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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454686/differential-effects-of-a-single-dose-of-oral-calcium-based-on-postpartum-plasma-calcium-concentration-in-holstein-cows
#1
B M Leno, R C Neves, I M Louge, M D Curler, M J Thomas, T R Overton, J A A McArt
Our objectives were to determine (1) the effect of a single dose of an oral Ca bolus within 24 h after parturition on plasma Ca concentration, (2) the response of primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows to this supplementation strategy, and (3) differential responses based on plasma Ca at enrollment. For objective 1, cows from 1 commercial dairy in New York State were enrolled within 19 h after parturition (mean ± standard deviation = 8.3 ± 5.3 h) and randomized within parity group (first, second, and ≥third) to control [CON (n = 25); no placebo] or a single dose bolus treatment [BOL (n = 25); 3 oral Ca boluses supplying 54 to 64 g of Ca]...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425317/human-cervical-mucus-plugs-exhibit-insufficiencies-in-antimicrobial-activity-towards-group-b-streptococcus
#2
Jay Vornhagen, Phoenicia Quach, Verónica Santana-Ufret, Varchita Alishetti, Alyssa Brokaw, Blair Armistead, Hai Qing Tang, James W MacDonald, Theodor K Bammler, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Niels Uldbjerg, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and lacks an effective therapy. Ascending microbial infections from the lower genital tract lead to infection of the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus causing preterm birth or stillbirth. Directly in the path of an ascending infection is the cervical mucus plug (CMP), a dense mucoid structure in the cervical canal with potential antimicrobial properties. In this study, we aimed to define the components of CMP responsible for antimicrobial activity against a common lower genital tract organism associated with preterm birth and stillbirths, namely Group B Streptococcus (GBS)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402304/comprehensive-characterization-of-chorionic-villi-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-human-placenta
#3
Mónica S Ventura Ferreira, Michaela Bienert, Katrin Müller, Björn Rath, Tamme Goecke, Christian Opländer, Till Braunschweig, Petra Mela, Tim H Brümmendorf, Fabian Beier, Sabine Neuss
BACKGROUND: Studies in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from the placenta are compared with multiple MSC types from other sources are rare. The chorionic plate of the human placenta is mainly composed of fetal blood vessels embedded in fetal stroma tissue, lined by trophoblastic cells and organized into chorionic villi (CV) structures. METHODS: We comprehensively characterized human MSC collected from postnatal human chorionic villi of placenta (CV-MSC) by analyzing their growth and proliferation potential, differentiation, immunophenotype, extracellular matrix production, telomere length, aging phenotype, and plasticity...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397174/short-communication-test-of-the-relationship-between-prepartum-milk-leakage-and-blood-calcium-concentration-in-holstein-cows-an-observational-study
#4
Ehsan Mahjoubi, Davood Zahmatkesh, Mehdi Hossein-Yazdi, Mohammad Hadi Khabbazan, Mohammad Reza Samadian
Prepartum milk leakage happens in some pregnant dairy cows close to calving. It has been hypothesized that low blood Ca is a cause of this event. To investigate the possible reason(s) of milk leakage, 137 multiparous pregnant Holstein cows were enrolled in the experiment and categorized by the presence (72 heads; leak group) or lack (65 heads; control group) of milk leakage before calving. The concentrations of Ca and P and the length of the teat were measured for all cows. Data showed that Ca concentration was not different between cows in the leak group (7...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367080/human-igg-lacking-effector-functions-demonstrate-lower-fcrn-binding-and-reduced-transplacental-transport
#5
Nigel M Stapleton, Sylvia S Armstrong-Fisher, Jan Terje Andersen, C Ellen van der Schoot, Charlene Porter, Kenneth R Page, Donald Falconer, Masja de Haas, Lorna M Williamson, Michael R Clark, Gestur Vidarsson, Kathryn L Armour
We have previously generated human IgG1 antibodies that were engineered for reduced binding to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγRI-III) and C1q, thereby eliminating their destructive effector functions (constant region G1Δnab). In their potential use as blocking agents, favorable binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is important to preserve the long half-life typical of IgG. An ability to cross the placenta, which is also mediated, at least in part, by FcRn is desirable in some indications, such as feto-maternal alloimmune disorders...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353142/mirna-185-regulates-the-vegfa-signaling-pathway-in-dairy-cows-with-retained-fetal-membranes
#6
REVIEW
C Y Zheng, X Zou, H J Lin, B C Zhao, M L Zhang, C H Luo, S X Fu
Retention of fetal membranes (RFM) of cows is an important reproductive disturbance, and is related to miRNAs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A, regulated by miRNA-185, can activate arachidonic acid (ARA) release via the VEGFA signaling pathway, which influences RFM. The aim of this study was to explore the pathogenic mechanism of RFM by investigating the regulatory relationship between miRNA-185 and the VEGFA signaling pathway. Serum samples of healthy Holstein dairy cows (n = 20) and RFM cows (n = 12), with a similar age, parity, weight, and milk yield, were collected to detect VEGFA and ARA concentrations at 6, 12, and 24 h after calving...
