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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919646/role-of-neurotrophic-factors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Shih-Jen Tsai
Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916143/hyponatremia-effect-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-on-their-physical-and-mental-health-status
#2
Ordak Michal, Maj-Zurawska Magdalena, Matsumoto Halina, Bujalska-Zadrozny Magdalena, Nasierowski Tadeusz, Muszynska Elzbieta, Wojnar Marcin
Hyponatremia, i.e. reduction of sodium level in the blood plasma below 135 mmol/L, is one of the most common electrolyte disorders occurring in people addicted to alcohol. Numerous psychopathological symptoms may be significantly associated with its occurrence. Since sodium is one of the main bioelements, which is responsible for proper neuromuscular excitability maintenance and contributes in nerve impulses conduction, sodium balance disorders may be related to a risk to basic life functions. The tested group included 100 alcohol dependent patients (M = 90, F = 10)...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893549/how-deleterious-is-facial-nerve-dissection-for-the-facial-nerve-in-parotid-surgery-an-electrophysiological-evaluation
#3
Sabri Baki Eren, Remzi Dogan, Orhan Ozturan, Bayram Veyseller, Ayşenur Meriç Hafiz
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate subclinical electrophysiological deleterious effect due to microtrauma to the nerve in response to the dissection of a tumor and parotid tissue from the facial nerve and its branches and surgical traction experienced during the operation. METHODS: The study included 34 adult patients who underwent parotidectomy operations under intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. Three measurements were taken from each patient to evaluate facial nerve functions, with 3 stimuli of different intensities applied with different timing...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884417/nerve-decompression-surgery-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-what-are-the-outcomes
#4
Morad Chughtai, Anton Khlopas, Chukwuwieke U Gwam, Randa K Elmallah, Melbin Thomas, James Nace, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to compare (1) muscle strength; (2) pain; (3) sensation; (4) various outcome measurement scales between post-total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients who had a sciatic nerve injury and did or did not receive decompression surgery for this condition; and (5) to compare these findings with current literature. METHODS: Nineteen patients who had nerve injury after THA were reviewed. Patients were stratified into those who had a nerve decompression (n = 12), and those who had not (n = 7)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882251/bilateral-numb-chin-syndrome-as-the-initial-presentation-of-burkitt-s-lymphoma-leukemia-a-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Hussein Algahtani, Bader Shirah, Wafaa Bassuni, Reem Adas
Numb chin syndrome, also known as mental nerve neuropathy, is a rare sensory neuropathy characterized by paresthesia and hypoesthesia in the area supplied by the mental nerve and its branches. This syndrome may be the first symptom of underlying malignancy or the first sign of recurrence and metastasis in patients with preexisting cancer. In this article, we present two cases with bilateral numb chin syndrome as the first manifestation of Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia and review the relevant literature. Numb chin syndrome should be considered as a warning sign and raise the suspicion for an underlying malignancy...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878463/tracking-of-the-inferior-alveolar-nerve-its-implication-in-surgical-planning
#6
Jimoh O Agbaje, Elke Van de Casteele, Ahmed S Salem, Dickson Anumendem, Ivo Lambrichts, Constantinus Politis
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to assess the correlation between the mandibular canal tracing done on cone beam CT (CBCT) data, with the size, shape, and position of the neurovascular bundle (NB) obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six human cadaver mandibles were scanned with a CBCT Promax® scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and with an Ingenia® 3.0 T MR system (Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The NB was segmented from the MRI dataset, while the mandibular canal (MC) tracing was done on the CBCT images...
November 22, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866493/dietary-dha-and-health-cognitive-function-ageing
#7
Carlos Cardoso, Cláudia Afonso, Narcisa M Bandarra
DHA is a key nutritional n-3 PUFA and needs to be supplied by the human diet. DHA is found in significant amounts in the retinal and neuronal cell membranes due to its high fluidity. Indeed, DHA is selectively concentrated in the synaptic and retinal membranes. DHA is deemed to display anti-inflammatory properties and to reduce the risk of CVD. Consumption of larger amounts of DHA appears to reduce the risk of depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. Conversely, it has been shown that loss of DHA from the nerve cell membrane leads to dysfunction of the central nervous system in the form of anxiety, irritability, susceptibility to stress, dyslexia, impaired memory and cognitive functions, and extended reaction times...
