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Diet and cancer

Bang Wool Eom, Young-Woo Kim, Byung-Ho Nam, Keun Won Ryu, Hyun-Yong Jeong, Young-Kyu Park, Young-Joon Lee, Han-Kwang Yang, Wansik Yu, Jeong-Hwan Yook, Geun Am Song, Sei-Jin Youn, Heung Up Kim, Sung-Hoon Noh, Sung Bae Park, Doo-Hyun Yang, Sung Kim
PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish a large-scale database of patients with gastric cancer to facilitate the development of a national-cancer management system and a comprehensive cancer control policy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study on gastric cancer was initiated in 2010. A total of 14 cancer centers throughout the country and 152 researchers were involved in this study. Patient enrollment began in January 2011, and data regarding clinicopathological characteristics, life style-related factors, quality of life, as well as diet diaries were collected...
September 2016: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Sanna Nybacka, Heléne Bertéus Forslund, Maria Hedelin
A diet questionnaire (DQ) designed to assess habitual diet and phyto-oestrogen intake was developed. This study aimed to examine the validity of the DQ in men, with and without having prostate cancer. The DQ was validated against alkylresorcinol metabolites measured in urine as objective biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye (WG) intake, and a 4-d estimated food record (FR) was used for relative comparison. Participants (n 61) completed both methods and provided spot urine samples. We found a statistically significant correlation between the DQ and FR for reported whole grain intake and isoflavonoids, as well as for intake of macronutrients, except protein...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Ikuko Kato, Gregory Dyson, Michael Snyder, Hyeong-Reh Kim, Richard K Severson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether cancer specific survival in rectal cancer patients is affected by patient-related factors, conditional on radiation treatment. METHODS: 359 invasive rectal cancer patients who consented and provided questionnaire data for a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in Metropolitan Detroit were included in this study. Their vital status was ascertained through to the population-based cancer registry...
September 2016: Journal of Radiation Oncology
Yanxia Liu, Lin Wang, Bingping Wang, Meng Yue, Yufeng Cheng
Colon cancer is the third and second most common cancer form in men and women worldwide. It is generally accepted that colon cancer mainly results from diet. The aim of this study was to identify core pathways which elucidated the molecular mechanisms in colon cancer. The microarray data of E-GEOD-44861 was downloaded from ArrayExpress database. All human pathways were obtained from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. In total, 135 differential expressed genes (DEG) were identified using Linear Models for Microarray Data package...
2016: Disease Markers
David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Nutrition intervention supports the patient with malnutrition secondary to cancer and its treatment and has been used in the primary and secondary prevention of common forms of cancer. During the emotional stress of dealing with cancer at any stage, patients derive increased quality of life and a sense of control over their lives as the result of receiving supportive advice on diet and lifestyle. Therefore, the use of nutrition intervention in cancer patients is justified in the absence of absolute proof of efficacy as long as it is done safely and with the consent of the cancer patient...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Małgorzata Czerwonka, Andrzej Tokarz
In developed countries, due to high content and bioavailability, red and processed meats are the main sources of iron in the diet. Adequate intake of this nutrient is essential for the proper development and functioning of the human body, and its deficiencies are associated mainly with the occurrence of anemia, which is one of the most widespread nutritional problems in the world. However, excessive intake of iron can be detrimental to health. Studies have shown that high consumption of red meat and its products, and thereby iron, particularly in the form of heme, increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, including cancers, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
October 2, 2016: Meat Science
Sebastian T Soukup, Dennis R Müller, Anne Kurrat, Patrick Diel, Sabine E Kulling
Genistein and daidzein are the main isoflavones in soy. Their potential beneficial or adverse effects in males like the prevention of prostate cancer or the impact on reproductive functions are controversially discussed. Major determinants of their bioactivity are the absorption and biotransformation of isoflavones. In this study, we focused on the influence of testosterone on plasma availability and phase II metabolism of isoflavones. Male Wistar rats, receiving an isoflavones rich diet, were randomized into three groups: Two groups were orchiectomized (ORX) at postnatal day (PND) 80 and treated for 11 days with testosterone propionate (TP) (ORX TP group) or a vehicle (ORX group) after a 7 days lasting hormonal decline...
October 14, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Melanie Streicher, Michael Themessl-Huber, Karin Schindler, Cornel Christian Sieber, Michael Hiesmayr, Dorothee Volkert
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition in older persons is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Useful strategies to counteract malnutrition are nutritional interventions, such as fortified diets, oral nutritional supplements (ONS), tube feeding, and parenteral nutrition. Presently, it is not known if these strategies can reduce mortality risk of nursing home (NH) residents who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate if nutritional intake and interventions are associated with mortality in this specific population...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Guglielmo Costa, Carlo Andreotti, Moreno Paolini
Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated...
