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prostate cancer, prognostic markers

Jens Sundbøll, Katalin Veres, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Kasper Adelborg, Henrik Toft Sørensen
Background -Venous thromboembolism can be a presenting symptom of cancer, but the association between lower limb arterial thrombosis and cancer is unknown. We therefore examined cancer risk and prognosis of cancer in patients with lower limb arterial thrombosis. Methods -Using nationwide population-based Danish medical registries, we identified all patients diagnosed with first-time lower limb arterial thrombosis (1994-2013) and followed them until the occurrence of any subsequent cancer diagnosis, emigration, death, or 30 November 2013, whichever came first...
March 14, 2018: Circulation
Karen L Posey, Francoise Coustry, Jacqueline T Hecht
Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a large pentameric glycoprotein that interacts with multiple extracellular matrix proteins in cartilage and other tissues. While, COMP is known to play a role in collagen secretion and fibrillogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation and mechanical strength of tendons, the complete range of COMP functions remains to be defined. COMPopathies describe pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED), two skeletal dysplasias caused by autosomal dominant COMP mutations...
March 9, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Constantinos Roufas, Dimitrios Chasiotis, Anestis Makris, Christodoulos Efstathiades, Christos Dimopoulos, Apostolos Zaravinos
Background: Recently, immune-checkpoint blockade has shown striking clinical results in different cancer patients. However, a significant inter-individual and inter-tumor variability exists among different cancers. The expression of the toxins granzyme A (GZMA) and perforin 1 (PRF1), secreted by effector cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, were recently used as a denominator of the intratumoral immune cytolytic activity (CYT). These levels are significantly elevated upon CD8+ T-cell activation as well as during a productive clinical response against immune-checkpoint blockade therapies...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Lathem Wojno, Caitlyn Minutella, Donald Moylan, Arla Bush, Kirk Wojno
OBJECTIVES: To determine if tissue contamination in histologic specimens can significantly affect the results of prognostic molecular markers that are routinely used as confirmatory tests to safely assign appropriate candidates to prostate cancer active surveillance protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study evaluates 2,134 cases from a single, large urology practice that were successfully tested for DNA specimen provenance verification using short tandem repeat analysis for the presence of a significant level of contaminating DNA...
February 21, 2018: Urology
Debashis Sahoo, Wei Wei, Heidi Auman, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, Peter R Carroll, Ladan Fazli, Martin E Gleave, Daniel W Lin, Peter S Nelson, Jeff Simko, Ian M Thompson, Robin J Leach, Dean A Troyer, Lawrence D True, Jesse K McKenney, Ziding Feng, James D Brooks
The introduction of serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing nearly 30 years ago has been associated with a significant shift towards localized disease and decreased deaths due to prostate cancer. Recognition that PSA testing has caused over diagnosis and over treatment of prostate cancer has generated considerable controversy over its value, and has spurred efforts to identify prognostic biomarkers to distinguish patients who need treatment from those that can be observed. Recent studies show that cancer is heterogeneous and forms a hierarchy of tumor cell populations...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Tamara Jamaspishvili, David M Berman, Ashley E Ross, Howard I Scher, Angelo M De Marzo, Jeremy A Squire, Tamara L Lotan
Genomic aberrations of the PTEN tumour suppressor gene are among the most common in prostate cancer. Inactivation of PTEN by deletion or mutation is identified in ∼20% of primary prostate tumour samples at radical prostatectomy and in as many as 50% of castration-resistant tumours. Loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) function leads to activation of the PI3K-AKT (phosphoinositide 3-kinase-RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase) pathway and is strongly associated with adverse oncological outcomes, making PTEN a potentially useful genomic marker to distinguish indolent from aggressive disease in patients with clinically localized tumours...
February 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Sabine Lubig, Thore Thiesler, Stefan Müller, Roland Vorreuther, Norbert Leipner, Glen Kristiansen
This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of a quantitative, detailed, yet practical analysis of perineural invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens in a high-risk prostate cancer cohort. A total of 114 patients with prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2000 and 2013 were analysed. Using S100 protein immunohistochemistry assisted in the detection of nerves. In the area of closest proximity of the tumour to the dorso-lateral margins, nerves were counted and the infiltration of nerves was categorised (0-3)...