November 21, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859948/peripheral-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain-syndromes-from-nerve-injury-a-multicenter-observational-study
#8
Gianni Colini Baldeschi, Alessandro Dario, Giuliano De Carolis, Nicola Luxardo, Massimo Natale, Paola Nosella, Alfonso Papa, Massimiliano Raggi, Claudio Reverberi
INTRODUCTION: Assessing the feasibility, technical implications, and clinical benefits of peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) performed by an implantable pulse generator (IPG) located close to the stimulation site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selected patients were affected by neuropathic pain associated with a documented peripheral nerve lesion, refractory to conventional surgical or pharmacological treatment. A PNS system specifically designed for peripheral placement (Neurimpulse, Padova, Italy) was implanted and followed for six months, recording the degree of patient's satisfaction (PGI-I questionnaire), the pain numerical rating scale (NRS) and the quality of life (SF36 questionnaire), as well as any change in drug regimen and work capability...
November 16, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857894/buccolingual-course-of-the-inferior-alveolar-canal-in-different-mental-foramen-locations-a-cone-beam-computed-tomography-study-of-an-iranian-population
#9
Atieh Safaee, Sanam Mirbeigi, Fatemeh Ezoddini, Leila Khojastepour, Alireza Navab-Azam
CONTEXT: Better understanding of the anatomical location and course of the mandibular canal is necessary to avoid damaging inferior alveolar nerve. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the buccolingual course of the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) in different mental foramen locations, using cone beam computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and twelve hemimandibular images were evaluated in this study. The location of mental foramen in relation to the apices of mandibular premolar and molar teeth were recorded...
October 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852784/activity-induces-fmr1-sensitive-synaptic-capture-of-anterograde-circulating-neuropeptide-vesicles
#10
Samantha L Cavolo, Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
: Synaptic neuropeptide and neurotrophin stores are maintained by constitutive bidirectional capture of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) as they circulate in and out of the nerve terminal. Activity increases DCV capture to rapidly replenish synaptic neuropeptide stores following release. However, it is not known whether this is due to enhanced bidirectional capture. Here experiments at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where DCVs contain neuropeptides and a bone morphogenic protein, show that activity-dependent replenishment of synaptic neuropeptides following release is evident after inhibiting the retrograde transport with the dynactin disruptor mycalolide B or photobleaching DCVs entering a synaptic bouton by retrograde transport...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797808/clinicopathological-features-of-adult-onset-neuronal-intranuclear-inclusion-disease
#11
Jun Sone, Keiko Mori, Tomonori Inagaki, Ryu Katsumata, Shinnosuke Takagi, Satoshi Yokoi, Kunihiko Araki, Toshiyasu Kato, Tomohiko Nakamura, Haruki Koike, Hiroshi Takashima, Akihiro Hashiguchi, Yutaka Kohno, Takashi Kurashige, Masaru Kuriyama, Yoshihisa Takiyama, Mai Tsuchiya, Naoyuki Kitagawa, Michi Kawamoto, Hajime Yoshimura, Yutaka Suto, Hiroyuki Nakayasu, Naoko Uehara, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Makoto Takahashi, Norito Kokubun, Takuya Konno, Masahisa Katsuno, Fumiaki Tanaka, Yasushi Iwasaki, Mari Yoshida, Gen Sobue
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions in the central and peripheral nervous system, and also in the visceral organs. NIID has been considered to be a heterogeneous disease because of the highly variable clinical manifestations, and ante-mortem diagnosis has been difficult. However, since we reported the usefulness of skin biopsy for the diagnosis of NIID, the number of NIID diagnoses has increased, in particular adult-onset NIID...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792803/peripheral-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-modulates-regeneration-following-inferior-alveolar-nerve-injury-in-rats
#12
Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, Yurie Yamada, Masayuki Kurose, Kensuke Yamamura, Takeyasu Maeda, Kenji Seo
AIMS: To examine the effects of local brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) produced after nerve injury on the functional regeneration of the damaged nerve. METHODS: The inferior alveolar nerve was transected in adult male rats and 1 μg or 10 μg of BDNF antibody was administered at the injury site; a third group of rats received saline and a fourth group underwent nerve ligation. BDNF mRNA was quantified in the transected tissue and trigeminal ganglion by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 2016: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791037/orthopedic-surgery-modulates-neuropeptides-and-bdnf-expression-at-the-spinal-and-hippocampal-levels
#13
Ming-Dong Zhang, Swapnali Barde, Ting Yang, Beilei Lei, Lars I Eriksson, Joseph P Mathew, Thomas Andreska, Katerina Akassoglou, Tibor Harkany, Tomas G M Hökfelt, Niccolò Terrando
Pain is a critical component hindering recovery and regaining of function after surgery, particularly in the elderly. Understanding the role of pain signaling after surgery may lead to novel interventions for common complications such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Using a model of tibial fracture with intramedullary pinning in male mice, associated with cognitive deficits, we characterized the effects on the primary somatosensory system. Here we show that tibial fracture with pinning triggers cold allodynia and up-regulates nerve injury and inflammatory markers in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord up to 2 wk after intervention...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786556/high-resolution-mri-of-the-mandibular-canal-at-1-5t-a-comparison-of-gradient-and-spin-echo-sequences
#14
Jakob Kreutner, Andreas Hopfgartner, Daniel Weber, Julian Boldt, Kurt Rottner, Ernst Richter, Peter Michael Jakob, Daniel Haddad
OBJECTIVES: The precision of localizing the mandibular canal prior to surgical intervention depends on the achievable resolution, while identification of the nerve depends on the image contrast. In our study we developed new protocols based on gradient and spin echo sequences. The results from both sequences were quantitatively compared for their agreement to identify the most suitable approach. METHODS: By limiting the field of view to one side of the mandible, 3D acquisitions with T1-weighted gradient and spin echo sequences were performed with 0...
