hervé Perron
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) represent a large part of our genome and the few elements that have retained a potential of expression still remain "dormant" in physiological conditions. In some instances, they can be awakened by environmental factors activating their expression. The best studied conditions of HERV activation are infections caused by microorganisms such as viruses of the Herpesvirus family. This activation can thus lead to the expression of pathogenic proteins such as envelope proteins belonging to the HERV-W and HERV-K families, respectively involved in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
April 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434752/effects-of-intrauterine-infusion-of-escherichia-coli-lipopolysaccharide-on-uterine-health-resolution-of-purulent-vaginal-discharge-and-reproductive-performance-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#9
João G N Moraes, Paula R B Silva, Luís G D Mendonça, Alexandre A Scanavez, Joseane C C Silva, Ricardo C Chebel
The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) on intrauterine cell population, resolution of PVD, uterine health, and reproductive performance. Jersey cows (n = 3,084) were examined using the Metricheck device to diagnose PVD at 35 ± 6 d postpartum. Purulent vaginal discharge was defined as the presence of purulent (≥50% pus) discharge detectable in the vagina...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422330/genetic-relationships-among-female-fertility-disorders-female-fertility-traits-and-productivity-of-holstein-dairy-cows-in-the-early-lactation-period
#10
E Gernand, S König
Fertility health disorders from the early lactation period including retained placenta (REPLA), metritis (MET), corpus luteum persistence (CLP), anoestria/acyclia (AOEAC) and ovarial cysts (OC), as well as overall disease categories (disorders during the postpartal period (DPP), ovary infertility (OINF), overall trait definition "fertility disorders" (FD)), were used to estimate genetic (co)variance components with female fertility and test-day traits. The disease data set comprised 25,142 Holstein cows from parities 1, 2 and 3 resulting in 43,584 lactations...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412999/generation-of-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-from-chorionic-villi-of-a-turner-syndrome-spontaneous-abortion
#11
Shagufta Parveen, M M Panicker, Pawan Kumar Gupta
A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors...
March 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409600/postpartum-hemorrhage-prevention-and-treatment
#12
Ann Evensen, Janice M Anderson, Patricia Fontaine
Postpartum hemorrhage is common and can occur in patients without risk factors for hemorrhage. Active management of the third stage of labor should be used routinely to reduce its incidence. Use of oxytocin after delivery of the anterior shoulder is the most important and effective component of this practice. Oxytocin is more effective than misoprostol for prevention and treatment of uterine atony and has fewer adverse effects. Routine episiotomy should be avoided to decrease blood loss and the risk of anal laceration...
April 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398928/anesthetic-management-of-mitochondrial-encephalopathy-with-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes-melas-syndrome-in-a-high-risk-pregnancy-a-case-report
#13
Josh D Bell, Kushlin Higgie, Mital Joshi, Joshua Rucker, Sahar Farzi, Naveed Siddiqui
MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like symptoms) is a rare and complex mitochondrial disorder. We present the in-hospital course of a 36-year-old gravida 2, para 0 with MELAS syndrome and severe preeclampsia, complicated by hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and diabetes. A retained placenta with postpartum hemorrhage required urgent instrumental delivery under spinal anesthesia, transfusion, and intensive care unit admission for pulmonary edema, effusions, and atelectasis. Postpartum endometritis and sepsis also were encountered...
