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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788410/differentiation-between-pediatric-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-based-on-fecal-scent-proof-of-principle-study
#1
Sofie Bosch, Nora van Gaal, Roy P Zuurbier, James A Covington, Alfian N Wicaksono, Maarten H Biezeveld, Marc A Benninga, Chris J Mulder, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
Background: The diagnostic work-up of pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain-not otherwise specified (FAP-NOS) commonly includes invasive tests for discrimination from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As this carries a high burden on patients, an ongoing need exists for development of noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for IBS and FAP-NOS. Several studies have shown microbiota alterations in IBS/FAP, which are considered to be reflected by fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786171/root-bacterial-endophytes-confer-drought-resistance-and-enhance-expression-and-activity-of-a-vacuolar-h-pumping-pyrophosphatase-in-pepper-plants
#2
Gianpiero Vigani, Eleonora Rolli, Ramona Marasco, Marta Dell'Orto, Grégoire Michoud, Asma Soussi, Noura Raddadi, Sara Borin, Claudia Sorlini, Graziano Zocchi, Daniele Daffonchio
It has been previously shown that the transgenic overexpression of the plant root vacuolar proton pumps H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase) confer tolerance to drought. Since plant-root endophytic bacteria can also promote drought tolerance, we hypothesize that such promotion can be associated to the enhancement of the host vacuolar proton pumps expression and activity. To test this hypothesis, we selected two endophytic bacteria endowed with an array of in vitro plant growth promoting traits. Their genome sequences confirmed the presence of traits previously shown to confer drought resistance to plants, such as the synthesis of nitric oxide and of organic volatile organic compounds...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784959/commercially-available-natural-benzyl-esters-and-their-synthetic-analogs-exhibit-different-toxicities-against-insect-pests
#3
Yan Feng, Jian Chen, Aijun Zhang
Benzyl methyl ester, also known as methyl benzoate (MB), is a volatile organic compound that exists naturally as a floral fragrance in many plants. Our behavioral bioassays show that MB and some of its naturally occurring and synthetic analogs kill insects at different life stages. Compared to commercial pesticides containing pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid, MB and some analogs are 1.3 to 3.4 times more toxic to gypsy moth larvae and brown marmorated stinkbug nymphs. The arthropod repellent DEET is also a benzyl ester, and shares the same chemical skeleton with MB...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784307/effects-of-postharvest-methyl-jasmonate-treatment-on-main-health-promoting-components-and-volatile-organic-compounds-in-cherry-tomato-fruits
#4
Haoran Liu, Fanliang Meng, Huiying Miao, Shanshan Chen, Tingting Yin, Songshen Hu, Zhiyong Shao, Yuanyuan Liu, Liuxiao Gao, Changqing Zhu, Bo Zhang, Qiaomei Wang
Effects of postharvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment on the contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids, as well as the compositions and contents of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cherry tomato fruits were investigated during 11 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C). The results showed that MeJA treatment significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids, especially lycopene in postharvest cherry tomato fruits. Moreover, MeJA treatment improved the contents of carotenoids derived VOCs such as 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (MHO), while had no effect on firmness, sugars and titratable acidity...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783096/all-roads-lead-to-rome-towards-understanding-different-avenues-of-tolerance-to-huanglongbing-in-citrus-cultivars
#5
Nabil Killiny, Shelley E Jones, Yasser Nehela, Faraj Hijaz, Manjul Dutt, Frederick G Gmitter, Jude W Grosser
Citrus tolerance to huanglongbing could result from tolerance to the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and/or to its vector Diaphorina citri. Field observations and greenhouse-controlled studies showed that some citrus cultivars were more tolerant than others. However, the mechanism(s) behind the tolerance has not been determined yet. Using GC-MS, we investigated the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the non-volatile metabolite profiles of two tolerant citrus cultivars- Australian finger lime, 'LB8-9' Sugar Belle® mandarin hybrid, and a recently released mandarin hybrid 'Bingo'...
