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Type2 diabetes

Jia Liu, Lu Wang, Yun Qian, Juncheng Dai, Chong Shen, Guangfu Jin, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen
AIM: Dozens of susceptibility loci have been identified by type 2 diabetes (T2D) genome wide association study (GWAS) in Europeans. In our previous studies, we systematically evaluated the association of 48 susceptibility loci with T2D risk in Chinese Hans. Because dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia are implicated in the pathogenic process of T2D, we further evaluated whether these 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or lipid levels in Chinese Hans...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Hidenori Hirukawa, Mitsuru Hashiramoto, Yukio Tanizawa, Kohei Kaku
AIMS: To assess whether intervention with oral anti-diabetic drug in Japanese patients with the early stage of type 2 diabetes could provide a significant remission of the disease process. METHODS: Patients with diabetes duration less than 5 years were randomized to the lifestyle modification (LFS), pioglitazone (PIO), or sulfonylurea (SU) treatment group. In phase 1 as on-treatment period and in phase 2 as off-treatment period, the duration kept HbA1c less than the target was compared among groups...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Yukio Horikawa
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a form of diabetes classically characterized as having autosomal dominant inheritance, onset before the age of 25 years in at least one family member and partly preserved pancreatic β cell function. The fourteen responsible genes are reported to be MODY1~14, of which MODY2 and 3 may be the most common forms. Although MODY is currently classified as diabetes of a single gene defect, it has become clear that mutations in rare MODYs, such as MODY5 and MODY6, have small mutagenic effects and low penetrance...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
M D Pinazo-Durán, K Shoaie-Nia, S M Sanz-González, J Raga-Cervera, J J García-Medina, M I López-Gálvez, D Galarreta-Mira, L Duarte, C Campos-Borges, V Zanón-Moreno
OBJECTIVE: To identify genes involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), among which include oxidative stress, extracellular matrix changes, and/or apoptosis, in order to evaluate the risk of developing this retinal disease in a type2 diabetic (DM2) population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study was carried out on 81 participants from the Valencia Study on Diabetic Retinopathy (VSDR) of both genders, with ages 25-85years...
February 1, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Deepak Kumar Dash, Arun Kumar Choudhury, Mamta Singh, Swayamsidha Mangaraj, Binoy Kumar Mohanty, Anoj Kumar Baliarsinha
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of parental history of diabetes on markers of inflammation, insulin resistance, adiposity indices and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal glucose tolerant (NGT) first degree relatives of T2DM patients of age group 20-40 years designated as FHpositive were enrolled in the cross sectional study. Depending on the parental history of diabetes they were divided into three groups: family history positive in father (FHfather), family history positive in mother (FHmother) and family history positive in both (FHboth)...
December 15, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Yohei Horibe, Seiji Adachi, Tomohiko Ohno, Naoe Goto, Mitsuru Okuno, Midori Iwama, Osamu Yamauchi, Takao Kojima, Koshiro Saito, Takashi Ibuka, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Araki, Hisataka Moriwaki, Masahito Shimizu
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors that influence the incidence of colorectal neoplasia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design and Setting: Among a total of 1176 patients who underwent total colonoscopy at our hospital, we retrospectively analyzed 168 patients with type 2 DM. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were then performed to identify the risk factors associated with colorectal neoplasia...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
Bobo Zhang, Caifeng Gao, Yunlong Li, Min Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tartary buckwheat is a food medicine dual-use crop with healing effects on cardiovascular diseases and type2 diabetes. It has been proposed that endothelial dysfunction is the initial lesion in these diseases and it's associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation. D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is a bioactive compound of Tartary buckwheat and is always deficit in type2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown whether DCI-enriched Tartary buckwheat extract can ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress and inflammation in the endothelium...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Taichi Kawamura, Izumi Sato, Hiroshi Tamura, Yoko M Nakao, Koji Kawakami
AIMS: To investigate the influence of comorbidities on undergoing a diabetic eye examination in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using data from health insurance claims made between January 2005 and March 2013 in Japan. The primary outcome was implementation of the fundus examination that includes fundus photography, ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography by a doctor within one year of initial drug therapy for Type2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)...