January 9, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320553/undiagnosed-abnormal-postpartum-blood-loss-incidence-and-risk-factors
#7
Aude Girault, Catherine Deneux-Tharaux, Loic Sentilhes, Françoise Maillard, François Goffinet
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the incidence of undiagnosed abnormal postpartum blood loss (UPPBL) after vaginal delivery, identify the risk factors and compare them to those of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). METHOD: The study population included women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of women with singleton low-risk pregnancy who delivered vaginally after 35 weeks' gestation (n = 3917). Clinical PPH was defined as postpartum blood loss ≥ 500 mL measured by using a collector bag and UPPBL was defined by a peripartum change in haemoglobin ≥ 2 g/dL in the absence of clinical PPH...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316351/gestational-triphenyl-phosphate-exposure-in-c57bl-6-mice-perturbs-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-signaling-genes-in-maternal-and-fetal-liver
#8
Nicola A Philbrook, Victoria E Restivo, Christine L Belanger, Louise M Winn
Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) is an organophosphorus flame retardant and plasticizer that has been added to numerous consumer products in recent years. TPhP is not overtly toxic, however recent studies have suggested that it may have metabolic disrupting effects following developmental exposure. The present study aimed to investigate the developmental and potential metabolic effects of TPhP in a murine model. C57Bl/6 dams were exposed on gestational days (GD) 8, 10, 12, and 14 to 0, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg TPhP via intraperitoneal injection...
January 8, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274983/effects-of-prepartum-dietary-cation-anion-difference-and-source-of-vitamin-d-in-dairy-cows-health-and-reproductive-responses
#9
N Martinez, R M Rodney, E Block, L L Hernandez, C D Nelson, I J Lean, J E P Santos
The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of feeding diets with distinct dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) levels and supplemented with 2 sources of vitamin D during the prepartum transition period on postpartum health and reproduction in dairy cows. The hypotheses were that feeding acidogenic diets prepartum would reduce the risk of hypocalcemia and other diseases, and the benefits of a negative DCAD treatment on health would be potentiated by supplementing calcidiol compared with cholecalciferol...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273378/safety-and-efficacy-of-preoperative-abdominal-aortic-balloon-occlusion-in-placenta-increta-and-or-percreta
#10
Wenjuan Sun, Shuhong Duan, Gang Xin, Juan Xiao, Fanzhen Hong, Haijie Hong, Yuange Wu, Yongping Xu
BACKGROUND: With the increase of cesarean deliveries globally, the incidence of placenta adhesive disorder has been on the rise greatly which is associated closely with maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of preoperative transfemoral balloon occlusion of abdominal aorta in cesarean section of women with placenta increta or percreta. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 31 patients with placenta increta or percreta diagnosed by ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211918/decellularized-human-placenta-supports-hepatic-tissue-and-allows-rescue-in-acute-liver-failure
#11
Zurab Kakabadze, Anne Kakabadze, David Chakhunashvili, Lika Karalashvili, Ekaterine Berishvili, Yogeshwar Sharma, Sanjeev Gupta
Tissue engineering with scaffolds to form transplantable organs is of wide interest. Decellularized tissues have been tested for this purpose, although supplies of healthy donor tissues, vascular recellularization for perfusion and tissue homeostasis in engineered organs pose challenges. We hypothesized decellularized human placenta will be suitable for tissue engineering. The universal availability and unique structures of placenta for accommodating tissue, including presence of embedded vessels, were major attractions...
December 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197351/maternal-characteristics-and-birth-outcomes-resulting-from-births-before-arrival-at-health-facilities-in-nkangala-district-south-africa-a-case-control-study
#12
Sikhulile Khupakonke, Andy Beke, Donald H A Amoko
BACKGROUND: Risks of severe, avoidable maternal and neonatal complications at birth are increased if the birth occurs before arrival at the health facility and in the absence of skilled birth attendants. Birth Before Arrival (BBA) is a preventable phenomenon still common in modern-day practice despite extensive improvements made in obstetric care and in accessibility to healthcare in South Africa. This study aimed to determine the risk factors and outcomes in mothers and babies associated with being born before arrival at hospitals...
December 2, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196998/isolation-and-characterization-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-ex-vivo-cultured-human-placental-explants
#13
Mancy Tong, Lawrence W Chamley
Ex vivo culture of human placental explants has long allowed placentologists to study the milieu of soluble factors secreted by the human placenta throughout gestation while retaining the correct three-dimensional structure of the placental villi. Here, we detail the placental explant culture method employed in our laboratory to collect extracellular vesicles which are known to be released by the human placenta throughout pregnancy from 6 weeks of gestation. Using this method, at least three different populations of placental extracellular vesicles can be simultaneously collected from each placental sample, allowing for comparative analysis of the cargos and downstream effects of the different types of extracellular vesicles produced by the human placenta...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178045/considering-choline-as-methionine-precursor-lipoproteins-transporter-hepatic-promoter-and-antioxidant-agent-in-dairy-cows
#14
REVIEW
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Rab N Soomro, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mervat A Abdel-Latif, Wen Li, Ren Hao, Feifei Sun, Bello M Bodinga, Khawar Hayat, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
During the transition period, fatty liver syndrome may be caused in cows undergo negative energy balance, ketosis or hypocalcemia, retained placenta or mastitis problems. During the transition stage, movement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) increases into blood which declines the hepatic metabolism or reproduction and consequently, lactation performance of dairy cows deteriorates. Most of studies documented that, choline is an essential nutrient which plays a key role to decrease fatty liver, NEFA proportion, improve synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, maintain lactation or physiological function and work as anti-oxidant in the transition period of dairy cows...