February 12, 2018: Pathology
James T Kearns, Anna V Faino, Lisa F Newcomb, James D Brooks, Peter R Carroll, Atreya Dash, William J Ellis, Michael Fabrizio, Martin E Gleave, Todd M Morgan, Peter S Nelson, Ian M Thompson, Andrew A Wagner, Yingye Zheng, Daniel W Lin
BACKGROUND: Many patients who are on active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer will have surveillance prostate needle biopsies (PNBs) without any cancer evident. OBJECTIVE: To define the association between negative surveillance PNBs and risk of reclassification on AS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: All men were enrolled in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study (PASS) between 2008 and 2016. Men were included if they had Gleason ≤3+4 prostate cancer and <34% core involvement ratio at diagnosis...
February 9, 2018: European Urology
Fangqiu Fu, Xuechao Wan, Dan Wang, Zhe Kong, Yalong Zhang, Wenhua Huang, Chenji Wang, Hai Wu, Yao Li
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among males worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of PCa remain unclear. Despite several reported miRNAs in prostate cancer, these reports lacked system-level identification of differentially expressed miRNAs in large sample size. Moreover, it's still largely unknown how miRNAs result in tumorigenesis and progression of PCa. Therefore, by analyzing three public databases, we identified 16 upregulated miRNAs and 13 downregulated miRNAs, and validated miR-19a was one of the most upregulated miRNAs using qRT-PCR...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Xin Chen, Chao Yang, Shengli Xie, Edwin Cheung
Identification of prognostic biomarkers helps facilitate the prediction of patient outcomes as well as guide treatments. Accumulating evidence now suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in tumor progression with diagnostic and prognostic values. However, little is known about the biological functions of lncRNAs and how they contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. Herein, we performed weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) on 380 RNA-seq samples from prostate cancer patients to create networks comprising of microRNAs, lncRNAs, and protein-coding genes...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Andreas Kleppe, Fritz Albregtsen, Ljiljana Vlatkovic, Manohar Pradhan, Birgitte Nielsen, Tarjei S Hveem, Hanne A Askautrud, Gunnar B Kristensen, Arild Nesbakken, Jone Trovik, Håkon Wæhre, Ian Tomlinson, Neil A Shepherd, Marco Novelli, David J Kerr, Håvard E Danielsen
BACKGROUND: Chromatin organisation affects gene expression and regional mutation frequencies and contributes to carcinogenesis. Aberrant organisation of DNA has been correlated with cancer prognosis in analyses of the chromatin component of tumour cell nuclei using image texture analysis. As yet, the methodology has not been sufficiently validated to permit its clinical application. We aimed to define and validate a novel prognostic biomarker for the automatic detection of heterogeneous chromatin organisation...
February 2, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Xian-Lan Wu, Ji-Wang Zhang, Bai-Song Li, Shu-Sheng Peng, Yong-Qiang Yuan
BACKGROUND: Several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are abnormally expressed in prostate cancer (PCa), suggesting that they could serve as novel prognostic markers. The current meta-analysis was undertaken to better define the prognostic value of various lncRNAs in PCa. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched up to February 19, 2017, to retrieve eligible articles. Outcomes analyzed were biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), overall survival (OS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS)...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Thierry Roumeguère, Francois Legrand, Elie El Rassy, Mehdi Idrissi Kaitouni, Simone Albisinni, Alexandre Rousseau, Michel Vanhaeverbeek, Sandrine Rorive, Christine Decaestecker, Olivier Debeir, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Fouad Aoun
Aim: We evaluated the relationship between IL-8 and prostate cancer (PCa) with emphasis on diagnosis, aggressiveness and prognosis. Materials & methods: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum IL-8 were collected from patients undergoing prostate biopsy. IL-8 expression was evaluated on immunohistochemistry with IL-8 labeling index. Complete follow-up of this cohort was achieved over a period of up to 6 years with continuous follow-up of PSA levels. Results: Among 135 patients, serum IL-8 level did not correlate to the diagnosis or aggressiveness of PCa...