January 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Kaviyarasi Renu, Harishkumar Madhyastha, Radha Madhyastha, Masugi Maruyama, Sankarganesh Arunachlam, Abilash V G
Exposure to arsenic in drinking water can stimulate a diverse number of diseases that originate from impaired lipid metabolism in adipose and glucose metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. Arsenic inhibits differentiation of adipocyte and mediates insulin resistance with diminutive information on arsenicosis on lipid storage and lipolysis. This review focused on different mechanisms and pathways involved in adipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue during arsenic-induced diabetes. Though arsenic is known to cause type2 diabetes through different mechanisms, the role of adipose tissue in causing type2 diabetes is still unclear...
March 1, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Michael d'Emden, John Amerena, Gary Deed, Carol Pollock, Mark E Cooper
Cardiovascular risk reduction in individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a key part of clinical management. Sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT2) inhibitors improve glycaemic control, reduce body weight and decrease blood pressure. In addition, the SGLT2 inhibitors empagliflozin and canagliflozin reduced the risk of composite cardiovascular events in high-risk individuals with T2DM in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial and the CANVAS Program, respectively. Empagliflozin also reduced cardiovascular deaths and improved renal outcomes...
February 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Sachiko Hattori
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Remnant lipoproteins are thought to be atherogenic. Remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), which reflects the levels of various kinds of remnant lipoproteins in the blood, has a significant correlation with insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we measured the effect of empagliflozin (EMPA) on the levels of RLP-C, and investigated whether EMPA-mediated change in RLP-C is associated with a change in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients who have insulin resistance...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Francesco Spallotta, Chiara Cencioni, Sandra Atlante, Davide Garella, Mattia Cocco, Mattia Mori, Raffaella Mastrocola, Carsten Künne, Stefan Günther, Simona Nanni, Valerio Azzimato, Sven Zukunft, Angela Kornberger, Duran Sueruen, Frank Schnutgen, Harald von Melchner, Antonella Di Stilo, Manuela Aragno, Maarten Braspenning, Wim Van Criekinge, Miles J De Blasio, Rebecca H Ritchie, Germana Zaccagnini, Fabio Martelli, Antonella Farsetti, Ingrid Fleming, Thomas Braun, Andres Beiras-Fernandez, Bruno Botta, Massimo Collino, Massimo Bertinaria, Andreas M Zeiher, Carlo Gaetano
Rationale: Human cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMSCs) are a therapeutically-relevant primary cell population. Diabetes compromises CMSC function as consequence of metabolic alterations and incorporation of stable epigenetic changes. Objective: To investigate the role of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) in the epi-metabolic control of DNA demethylation in CMSCs. Methods and Results: Quantitative global analysis, methylated and hydroxymethylated DNA sequencing and gene specific GC methylation detection revealed an accumulation of 5mC, 5hmC and 5fC in the genomic DNA of human CMSCs isolated from diabetic (D) donors (D-CMSCs)...
November 20, 2017: Circulation Research
Carlos Jiménez-Romero, Alberto Marcacuzco Quinto, Alejandro Manrique Municio, Iago Justo Alonso, Jorge Calvo Pulido, Félix Cambra Molero, Óscar Caso Maestro, Álvaro García-Sesma, Enrique Moreno González
INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT) constitutes the therapy of choice for diabetes type1 or type2 associated with end-stage renal disease, because is the only proven method to restore normo-glicemic control in the diabetic patient. METHODS: Retrospective and descriptive study of a series of 175 patients who underwent SPKT from March 1995 to April 2016. We analyze donor and recipient characteristics, perioperative variables and immunosuppression, post-transplant morbi-mortality, patient and graft survival, and risk factors related with patient and graft survival...