November 25, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177761/chromatin-remodelling-proteins-and-cell-fate-decisions-in-mammalian-preimplantation-development
#15
Anzy Miller, Brian Hendrich
The very first cell divisions in mammalian embryogenesis produce a ball of cells, each with the potential to form any cell in the developing embryo or placenta. At some point, the embryo produces enough cells that some are located on the outside of the embryo, while others are completely surrounded by other cells. It is at this point that cells undergo the very first lineage commitment event: outer cells form the trophectoderm and lose the potential to form embryonic lineages, while inner cells form the Inner Cell Mass, which retain embryonic potential...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169226/cytological-endometritis-in-dairy-cows-diagnostic-threshold-risk-factors-and-impact-on-reproductive-performance
#16
Soo Chan Lee, Jae Kwan Jeong, In Soo Choi, Hyun Gu Kang, Young Hun Jung, Soo Bong Park, Ill Hwa Kim
We determined the threshold proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) for the diagnosis of cytological endometritis (CEM), the risk factors for this condition, and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Uterine cytology was performed on 407 Holstein cows 4 weeks postpartum to determine the proportions of endometrial cells and PMNs. A receiver operator characteristics curve was used to determine the threshold above which the PMN proportion affected the likelihood of cows conceiving by 200 days postpartum...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118259/matrix-binding-checkpoint-immunotherapies-enhance-antitumor-efficacy-and-reduce-adverse-events
#17
Jun Ishihara, Kazuto Fukunaga, Ako Ishihara, Hans M Larsson, Lambert Potin, Peyman Hosseinchi, Gabriele Galliverti, Melody A Swartz, Jeffrey A Hubbell
Immune checkpoint blockade exhibits considerable antitumor activity, but previous studies have reported instances of severe treatment-related adverse events. We sought to explore local immune checkpoint blockade, with an antibody (Ab) form that would be retained intra- or peritumorally, limiting systemic exposure. To accomplish this, we conjugated the checkpoint blockade Abs to an extracellular matrix (ECM)-super-affinity peptide derived from placenta growth factor-2 (PlGF-2123-144). We show enhanced tissue retention and lower Ab concentrations in blood plasma after PlGF-2123-144 conjugation, reducing systemic side effects such as the risk of autoimmune diabetes...
November 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103725/association-of-immediate-postpartum-plasma-calcium-concentration-with-early-lactation-clinical-diseases-culling-reproduction-and-milk-production-in-holstein-cows
#18
R C Neves, B M Leno, M D Curler, M J Thomas, T R Overton, J A A McArt
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of postpartum plasma Ca concentration with early-lactation disease outcomes, culling within 60 d in milk, pregnancy to first service, and milk production. A total of 1,453 cows from 5 commercial dairy farms in New York State were enrolled in a prospective cohort study from February to November 2015. Blood samples were collected within 12 h of parturition, and plasma was submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for total Ca measurement. Early-lactation disease, reproductive performance, and milk production from Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) test-day data were compiled from each farm's management software...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101608/failed-manual-removal-of-the-placenta-after-vaginal-delivery
#19
Johanna Bjurström, Sally Collins, Jens Langhoff-Roos, Karin Sundberg, Annemette Jørgensen, Johannes J Duvekot, Lene Groenbeck
PURPOSE: A retained placenta after vaginal delivery where manual removal of placenta fails is a clinical challenge. We present six cases that illustrate the heterogeneity of the condition and discuss the etiology and terminology as well as the clinical management. METHODS: Members of the European Working group on Abnormally Invasive Placenta (EW-AIP) were invited to report all recent cases of retained placenta that were not antenatally suspected to be abnormally adherent or invasive, but could not be removed manually despite several attempts...
November 3, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065743/a-maternal-death-from-self-induced-medical-abortion-a-call-for-action
#20
Nino Berdzuli, Ekaterine Pestvenidze, Nino Lomia, Babill Stray-Pedersen
OBJECTIVES: In Georgia, which has a longstanding, liberalised abortion law, the abortion procedure is generally safe if it is performed in a medical facility. However, when socioeconomic barriers prevent women from seeking safe abortion services, some risk their life by self-terminating an unintended pregnancy. We present a case of maternal mortality after a self-induced medical abortion, with the aim to investigate the underlying non-clinical causes of maternal death and the relevant policy implications...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
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