February 2018: Future Science OA
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Andrey V Grechko, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
The diagnostics and management of localized prostate cancer is complicated because of cancer heterogeneity and differentiated progression in various subgroups of patients. As a prostate cancer biomarker, FDA-approved detection assay for serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and its derivatives are not potent enough to diagnose prostate cancer, especially high-grade disease (Gleason ≥7). To date, a collection of new biomarkers was developed. Some of these markers are superior for primary screening while others are particularly helpful for cancer risk stratification, detection of high-grade cancer, and prediction of adverse events...
January 19, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Daniele A Pizzuto, Salvatore Annunziata, Francesco P Ieria, Carmelo Caldarella, Maria A Isgrò, Valerio Lanni, Gaia Bencivenga, Vittoria Rufini, Alessandro Giordano
BACKGROUND: Metastatic spreading to the lungs is a negative prognostic factor in patients with prostate cancer (PC). Aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of lung PC metastases in patients with fluorine-18 fluoroethyl-choline (F-18-FECh) PET-CT positive lung lesions and the role of Gleason Score (GS) and common biochemical markers in predicting metastatic spreading to the lungs. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the scans of 1283 patients ongoing (F-18-FECh) PET-CT for PC between May 2010 and July 2014...
January 17, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Annelies Gonnissen, Sofie Isebaert, Christiaan Perneel, Chad M McKee, Filip Van Utterbeeck, Evelyne Lerut, Clare Verrill, Richard J Bryant, Steven Joniau, Ruth J Muschel, Karin Haustermans
There is an unmet clinical need for adequate biomarkers to aid risk stratification and management of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Even within the high-risk PCa category not all patients will invariably have a poor prognosis, and improved stratification of this heterogeneous group is needed. In this context, components of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway may have promise as biomarkers, as the available evidence suggests increased Hh pathway activity may confer a poorer outcome in advanced and castrate-resistant PCa...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Rianne J Hendriks, Siebren Dijkstra, Frank P Smit, Johan Vandersmissen, Hendrik Van de Voorde, Peter F A Mulders, Inge M van Oort, Wim Van Criekinge, Jack A Schalken
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive biomarkers to guide personalized treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are needed. In this study, we analyzed hypermethylation patterns of two genes (GSTP1 and APC) in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of CRPC patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the cfDNA concentrations and levels of the epigenetic markers and to assess the value of these biomarkers for prognosis. METHODS: In this prospective study, patients were included before starting new treatment after developing CRPC...
April 2018: Prostate
Diogo A Bastos, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Prostate cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, with remarkably different prognosis across all stages. Increased circulating tumor cell (CTC) count (≥ 5) using the CellSearch assay has been identified as one of the markers that can be used to predict survival, with added value beyond currently available prognostic factors. Recently, androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) detection has been associated with worse outcomes for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with novel androgen receptor-signaling (ARS) inhibitors such as abiraterone and enzalutamide but not taxane chemotherapies...
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Norelia Torrealba, Gonzalo Rodriguez-Berriguete, Benito Fraile, Gabriel Olmedilla, Pilar Martínez-Onsurbe, Manuel Sánchez-Chapado, Ricardo Paniagua, Mar Royuela
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathways and Bcl-2 family play a central role in prostate cancer (PC). The aim was to determine influence in the biochemical progression in PC. To evaluate the association between clinic pathological and immunohistochemical variables, Spearman's test was performed. Log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier curves were used for survival comparisons. To explore the correlation of the studied immunohistochemical parameters and the established prognostic variables with biochemical progression, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional Hazard regression analyses were performed...
January 9, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Glen Kristiansen
Molecular diagnostics is a rapidly evolving area of surgical pathology, that is gradually beginning to transform our diagnostical procedures for a variety of tumors. Next to molecular prognostication that has begun to complement our histological diagnosis in breast cancer, additional testing to detect targets and to predict therapy response has become common practice in breast and lung cancer. Prostate cancer is a bit slower in this respect, as it is still largely diagnosed and classified on morphological grounds...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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