May 18, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783051/occurrence-and-potential-human-health-risks-of-semi-volatile-organic-compounds-in-drinking-water-from-cities-along-the-chinese-coastland-of-the-yellow-sea
#6
Zekai Li, Fangyu Chang, Peng Shi, Xun Chen, Feng Yang, Qing Zhou, Yang Pan, Aimin Li
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in drinking water have been considered a severe threat to public health worldwide. However, SVOC contamination and the associated human health risks of the drinking water from cities along tributaries of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River in China have been seldom reported. Here, we focused on the occurrence and distribution of a series of SVOCs, mainly including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs), in drinking water of this region...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780668/impact-of-front-range-sources-on-reactive-nitrogen-concentrations-and-deposition-in-rocky-mountain-national-park
#7
Katherine B Benedict, Anthony J Prenni, Amy P Sullivan, Ashley R Evanoski-Cole, Emily V Fischer, Sara Callahan, Barkley C Sive, Yong Zhou, Bret A Schichtel, Jeffrey L Collett
Human influenced atmospheric reactive nitrogen (RN) is impacting ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Due to ROMO's protected status as a Class 1 area, these changes are concerning, and improving our understanding of the contributions of different types of RN and their sources is important for reducing impacts in ROMO. In July-August 2014 the most comprehensive measurements (to date) of RN were made in ROMO during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ). Measurements included peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), C1 -C5 alkyl nitrates, and high-time resolution NOx , NOy , and ammonia...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779386/gas-analysis-by-electron-ionization-combined-with-chemical-ionization-in-a-compact-ft-icr-mass-spectrometer
#8
Michel Heninger, Hélène Mestdagh, Essyllt Louarn, Gérard Mauclaire, Pierre Boissel, Julien Leprovost, Elsa Bauchard, Sebastien Thomas, Joel Lemaire
In this paper, a compact Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer based on a permanent magnet is presented. This instrument has been developed for real-time analysis of gas emissions. The instrument is well suited to industrial applications or analysis of toxic and complex samples where the concentrations can vary rapidly on a wide range. The novelty of this instrument is the ability to use either electron ionization (EI) or chemical ionization (CI) individually or both of them alternatively...
May 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778813/ozone-disrupts-adsorption-of-rhododendron-tomentosum-volatiles-to-neighbouring-plant-surfaces-but-does-not-disturb-herbivore-repellency
#9
Adedayo O Mofikoya, Minna Kivimäenpää, James D Blande, Jarmo K Holopainen
The perennial evergreen woody shrub, Rhododendron tomentosum, confers associational resistance against herbivory and oviposition on neighbouring plants through passive adsorption of some of its constitutively emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The adsorption process is dependent on transport of VOCs in the air. In polluted atmospheres, the VOCs may be degraded and adsorption impeded. We studied the effect of elevated ozone regimes on the adsorption of R. tomentosum volatiles to white cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and the oviposition of the specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella on the exposed plants...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778176/a-comprehensive-classification-method-for-voc-emission-sources-to-tackle-air-pollution-based-on-voc-species-reactivity-and-emission-amounts
#10
Guohao Li, Wei Wei, Xia Shao, Lei Nie, Hailin Wang, Xiao Yan, Rui Zhang
In China, volatile organic compound (VOC) control directives have been continuously released and implemented for important sources and regions to tackle air pollution. The corresponding control requirements were based on VOC emission amounts (EA), but never considered the significant differentiation of VOC species in terms of atmospheric chemical reactivity. This will adversely influence the effect of VOC reduction on air quality improvement. Therefore, this study attempted to develop a comprehensive classification method for typical VOC sources in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH), by combining the VOC emission amounts with the chemical reactivities of VOC species...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778150/adsorption-of-vocs-on-reduced-graphene-oxide
#11
Lian Yu, Long Wang, Weicheng Xu, Limin Chen, Mingli Fu, Junliang Wu, Daiqi Ye
A modified Hummer's method was adopted for the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). It was revealed that the modified method is effective for the production of GO and rGO from graphite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of GO and rGO showed a sheet-like morphology. Because of the presence of oxygenated functional groups on the carbon surface, the interlayer spacing of the prepared GO was higher than that of rGO. The presence of OH and CO groups in the Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) spectrum and G-mode and 2D-mode in Raman spectra confirmed the synthesis of GO and rGO...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778073/non-selective-rapid-electro-oxidation-of-persistent-refractory-vocs-in-industrial-wastewater-using-a-highly-catalytic-and-dimensionally-stable-irpd-ti-composite-electrode
#12
Wan-Cheol Cho, Kyung-Min Poo, Hend Omar Mohamed, Tae-Nam Kim, Yul-Seong Kim, Moon Hyun Hwang, Do-Won Jung, Kyu-Jung Chae
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are highly toxic contaminants commonly dissolved in industrial wastewater. Therefore, treatment of VOC-containing wastewater requires a robust and rapid reaction because liquid VOCs can become volatile secondary pollutants. In this study, electro-oxidation with catalytic composite dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs)-a promising process for degrading organic pollutants-was applied to remove various VOCs (chloroform, benzene, toluene, and trichloroethylene). Excellent treatment efficiency of VOCs was demonstrated...
May 11, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775934/arsenic-speciation-dynamics-in-paddy-rice-soil-water-environment-sources-physico-chemical-and-biological-factors-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Prasanna Kumarathilaka, Saman Seneweera, Andrew Meharg, Jochen Bundschuh
Rice is the main staple carbohydrate source for billions of people worldwide. Natural geogenic and anthropogenic sources has led to high arsenic (As) concentrations in rice grains. This is because As is highly bioavailable to rice roots under conditions in which rice is cultivated. A multifaceted and interdisciplinary understanding, both of short-term and long-term effects, are required to identify spatial and temporal changes in As contamination levels in paddy soil-water systems. During flooding, soil pore waters are elevated in inorganic As compared to dryland cultivation systems, as anaerobism results in poorly mobile As(V), being reduced to highly mobile As(III)...