October 27, 2016: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747824/fuzzy-clustering-based-feature-extraction-method-for-mental-task-classification
#15
Akshansh Gupta, Dhirendra Kumar
A brain computer interface (BCI) is a communication system by which a person can send messages or requests for basic necessities without using peripheral nerves and muscles. Response to mental task-based BCI is one of the privileged areas of investigation. Electroencephalography (EEG) signals are used to represent the brain activities in the BCI domain. For any mental task classification model, the performance of the learning model depends on the extraction of features from EEG signal. In literature, wavelet transform and empirical mode decomposition are two popular feature extraction methods used to analyze a signal having non-linear and non-stationary property...
September 3, 2016: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717931/problems-and-challenges-in-the-early-period-of-rehabilitating-patients-with-severe-hypothermia-treated-using-ecmo-support
#16
Dominika Batycka-Stachnik, Agnieszka Piwoda, Tomasz Darocha, Malgorzata Spiewak, Sylweriusz Kosinski, Anna Jarosz, Hubert Hymczak, Tomasz Sanak, Robert Galazkowski, Jacek Piatek, Janusz Konstanty-Kalandyk, Rafal Drwila
: The objectives: To show and discuss the most frequent functional problems encountered in patients who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment after severe hypothermia and point out appropriate physiotherapy procedures used in order to diminish the effects of hypothermia on the human organism. It is necessary to look for effective physiotherapeutic solutions, especially that the number of scientific publications on the subject is very limited. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis Setting: Severe Accidental Hypothermia Center ( medical intensive care unit of a university hospital) Patients or participants: Nineteen patients who were qualified for ECMO in Severe Accidental Hypothermia Center Intervention: At least three times a day rehabilitation session (physiotherapeutic procedures adequate to patient problems) and interventions in case of emergency...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690366/rate-of-rise-in-diastolic-blood-pressure-influences-vascular-sympathetic-response-to-mental-stress
#17
Khadigeh El Sayed, Vaughan G Macefield, Sarah L Hissen, Michael J Joyner, Chloe E Taylor
KEY POINTS: Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677702/the-correlation-between-cognitive-performance-and-retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-thickness-is-largely-explained-by-genetic-factors
#18
Eneh Jones-Odeh, Ekaterina Yonova-Doing, Edward Bloch, Katie M Williams, Claire J Steves, Christopher J Hammond
Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness has been associated with cognitive function but it is unclear whether RNFL thinning is secondary to cortical loss, or if the same disease process affects both. We explored whether there is phenotypic sharing between RNFL thickness and cognitive traits, and whether such sharing is due to genetic factors. Detailed eye and cognitive examination were performed on 1602 twins (mean age: 56.4 years; range: 18-89) from the TwinsUK cohort. Associations between RNFL thickness and ophthalmic, cognitive and other predictors were assessed using linear regression or analysis of variance models...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672611/panoramic-radiographs-underestimate-extensions-of-the-anterior-loop-and-mandibular-incisive-canal
#19
Ana Caroline Ramos de Brito, Yuri Nejaim, Deborah Queiroz de Freitas, Christiano de Oliveira Santos
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT...
September 2016: Imaging Science in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649187/multimodal-learning-and-intelligent-prediction-of-symptom-development-in-individual-parkinson-s-patients
#20
Andrzej W Przybyszewski, Mark Kon, Stanislaw Szlufik, Artur Szymanski, Piotr Habela, Dariusz M Koziorowski
We still do not know how the brain and its computations are affected by nerve cell deaths and their compensatory learning processes, as these develop in neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Compensatory learning processes are ND symptoms usually observed at a point when the disease has already affected large parts of the brain. We can register symptoms of ND such as motor and/or mental disorders (dementias) and even provide symptomatic relief, though the structural effects of these are in most cases not yet understood...
2016: Sensors
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