October 28, 2017: Cirugía Española
Selda Gezginci-Oktayoglu, Evren Onay-Ucar, Serap Sancar-Bas, Ayse Karatug-Kacar, Emine S N Arda, Sehnaz Bolkent
Beta cell mass regulation represents a critical issue for understanding and treatment of diabetes. The most important process in the development of diabetes is beta cell death, generally induced by glucotoxicity or glucolipotoxicity, and the regeneration mechanism of new beta cells that will replace dead beta cells is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the generation mechanism of new beta cells by considering the compensation phase of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, pancreatic islet derived mesenchymal stem cells (PI-MSCs) were isolated from adult rats and characterized...
May 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Lutz Hampe, Cheng Xu, Paul W R Harris, Jie Chen, Ming Liu, Martin Middleditch, Mazdak Radjainia, Yu Wang, Alok K Mitra
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adiponectin, an adipokine possessing profound insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties, is a potent biotherapeutic agent . The trimeric adiponectin subunit assembles into hexameric and functionally important higher molecular weight (HMW) forms, controlled by the endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERp44). Obesity-induced ER stress decreases the HMW form in serum, contributing to the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. In this study, a panel of synthetic peptides, designed to target ERp44-adiponectin interactions, were tested for their effects on circulating levels of HMW adiponectin...
December 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Raheleh Shakeri, Safoura Khajeniazi, Abdoljalal Marjani
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the diseases which depend on the obesity associated with insulin resistance. Various factors, such as a reduction in the activity of paraoxonase-1 enzyme (PON1), could affect T2DM. PON1 is a multifunctional enzyme with paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. The Activity of PON1 is influenced by various SNPs. The aim of presence study is to investigate the association between promoter polymorphism (-108C>T) of PON1 gene and its paraoxonase activity in patients suffering from Type 2 diabetes in Golestan Province, north of Iran...
November 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Sandipana Pati, F G Schellevis
OBJECTIVE: India has the second largest diabetic population in the world. The chronic nature of the disease and high prevalence of co-existing chronic medical conditions or "co morbidities" makes diabetes management complex for the patient and for health care providers. Hence a strong need was felt to explore the problem of co morbidity among diabetics and its dimensions in primary health care practices. METHOD: This cross sectional survey was carried out on 912 type 2 diabetes patients attending different urban primary health care facilities at Bhubaneswar...
2017: PloS One
Abdullah Olgun
Metformin, first line medication in the treatment of type2 diabetes by millions of patients worldwide, causes gastrointestinal adverse effects (i.e. diarrhea) in approximately 30% of patients, frequently leading to discontinuation. Interestingly, metformin was reported to increase life span in a microscopic worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, by decreasing folate and methionine production of bacteria that this worm uses as a food source. Metformin can be expected to have a similar effect on some microorganisms of human gut microbiota...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Km Neelofar, Jamal Ahmad
Non-enzymatic glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation is increased in diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycaemia and play an important role in associated complications of the disease. Protein glycation mostly occurs in intra chain lysine residues resulting in the formation of early stage Amadori products which are finally converted to advance glycation end products (AGEs). This review deals with the structural studies of in vitro and in vivo glycated human serum albumin (HSA)...
October 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
Antonio Brugos-Larumbe, Pablo Aldaz-Herce, Francisco Guillen-Grima, Francisco Javier Garjón-Parra, Francisco Javier Bartolomé-Resano, María Teresa Arizaleta-Beloqui, Ignacio Pérez-Ciordia, Ana María Fernández-Navascués, María José Lerena-Rivas, Jesús Berjón-Reyero, Luisa Jusué-Rípodas, Ines Aguinaga-Ontoso
OBJECTIVE: Assess compliance with the IDF recommendations for patients with Diabetes Type2 (DM2), and its variability, by groups of doctors and nurses who provide primary care services in Navarre (Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGIES: A cross-sectional study of a population of 462,568 inhabitants, aged ≥18 years in 2013, attended by 381 units of doctor/nurse (quota). Clinical data were collected retrospectively through electronic records. Using cluster analysis, we identified two groups of units according to the score for each indicator...
July 18, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
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