April 21, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775300/secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-from-ambient-air-at-an-urban-site-in-beijing-effects-of-oh-exposure-and-precursor-concentrations
#14
Jun Liu, Biwu Chu, Tianzeng Chen, Changgeng Liu, Ling Wang, Xiaolei Bao, Hong He
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important component of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 ), while the key factors controlling SOA formation in ambient air remain poorly understood. In this work, the SOA formation in Beijing urban ambient air was investigated using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) with high concentrations of OH radicals. The SOA formation potential increased significantly with the increase of ambient PM2.5 concentration during the observation. The optimum ambient exposure time, which is the aging time equivalent to atmospheric oxidation (with similar OH exposure) associated with the peak SOA formation, varied between 2 to 4 days in this study...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774351/diversity-of-biologically-active-secondary-metabolites-from-endophytic-and-saprotrophic-fungi-of-the-ascomycete-order-xylariales
#15
REVIEW
Soleiman E Helaly, Benjarong Thongbai, Marc Stadler
Covering: up to December 2017The diversity of secondary metabolites in the fungal order Xylariales is reviewed with special emphasis on correlations between chemical diversity and biodiversity as inferred from recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. The Xylariales are arguably among the predominant fungal endophytes, which are the producer organisms of pharmaceutical lead compounds including the antimycotic sordarins and the antiparasitic nodulisporic acids, as well as the marketed drug, emodepside. Many Xylariales are "macromycetes", which form conspicuous fruiting bodies (stromata), and the metabolite profiles that are predominant in the stromata are often complementary to those encountered in corresponding mycelial cultures of a given species...
May 18, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772685/the-emergence-of-endophytic-microbes-and-their-biological-promise
#16
Gary Strobel
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771243/breath-volatile-organic-compounds-of-lung-transplant-recipients-with-and-without-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#17
Lucas Küppers, Olaf Holz, Sven Schuchardt, Jens Gottlieb, Jan Fuge, Mark Greer, Jens Hohlfeld
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) with its clinical correlative of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains the major limiting factor for long-term graft survival. Currently there are no established methods for the early diagnosis or prediction of BOS. To assess the feasibility of breath collection as a non-invasive tool and the potential of breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the early detection of BOS, we compared the breath VOC composition between transplant patients without and different stages of BOS...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770906/volatile-and-contact-chemical-cues-associated-with-host-and-mate-recognition-behavior-of-sphenophorus-venatus-and-sphenophorus-parvulus-coleoptera-dryophthoridae
#18
Alexandra G Duffy, Gabriel P Hughes, Matthew D Ginzel, Douglas S Richmond
Beetles in the genus Sphenophorus Schönherr, or billbugs, potentially utilize both volatile and non-volatile behavior-modifying chemical signals. These insects are widely distributed across North America, often occurring in multi-species assemblages in grasses. However, details about their host- and mate-finding behavior are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that volatile organic compounds from host-plants and conspecifics direct the dispersal behavior of hunting billbug S. venatus Say. Further, we characterized the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of two widespread pest species, S...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770884/activated-carbon-fiber-filters-could-reduce-the-risk-of-surgical-smoke-exposure-during-laparoscopic-surgery-application-of-volatile-organic-compounds
#19
Seock Hwan Choi, Dong Hee Choi, Dong Hwa Kang, Yun-Sok Ha, Jun Nyung Lee, Bum Soo Kim, Hyun Tae Kim, Eun Sang Yoo, Tae Gyun Kwon, Sung Kwang Chung, Tae-Hwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Generation of smoke is inevitable during surgical procedures. Some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surgical smoke are known to be strong carcinogens. We used a prototype of a multi-layered complex filter in an attempt to eliminate VOCs. METHODS: From June 2015 to July 2015, 20 patients underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Smoke (pre-filter) was collected 20 min after the electrocautery device was first used during the surgery, by the direct collection method, with a 5-L Tedlar® gas-sampling bag...
May 16, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768863/effect-of-morphology-of-platinum-nanoparticles-on-benzene-oxidation-activity
#20
Jayasree K Pulleri, D Yearwar, G Saravanan, S Rayalu, Nitin Labhasetwar
The effect of morphology of Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles supported on alumina (γ-Al2O3) for complete catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was investigated. Pt nanoparticles were synthesized through a simple method comprising of reduction followed by calcination of metal precursor coated chitosan templates using three different reducing agents: sodium borohydride (NaBH4), hydrazine (N2H4) and hydrogen (H2). The morphology and facet orientation of Pt nanoparticles were influenced by the reducing agents...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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