April 10, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391772/intrapartum-fever-and-the-risk-for-perinatal-complications-the-effect-of-fever-duration-and-positive-cultures
#14
Eran Ashwal, Lina Salman, Yossi Tzur, Amir Aviram, Tali Ben-Mayor Bashi, Yariv Yogev, Liran Hiersch
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between intrapartum fever and adverse perinatal outcome. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of women attempting vaginal delivery at term in a tertiary hospital (2012-2015). Perinatal outcome of deliveries complicated by intrapartum fever (≥38.0 °C) were compared to women with no intrapartum fever matched by parity and gestational age at delivery in a 1:2 ratio. Maternal outcome included cesarean section (CS), operative vaginal delivery (OVD), retained placenta or post-partum hemorrhage...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378361/misoprostol-use-for-second-trimester-termination-of-pregnancy-among-women-with-one-or-more-previous-cesarean-deliveries
#15
Martin Cuellar Torriente, Wilhelm J Steinberg, Gina Joubert
OBJECTIVE: To establish the safety and efficacy of misoprostol for second-trimester termination of pregnancy among women with one or more previous cesarean deliveries. METHODS: In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from women attending a reproductive health clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa, for second-trimester termination between 2010 and 2013. The study group, comprising women with one or more previous cesareans, was compared with a control group, comprising women with no previous cesarean or uterine scarring...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365121/effects-of-dry-period-length-and-dietary-energy-source-on-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-oxidative-stress-in-dairy-cows
#16
N Mayasari, J Chen, A Ferrari, R M Bruckmaier, B Kemp, H K Parmentier, A T M van Knegsel, E Trevisi
Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation has been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress in these cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 107 multiparous) were assigned randomly to a 3 × 2 factorial design with 3 DP length (0, 30, or 60 d) and 2 early lactation rations (glucogenic or lipogenic)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357560/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-after-induction-of-labor-a-population-based-study
#17
Christoph Zenzmaier, Hermann Leitner, Christoph Brezinka, Willi Oberaigner, Martina König-Bachmann
PURPOSE: To evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes at and beyond term associated with induction of labor compared to spontaneous onset of labor stratified by week of gestational age. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data form 402,960 singleton pregnancies from the Austria Perinatal Registry were used to estimate odds ratios of secondary cesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, epidural analgesia, fetal scalp blood testing, episiotomy, 3rd/4th-degree lacerations, retained placenta, 5-min APGAR <7, umbilical artery pH <7...
March 29, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341050/development-of-genetic-and-genomic-evaluation-for-wellness-traits-in-us-holstein-cows
#18
N Vukasinovic, N Bacciu, C A Przybyla, P Boddhireddy, S K DeNise
In March 2016, Zoetis Genetics offered the first commercially available evaluation for wellness traits of Holstein dairy cattle. Phenotypic data on health events, pedigree, and genotypes were collected directly from producers upon obtaining their permission. Among all recorded health events, 6 traits were chosen to be included in the evaluation: mastitis, metritis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, ketosis, and lameness. Each trait was defined as a binary event, having a value of 1 if a cow has been recorded with a disorder at any point during the lactation and zero otherwise...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272244/management-of-patients-with-placenta-accreta-in-association-with-fever-following-vaginal-delivery
#19
Liuying Zhong, Dunjin Chen, Mei Zhong, Yutian He, Chunhong Su
This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and to manage patients with retained placenta left in situ accompanied by fever following vaginal delivery.Twenty-one patients with retained placenta in association with fever following vaginal delivery were enrolled and managed at the maternity department of our university hospital between 2012 and 2014.All patients had risk factors for development of placenta accreta: previous cesarean sections (4/21), previous curettage (15/21), or uterine malformations (7/21)...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246515/efficacy-of-prophylactic-uterine-artery-embolization-before-obstetrical-procedures-with-high-risk-for-massive-bleeding
#20
Heung Kyu Ko, Ji Hoon Shin, Gi Young Ko, Dong Il Gwon, Jin Hyung Kim, Kichang Han, Shin-Wha Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE) before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 29 female patients who underwent prophylactic UAE from June 2009 to February 2014 was performed. Indications for prophylactic UAE were as follows: dilatation and curettage (D&C) associated with ectopic pregnancy (cesarean scar pregnancy, n = 9; cervical pregnancy, n = 6), termination of pregnancy with abnormal placentation (placenta previa, n = 8), D&C for retained placenta with vascularity (n = 5), and D&C for suspected gestational trophoblastic disease (n = 1)...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
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