October 11, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Stephen D Dertinger, Dorothea K Torous, Svetlana L Avlasevich, Bridget R Simon-Friedt, Mark J Wilson
Obesity increases the risk of a number of chronic diseases in humans including several cancers. Biological mechanisms responsible for such increased risks are not well understood at present. Increases in systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, endogenous production of mutagenic metabolites, altered signaling in proliferative pathways, and increased sensitivity to exogenous mutagens and carcinogens are some of the potential contributing factors. We hypothesize that obesity creates an endogenously mutagenic environment in addition to increasing the sensitivity to environmental mutagens...
October 14, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
V Maňásek, K Bezděk, A Foltys, K Klos, J Smitka, D Smehlik
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high protein oral nutrition support (ONS) on clinical outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The secondary aim was to compare the cost of treatment and length of stay (LoS) for CRC patients taking high protein ONS vs. patients on conventional nutritional support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on adult patients with CRC undergoing colorectal surgery. Informed consent was obtained before the study...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
George O Agogo, Hilko van der Voet, Pieter van 't Veer, Pietro Ferrari, David C Muller, Emilio Sánchez-Cantalejo, Christina Bamia, Tonje Braaten, Sven Knüppel, Ingegerd Johansson, Fred A van Eeuwijk, Hendriek C Boshuizen
BACKGROUND: Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. METHODS: We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association), due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data...
October 13, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Ritu Tiwari, Chaya Manoranjini David, Datturao Ramanand Mahesh, Uma Sambargi, Kademadkal Javaraiah Rashmi, Prabhavati Benakanal
Potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) of oral cavity and oral cancer remain a cause of serious concern despite intensive research and development. Diet and immunity have been identified to play a crucial role as modifying factors in these diseases. Our study intended to explore this relationship by estimating and comparing the serum levels of copper, iron and circulating immune complexes (CICs) in patients diagnosed with PMDs and oral cancer and normal healthy individuals. In this study, 40 histopathologically diagnosed cases of PMDs and oral cancer were included along with 30 healthy controls and 5 ml of venous blood was drawn using venipuncture...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Lisa C Richardson, S Jane Henley, Jacqueline W Miller, Greta Massetti, Cheryll C Thomas
Breast cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among U.S. women (1). Compared with white women, black women historically have had lower rates of breast cancer incidence and, beginning in the 1980s, higher death rates (1). This report examines age-specific black-white disparities in breast cancer incidence during 1999-2013 and mortality during 2000-2014 in the United States using data from United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) (2). Overall rates of breast cancer incidence were similar, but death rates remained higher for black women compared with white women...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Danxia Yu, Xianglan Zhang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Hui Cai, Honglan Li, Ding Ding, Zhen Hong, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, Gong Yang
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on dietary carbohydrates and stroke risk remains controversial. Very few prospective cohort studies have been conducted in Asian populations, who usually consume a high-carbohydrate diet and have a high burden of stroke. OBJECTIVE: We examined dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intakes of refined and total carbohydrates in relation to risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke and stroke mortality. DESIGN: This study included 64,328 Chinese women, aged 40-70 y, with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Cheryl L Rock, Shirley W Flatt, Bilge Pakiz, Elizabeth L Quintana, Dennis D Heath, Brinda K Rana, Loki Natarajan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Riia K Junnila, Silvana Duran-Ortiz, Ozan Suer, Elahu G Sustarsic, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, John J Kopchick
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) are important for a variety of physiological processes including growth, development and aging. Mice with reduced levels of GH and IGF-I have been shown to live longer than wild type controls. Our laboratory has previously found that mice with aGHreceptor gene knockout (GHRKO) from conception exhibit low rates of cancer, resistance to diet-induced diabetes, and extension of lifespan. The GHRKO mouse as well as other mouse lines with reduced GH action display low IGF-I levels, smaller body size, increased adiposity and increased longevity...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
Takumu Hasebe, Jun Matsukawa, Daina Ringus, Jun Miyoshi, John Hart, Atsushi Kaneko, Masahiro Yamamoto, Toru Kono, Mikihiro Fujiya, Yutaka Kohgo, Chong-Zi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan, Marc Bissonnette, Mark W Musch, Eugene B Chang
Chemopreventative properties of traditional medicines and underlying mechanisms of action are incompletely investigated. This study demonstrates that dietary daikenchuto (TU-100), comprised of ginger, ginseng, and Japanese pepper effectively suppresses intestinal tumor development and progression in the azoxymethane (AOM) and APC(min/+) mouse models. For the AOM model, TU-100 was provided after the first of six biweekly AOM injections. Mice were sacrificed at 30 weeks. APC(min/+) mice were fed diet without or with TU-100 starting at 6 weeks, and sacrificed at 24 weeks...
October 12, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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